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Full text of "The Jeannette and a complete and authentic narrative encyclopedia of all voyages and expeditions to the north polar regions [microform] : containing a complete account of the most remarkable examples of heroism, endurance and suffering on record : embracing the biography and voyages of Franklin, Kane, Hayes, Hall, and De Long ..."

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1 1 






ft I' 







h ^ 












The uiii\(.Ts:il intiTc;s( in Arclic c-xploralioii whicii li;is ocuii jiroiiscd 
l)y tlic im-l;inch()ly (;itc' of tlu- |iMiiiicttc, Iilt coinmiiiulcr, ;iiul so larj^c a 
))'!iiioii of licr crow, has su^f^cslcd the w riliii<j: of this work. While this 
has hfcn its (hrcct and immediate inspiration it was deemed advisal)le to 
eidar<ife its scope so as to include similar and correlated voya<^es from tiie 
earliest ])eriod. 

[t has heen written in sympathy with the heroic efForts of the 
explorers who in every aj^'c have lahored in this field for the enl:ir,t,'e- 
ment of hnman knowledt^e. 

The ireneral interest in literature of tliis kind is le,i,dtimate and even 
commendahle. A wholesome and hracin-,' intellectual tonic, it enerj^izcs 
the mind. The reading- of such works cannot produce o'.her than j;ood 
results. Free from the tedium of mimite chronoloo-v and hurdcnsome 
detail, they possess all the most attractive elements of history, hio^^raphy 
and travel — a triple combination unsurpassed even hv poetry, iictiun 
or romance. 

The taste of the artist and the skill of the en<,n-aver liave l)een 
hrou<,'ht into requisition to enforce and illustrate the information con- 
veyed, addinj^ a charm and value that will be readily appreciated bv 
every reader. 

In the hope that this \vnrk will contribute its share toward driving 
out of ji^cneral circulation the mass of poisonous trash that is suH'ered to 
represent, or misrepresent, our current literature among such multitudes 
of the youth of oiu' land, it is herewith respectfully submitted to the kind 
consideration and patronage of the public. 


The FoIIowinjr Works have 1 

'ccn iisi'd in the Preparation of this Vohi 


Kncyclop.tdiii Uritannica. 

Applcton's AiiHTicun Cyclopx-dia. 

Ch; nibLTs' Kncvclopa'dia. 

Zl'H's Kncyclop;i'(lia. 

Johnson's Kncyclopxdia. 

Newman's America. 

Bancroft's History of tlic United States. 

Lippincott's I'ronouncinf,' Gazetteer of the World 

J..pi»ncott's I'ronoun.-inK' Jlioirraphi,.,! Dk- 

Hates' Countries of the 'Worh!, 
Ilhistraled Travels. (Six vols.) 
Whymper's Sea. (Four vols.) 
Jleeren's Works. 
Wheaton's Kxplorations. 
Irvinjr's Cohimlms. (Three vols.) 
I-'robisher's Three \'oyaj^es. . 

Voyages to Catliay and India. 
Ralcifrh, Discovery of CJuiana. 
liakluyt's \'oya^ru to America. 
De Veer's Three Voyages to China. 
Hawkins' Voyages. 
Maynarde's Drake's Voyages. 
De Veer's Voyages of Wm. Harentz. 
Cooley's Maritime Inland Discoveries. (Three 

IJfe of Krobishcr. 
Phijjp's Voyage to the North Pole. 
Uic of Sir John Franklin. 
Franklin's First Voyage. 
Franklin's Second Voyage. 
Wrangell's Arctic Vovages. 
Parry's Tliree Voyages. 

Voyages of Sabine and Clavering. 
Back's Arctic Land ICxpedition. 
Lyon's Private Journal of Arctic Xoyiigus 
Hartwig's Polar World. 
Verne's Historie des (irands Vovages. 
Inglefield's Summer Search for Franklin. 
Richardson's Search for Franklin. 
Mayne's \'oyages to Arctic Ilegions. 
•M'Clure's Discovery of Northwest Passage. 
Elder's Life of Kane. 
Kane's First Grinnell Expedition. 
Kane's Second (irinnell Expedition. 
Hall's Arctic Researches. 
M'Clintock's \'oyage in the Arctic Seas. 
Tytlcr's Discoveries in the Polar Seas. 
Leslie's Discoveries in the Polar Seas. 
Adventures of Hritish Seamen. 
Hayes' Open Polar Sea. 
Hayes' Pictures of Arctic Travel. 
Markham's Arctic ''Vorks. 
Sonntag in Search of Franklin. 
Tyson's Arctic Experiences. 
Koldewey's German Expedition. (Two vols.) 
Wcyprecht and I'ayer's Voyages. 
Nares' Polar Voyage. 
Nu!vi,;nskiold's Voyage of the \'ega. 
Ilisto-y of Shipwrecks. 
The New York Herald. 
Harper's Magazine. 
Scribner's Monthly. 

The Library Magar.ine, and Conlem,,oraneous 
Papers ai»;l Magazines generally. 










Kaki.y E,xim.orek.s. 



T>„iw '^?"f?P"""« "* ^''t^ AncicMts-Vovaife of Pythcas-Discovors Thulo- Origin of 111,. Xorsuman- 
' f N.Sh Ameiiri'"''"" "'' P^'""<^V-^"'«^'n'''"'l •'"'' I^^^'l.""! C,.l„ni/..,<l-ln. i.lontal Disrov.ry 

I — Voracity of the 
ijfe Around the World 


. Port'itrucse and Spanish piscoveries-Portuifucse \'„yaKo,s to North A.ncricii 
Spanish— Kesults of Columbus' Discovery— Vovajft; of the Ciibots— First Vovate I 
—Voyage to La Plata — French Voyajfes. ' " 

Search for Northeast Passajfc— Voyage of Chancellor -ICnterprlse of Muscovy Coinpany. 

chaptp:r IV. 

,■11 ^^^^^ ^"' ^"'■'hw'^s' T'lssage Rcsumea-Frobisher's Load of (iold-Two Voyams of (^.ilb.Tt- 
(..Ibert Shipwrecked— Hawkins, the Slave-Trader— Drake Sails around Cape Horn. 


Davis Sent Out-Trades with Natives of Greenland -Great Danger in the I.e-Passes Hudson's 
Itay— Raleigh in Search of (jold— Disappointment— Contined in the TcVwer. 


M ,,^"y-'y'"'f °^ the Dutch-Northeast Passage Ag.iin-narentz Reaches Orange Islands-Gcrrit 
De Veer-Sickness and Dc^ith-Surrojinded by Hears and Foxes-Reappearance of t1,e Sun-Bur al of 
Jlarentz— Voyage of Van Noort— Fight with Patagonians— Defeat the Spanish. 


Eaki.v Arctic Vovaoks. 



First Arctic Voyage under Bennet-Kill Many Walruses- Walruses Brought to England- 
Voyage of Hmfson.'" lI"P"V'="-Attacked by Savages- Voyages of Hudson-tFourth al^d Last 


Voyage of Poole- --Biscayan Whale Fishers-Button in Search of Hudson-Hall's VovaLa^ to 
Greenland— Commercial Voyage Under Baffin— Fotherby—Bylot-Discovery of Baffin's Bay. 


Voyages of Dutch Resumed— Manhattin Island Occupied— First Voyage Around the Horn- 
Voyage of Munk— Casks Burst by Frost— Voyage of the May Flower, iiorn— 


Voyages of Fox and James-Enterprise of Bristol Merchants-Marvelous Escape from Iccbera-s- 
Keach Open Water-Land on Charlton Is and-Tlie Ship Sunk-Building .a Boat-siffering and D^ah 
— The Boat Launched— Poem of James— The Return Voyage. ^ " i laui 


An interval between Arctic Voyages- Wintering in the Arctic Region-Death of Maven- 
finm-J"''"^^'^ '*''"' "■■^'''^' "* '' ^"^'-'' <^-'I>t:ui.-Which Is the 

Northwest Voyage of Gillam-Alleged Discovery of a Northwest Passage-Hudson's Bay 

&'K-'i 1 ;"■ »''''''~.'^*^T'°i ' ^^°A^ "^ ^^'^ ^Z^^' Pole-Voyage of Wood-Wreck^of Wood's Shi- 1 
James Knight— Report of Indians Concerning Mines. « 


-An^^l^Z:'^e^i:^X^°'"'^'"' ^''^ ''"'''"''' Deshniev-Conquest of Kamchatka 



Other . 

Way to India? 






,f l>..^;"i ■—'"■'"'',"■ -Arctic Explorati,in by Mciirnc— 
■f Ksqu,„m„x-Arct>c Voyage' of lMUp,,i-I{eache» 


*-iiArrEK XVI 


TI.K First Akct.c Vovaoes „k r„„ ..^tw Ckntuhv. . 


• '.S^— ,17" 



^:^^^£i£S'?^-=-4^'^al^ ^^-^^ New.paper-An 

sun.s More Theatricals-Extracts from an Arctic JournallAStowcr of'llaln''""'"'" " *^'^"" 



Three . 
the Shi) 

^y^^^^^^^^^i^tr^^^^:^^ oi the Objects of Franklin-s 

up-Trade with Esquimaux- Arrlv^ at ^^'^^1^:0::^^%^^!^^^ ^"^^ '" 

ciiaptp:r XXIII. 

^^"^^^P^t^-^^^S;^^^^ of an InCian Chiof-The Re- 

the Copperm.„e.-A Pedestrian TripiReturn of Both Partic" "'"' '° Proceed-Canoe Party Sent to 


ardson^l'SaJ^ki;,'^'^ ^Z'"^^^^'' '^,' %"PP" Mount.jins-Curiou 
Party-Dr. Richarfson Risks^llrLff^rs-a^^h'eX^l^i^R^^ 

'-P ^^^enture of Dr. Rich- 
;lernb e Sufferings of the 


^'^y^^'m^^^^T^^^^^ir^l;^'' "' Schalarow-Remains of Mam.oth- V 
-Unwelcome HospitaTity-A Unique 18^.^^'""^ °^ '^"""'^' Remains-KotzeE X)^;^ 





n...„.jN,7"'\l''\^'i'"r'' •;l«''«r'"J!'""";y-Knc(nintcr with ii Salt l»rovl«|,mi. 


Wriinsrcll's Third SIcdifc-Ioiirncy-KiiHter Suniluy- Views the Open Se;i-Kx|il.>r.' the ruiulrn 
-Meet Kosinin-In.port.uutv ..? HeruHWl-tk-nen.sity oj ,i Jiik,it-ri..t..rn t<. K.llXk. 


XVranjrell's FounhSlc-JKO-Jnurncy- Start for (Jrcat narimichii-Kuinors o£ a Northern Contl- 
■.^V'";',',-^_^^i".'K^'" ^'-•';;'. tT.e^.Arctic-D:.nKcr-.Meet ^vlth Matinschkln-A .Nutlvc Specula^." - 


Serfdom— Close 

/ niiiifel 
of \Vni 

antfeirs Kfforts. 


I .irrv 3 Second Voyaire to the Northwest-Sharp Natives— Cairns Discovered— \'umerf)us DIs- 
cover.es_Lxplorat.on in Hoats-ln Winter (luartersLrUc.atricals as a I'asUnK'-EsmZaur 
Huts-IuteUiKcncc Anions Natives-A Northern (Jeo>frapher-Killed by a Fall. '^'"'"""•""' ^"'"'' 


PoHr Sp.7''u "f!"'''l I" I^fcc His Shins-Iiflooklik Islanl-A Necropolis-Supposed Discovery of the 
Polar Sea-Hec a and bury Strait-(;lutt(.nv-Unusual Khenornenon-MelviUe Pen nsulaExn^^ 
Successful AnshnK-StiU fieset-Death from Scurvy-\Vclcu,„c at Shetland Ishiml" '-"I'K'rcd- 


FranklnTwi7e"^'l?r.nklin7'r:n!^^^^^ "^ Arctic Science-Preparations and Plan-Death of 

rranKun s vy lie rr.inKlin 1 l.ints Ills l< lajr on an Arctic Island-- -Fort Franklin- --Descend the M ., - 
ken/.ie--Sepanition of the Two Parties- -Serious Adventure with Esuuimaux...The ut s P^^^^^ 
dered— Franklai's Return ---Success of Richardson---Return to England. 


W!nt,.r"'*ff''p Tt'^'n'' Expedition-Slow Pro-ress-New Ice Encountered— The Fury Swept Awav— 
Winter at P,.rt Howen---01)servations---HuntinL'-- -Capture of a Whale- -.Th..J?„rv,\r.'.L'^i 
specting the Ships-The Fury Ab.mdoned--RepSrt to tlie Ad.niralty. ^ Aleak.-l„. 


J^i:^^^^. Siirj.ui^j^^trlif^ab'^r'""^''^^'---^"''-''^'^'"^---^'--"^ -^ p-'""- 


England""'' ^'^^'^ Voyajfe-Rowe's Welcome- Lyon's Prayer for Help-Safety- Return to 


Return Hee£=-':joVrniyT^^^^^^^^ ''''"" ■'^■""--l-Kot,.ebue Sound-Remarkable Phenomena- 


lum Isl 

Parry in Search of the Pole---Plan for Sledire-Journev---ReindeerTriv,.| r .-,,•.„ ni .= . 

Mussel liay-Fine Weather--The "Knterprise'^ .^JS"rrj|ydg,"'-"?.'"='=r.T"ycl- -Graves Disrovered- 

at Hecla Cove---Relief---The Ch.iracter of Polar Ice. 

:",X' . "^"'">^>;i i ravel- - -oraves uisrovered — 
tndeavor" - - -Reindeer Abandoned- - -Am ve 


Ross' Second Vovag'e— Employed by Felix Booth— Times r Rnso Tri,.=f rr- * o* • » .• 

Voya)res-Lanc..sterSound-NippeJ in tL Icelln Wintc4 qiriVS^s^IvTsitea 1^^^^^^ '" '^"'u''"'' 

hausted Teams-Provisions Reduced-Magnetic Pole Discovered 1 Esquimaux-Ex- 


Back'sArcticJourncy— Leaves Liverpool— Fort Resolution— Great Fish Rivf-r A„ A, >• n • 


cape ^?pi:;i,^iK" '^'^^^Ti:^!^^^^-^ 

^Taim";. '""^'^'^-"""''"^ ButterHies-ArcUc Animals-Taimur Lake-i^.Ttllo^e^F^'^reu'el l' to 



'••"^VKI.IN ANI.Sk.u..,, Vova„K«. 

I'AR r /]'. 

tHAI»lK|{ xi.l. 


* IIAi'TEIl Xt.ll. 

V v,au»t— .vicnducious liiquimimx. .in.tru.i -a n)iib|cH..mi: Sotufxter— Mcthy l'.>r- 



CHAPTE,! \I,\I. 

sa^c Predicted. '^''--"-A Cool Uccc,..ion-,N Vov., Ch^rolo'^yill^-LVi'i:;;^!:^^:^^^^^^^ 


Ab.,uio„,„.,u of the! i^^s^i;;:!;:^^'^'' ^curd-nu ' ^^^'^'^'^^-v^::.^t;:^i^);!^^^^^i^ 





CHAPTER Lir "^ "^'■'"' 





CICAI'Ti.:*. I. VI. 

DiflltultloH -If Ar.tir <)I.HtTV; t Ln-II .' M .1, II, . '".V^,"'^ ^i"'"' » "rty-A<ci.limts at the Hri^ - 


an Allcifoil l'.,l:,r S.-.i, I "wrr ..f Kane -I tavfs' Kx|K.,lltion -Morton OiscuverH 


ItavLsan.l I'artv-A Danuer us 'im.r ,, ., o "'■•'•^•; -.">-V H.'.or.l Deposited-nopartur? „f 

Uiaholical IMot-Iis Dcfe'il W..n(li.r.,.ifs-Kal»;'H Womlerful Uuoyancy-A 


Oil ii:f,f. ,urivai a.'up'jrik^Hiu'::::.'.-; s' ■:^:?l^;:;^i:fi::it'^i:-'^ '^-" Kincd-m. AnLai 


aty-^wfc^,l^..^r:!i:?;l;:^:;:'ki;;r^Mru!;'7'r.;:^"^ '"^^^ '--•^"^ "^''^"■' 

fill Inf.Tc.tuH. -Wvn Skwta. ri7-A Ciirious Mt i V .,"'■'"''-' I'"',^"" discovers a llccord-A Mourn- 
tan.cof M.Llint.Hk's InvLulratio,^: MmUcv-I c'stunony of the Ksquimaux Woman-Impor- 



A strange Custou,-In a >^^^^^^U., L.,(:(:::;L^;^;^!-:t'u!^^-^^^^^ 


HcKions-An Unsafe Boat- An Important J.mrneyt'os^Jon.a '''""' -Subsistence in Arctic 


Wate;'3l^.'!i;)'l^;^^rK^l?!er^lr'iu^:;;^o!f'[V'-^^ Stcons-Frcsh 

ward Hound. '^"^ '""'-<- "'I -Lountes.s of \Varwick's Sound— llome- 





Olacli^f^^j^^St^^^i'-r ^^^^ w!:;if ^ilfT?-;;^ ^J'Tl ^'^P-^'-^ Brother John's 
U,^su^ Weather-A Serious Cau-nity-L^ H^e:^!i!^^-;;i^^,;^;ril:;;^!^;;?^ 


?o..I}:i^^^l'i^(:;tll''n;:;^^ ""PF-THo Perseveranco_A Snow 

Lltitude-A Prudent Return-The ShZ IniMrL \f» l"T ^ *''\J'','"P'-''''""''''-Un«''f<-' Ice-High 
Sound-The Return Home-s"arta.\''jr NelU-Xatlrofiiuyef. '" ^^^"••"^— ^'^'P« Isabella-Wh.fle 





Uaujr.r~.V.„.tcc., Persons heft ...-v tl.e Ice-A l^'ift of NeftHy T« o^s^^^ "" Hall_T)ie 



iii.iii »vh:iIor. 

'rorriblu Witch— A He 

Ishjorn— Inferences— TeffotthofT- 




Scliwatka Expe<Iition-The Eotlu..,,- 

"f Kae. iw^n ■r-ar;:^:;:^ u:^:^S^::c^ '^^z-t:^^y'^-^^.}^^~c^^^.. 

> n A nenca and Great Britain. 







chapti;k i.xxv'iii. 



K-vpeditioa. '"•" '^ ll'-'cci.tion at Boulojrne-Ti.e fir u d Cold r"^,Vn 7^ """•^'''''■'^'"'''^ ^" 

i^cicDr.Uion- -Comments on the 




Till'. Jeannkttk 

■ m-H% 




■A Disas- 

The Jeannette in the Extromitv of Peril- 
Soundinps- -Extracts from the Jeaimettc's Lo" 
A I hick l-og-.-Tlic Lust Entry in the Log. 

Anxiety on Shipboard --Near Wrangell La.Kl--Chipp's 
-Uie Ice Borod--A Party of Explorers--Discoyeries-- 











(l-'ull PagJ.;.' 
(Full Page.).'.' 

NoK.sK Snii's. (Full Pa.V;.', 

^/■o.vK Tower at New °ok r 

C(>lu.m„l:s' lMK,sr Sight ok lAVd 

CilK..sloi.,IEK CoLUMliU.S 

i>t.iiASTiAN C.MJOT. (Full Pa- . ) 
Jacques C.vrtikr ^ "" ^ ''»' 0- • • 

|Koiii.s,rER GreexwIc,'; " 
Po.tTKArv OE FRom.sHFR 

S;:^l'/S,^oJ^-- --B^KE.:,:;; -(F^if Pag^o: 

View ox the PIld.son 

Cape Horn 

-LaxVding of the Ma y*Flo\vkk 

;il^lLOING A EOAT. (Full P,.,. ) 

IcHUKTciiis Blilding A llt-i n''uU ;; 

Jsc,.i.MAu.x House. (Full PaX- f "" ^ •''■''" '^ Whale. Full Pa|e 

William ScoREsuY ^ '' 

ym JOHX Ros.S 

Dorothea axd TrVvt-V' ' */ v' IT "i*. 

«n. NVI.LI AM imSu -pi^R V "^^'^^"^ 

MockSlx.s. (Full Page.) 

Oroup of Childricx CFuiV u' "\ ' 

Sm JoHx Fraxklin ^ ^ ''^''•> 

Fort ExTERPRisE. (FulV Pa,;^ ) 

Si/SS^£^S;:;^^-'--Se\viVh woLVe; 


J^IliERlAX DoG-yLEDGE. VfuII P;,,;.'; 

Attacked hy JJkars. (Full >■ o'!^. -* 

t-KA Bears of SiiiERiA ^ ^ ^ "^ 

i)RE.s,s OF Native. 

Ax Arctic Scexe. (i'uU \'nZ \ 

^-Qc;iMAuxsxow v,LAG,ri1.^;n •]..;:,;•, 

k^quimauxfI^hI;;;;; "(fuh pJ,;j ; 

i-«Qt;iMAi;x Child',. Dr.-ss " ^^ 

i>UN at Midxi(;ht rFMll P.,V ; 

A.CHIX W:Ticl4j^;!!!/;ai— • 

Plax of Arctic Sledge.' " rFullPu'r:/^ 

Mtchex at Fort R.-xiaxc . ^ ''''"•^ 

The Terror Ni.pkdixthe Ice/' "f -u'p -J;; 


(Fuil Page.y. 

(FulV Pag 

o.j. . . , 

















•■■ 93 
• . . . loo 
• . . . I jj 

I ^0 


. . , .l6y 

. .181 


- ..20 J 



. ..26S 








Samoveo Chieftain. (Full Page.) ''"§'-'• 
Blstoi'Fran-klix. (Full Page.). . ........... ^^ 


Bear Attacked hy wolve.s. (Full Pa.rc'i ^ 

In A Lead. (Full Page.) , "^ 393 

Perils or Sledge Travel '. ■^°' 

Arctic Hakes ^^^ 

n. M. S. Intrepid Iced in. (Full* Pac're ) " '>'% 

Cutting Ice Dock.s. fFull Page.) . . . ^../.i.'. V. ^ 

Relics oe Franklin. (Full Paia' ') '^^^ 

Arctic Tools ' 4.3^' 

Arctic Plant (actual size). ..".'..'... 44.'? 

On Beech ey Island ..'. 447 

-Shooting Seals ".'.'. . ..'.".'. 4.S- (Full Page.) 4.S''< 

Dr. E. K. Kane. (Full'Page.) '.'.'..'. ^IP 

S.MiTii's Sound ' ' _ 4c>3 

Glacier Seen uy Kane ....."..'.. ^^% 

Kane in Winter Quarters. (FulVpa'o-e i ^'-^ 

William Mouton ' S»' 

Watching eor a Seal ..'.".' " •'>'" 

Catching Birds !!!..!!.!!!!' •'' 

Kalutunah, an Esqui.maux Chief. (Full* Page") ^^^ 

llAN.s, Wife, and Relatives. ^-3 

Off to the Oi'EN Sea 5-° 

Statue of Franklin. (Full Page.) .'..!.'" ■''3° 

Charles Francis Hall ...'.'.....'..*.*..'..! \ \^Z. 

Caft. Sidney O. Buddington •''47 

Innuit's Head Dress .......*.*.'. \)^ 

Oi'HiuRiD OF Northern Seas. ^Fiin"p'n!/„\' 5"9 


Dr. I. I. Haves 

(Full Page.). 

(Full Page.). 


Brother John's Glacier ■^'•^' 

-.- ** f.^ * 



STLE. (Full Page-) "^'^ 

SLAND Village p> 

"•'•••■' "^ (Full"" ^" 

The Little Auk 

Po'NT Isabella 

Whale Sound. (Full Page.) 

Devil's Castle. ' 

East Green 

Encou.xtkr with Walruses. (I'uii ratro.) 

HiGHEsr Point Achieved uv the Polaris 

Burial oi- Hall 

Grave of Halt " '^45 

Cai't. Georcje E. Tyson.".".'!'. !'.'...... '.".'.'.'.'.'..'.'."■ ^47 

Group of Survivors of Tyson's R.\ft ( l"\iil' Pi'crJ ) )^^ 

Perilous Situaton of the Polaris "' ' '-^4 

Stxrtof Payer's Sleikje Expediton. '('Fuii'ivre ) t'p'^ 

Transporting Wood for the House »•/••• o^s 

Fall of Sledok. (Full Page.). . . ' )'"' 

■ ' 670 


Discovery Bay. 

Grave OF Lieut. Irving 

Prof. a. E. Nordenskiold 

Samoved Encampment. (I'uil Pago.) 

The Cloud Berry ... ..?... 

Dwarfed Trees in Siiieria .. 

Barkm/' House, Exterior and 1ni 

Sa.moyi:!) Sledge 

Arctic Hair-Star ...'*. ........ 

Star-Fish OF Northern W.vrERs '.'. 

Christ.mas Eve on Board the Ve(;a. (Full 
Auroral Display Seen from the Vega. 

ERioK. (l''ull Page.) 



. 692 



• ro.s 


(Full Page.) \,l 




Esi'ssA!:^ f:,:-ir.",r"'" ""■ """' ""s') '"f:i 

Lieut. John W. Danexiiovvkr. . . T^(^ 

LIE' T. ClIARLliS W. ClIII'l' 7<x> 

V. • lAM M. DUXUAR ." 78J 

Bur.' iNGOKTifE Rogers (FulVpatr") 785 

Parliament HoL'SE at Reikiavik 798 

ArcticSledge 801 

Dr. J. M. Amuler ....*" 804 

Departure (jf Ninderman and Noros.' " VfuiV PaVre 1 ^"^' 

Raymond L. Nevvcomh. . . ^ ^^\i^) 808 

Geo. W. Melville Sii 

E.XTERioROK Convict Hut'in' Siberia S16 

Group oe Survivors of Jeannette ExPEDrno'v ' ' >Fn'''l p'." ' \ ^-' 

Melville Finding De ^n.^ and Fartv F n' A , ' ' "^"'^ f'^5 

Grave ok De Long and Party. (Full Pa .4 1 ^-8 


Commander Cheyne's Plan for REACHiNG'-iuE Pole f-^° 

Map oe Polar Regions. (Full Pao-e \ ^Zl 

" '^ 835 


Tin-RE Ships 

Head OF Native '.' 28 

Head of Native i;i 

Sledge Party 57 

Native ON Snow Shoes'" '. 68 

Greenland Pilot 81 

Gulls " ' 9.^ 

Iceberg 104 

Sledge Party iii 

Dragging the Boat 119 

Gothic Iceberg .' 124 

Arctic Dress .......'. 167 

OoMiAK 1S7 

Camp Life 203 

Head of Tchuktchi 219 

Seal-Skin Cup ..." 228 

Child's Sledge 256 

EwEk \T, a Sorceror 265 

The Walnut Sheli ".".'.'.'. -71 

Bale of Pemmican 295 

Esquimaux Knife 310 

A Great Auk 330 

Esquimaux Mother. .......'.'. 345 

1 1 ead of Walr us 379 

Head OF Esquimaux Dog.!..!.. ... 387 

Head of Reindeer " 414 

The Arctic Owl \'' 431 

Esquimaux Spear 4*^9 

Caught IN A Trap... . 459 

Arctic Aquatics '. 48S 

Dog Shoe ' 496 

Kane's Favorite Dog <^o^ 

Esquimaux Woman's Knife..'.. .^12 







" VVhcn szvords arc i^lcamino^- you shall sec 
The Norseman'' s face flash gloriouslv^ 
With looks that make thefoeman rcel^ 
His viirrorfrom of old ivas steel. 
And still he zvields in hattlc\^ hour 

That old Thor''s hammer oj Xorse power' 
Strikes with a desperate arm of might., 

And at the last tug- turns thcfght., 
For never yields the Norseman. " 






Altliou-h vvilh tiic discovery and colonization of Greenland and Ice- 
land by the Norsemen, practically bc-jins our knowledge of the Arctic 
seas, the secrets of the hidden North had long been a favorite theme of 
speculation. The fruitful imaginations of the ancients attached marvel- 
ous features to this mysterious region. 

It was the region of darkness, but as in the succession of events day 
spru.ig from nigiit, so in their tiiought did light and its benefits emanate 
from the North. Here the Hindoos located the dwelling-place of their 
deities, where those divine beings veiled their godlike attributes in 
misty obscurity. Here dwelt the gods of Scandinavia ; and from here 
they directed watchful eyes to guard and protect the interests of their 
worshipers. When the Aurora Borealis shed its soft light over the 
frosty earth, .lispelling with its radiant glory the gloom of night, then 
the simple minds of the people discovered in the sky the dreadful shapes 
of their gods, and trembled and lejoiced. 

Thus, too, the father of history relates how the Hvperboreans-" of all 
the human race, the most virtuous and happy, dwelt in perpetual peace 
and del.ghtful companionship with the deities, under cloudless skies, in 
fields clothed with perpetual verdure, where the fruitful soil yields twice- 
yearly harvests, its blest inhabitants attain extreme old age, and at last, 
when satiated with life, joyfully crown their heads with flowers, and 
phmge headlong from the mountain steeps into the depths of the sea." 

But all this belongs to tradition and song rather than to history. 
The happiness we crave is histinctively located in some far-off, unattain- 




ror^u.B OF rrriiEAs. 

al.lo place, a.i.l the existence ..fthis tendency may explain the facts 
above reconled. Ail the certai.i kn<.vvle,lf,.e which nations of antiquity 
had of northern tenitories ma) he very hrieHy summarized, for as yet 
compass and sextant were unknovvii, and the few intrepid adventurers 
that dared at all to brave the fury of the sea, did so almost blindfolded, 
and at the peril of their lives. The Tyrians an.l Phci..nicians had left 
their native shores to fh.d in other re-ions, the wealth which their own 
ru-rcd coasts yielded so scantily. Cartha-e had been founded on the 
coast ofAfrica; and the Greeks, in the traditional voyage of the Ar-o, 
had wreathed themselves with glory and given a subject for many a' 
pleasing song ; but none as yet ha.l ventured to try the dark regions of 
the Xorth, and its secrets remained its own, to be unlocked by the 
genius and bravery and invention of more modern times. 

Thus, all records by northern historians of the events occurring 
before the Christia.i era may be set down as mythical or inicertain ; for 
classical antiquity exhibits a very obscure notion of the geography of 
Europe beyond the German Ocean. This is illustrated in th^ fact that 
the ancient Greeks and Romans considered Scandinavia an island, or 
cluster of islands in the Northern Seas ; and other ideas, equally erroneous, 
-^nlfice to .how the .obscurity in classic times which clothed this unex- 
plored region. 

The first, and for a long tim. the only voyage to northern regions, 
recorded by any nation of letters, was made by Pyiheas of Marseilles-a 
Greek colony in France. 

The date of Pytheas, who was the most celebrated navigator of his 
time, is approximately placed at 330 B. C, making him about contem- 
poraneous with Alexander the Great. lie is the o.dy explorer of the 
pre-Chr,stian period, who, so far as we n.ay judge from authentic 
records, at all approached in spirit the heroes of modern navigation 
Regarding his birth and the circumstances of his private life we" have 
I.ttle or no trustworthy hiformation ; but what is more in.portant to us 
m th.s connection, we know that he exploded the Northern Seas of 
Europe. The ancient geographers, like conservative pedants of a more 
recent period, professed to place little reliance o,t his staten,ents. ,V,.. 



Polyblus and Straho treat him with the utmost seventy and ridicule, 
and nvMition his accounts as absurd and incredible— a proceeding quite 
customarily followi'i«r any important discovery on land or sea, in mind 
or matter, philosophy or art. "Absurd" has echoed throu<,'h the ages, 
as the response of the ignorant to what has been contrary to their pre- 
conceived notions. 

Modern writers are inclined to set more value on the accounts of 
Pytheas, as well as on all of the best known ancient writers. We 
gather that he sailed through the English Channel, and, :ifter leaving 
P>ritain, a voyage of six days to the North brought him to an island 
which he called Thule, where he says the sun never descends below the 
horizon for a certain 25eriod at the summer solstice. This statement 
would apply to Iceland, but the incredulous are supposed to identify 
his island with one of the Orkneys, because it seems unlikely that Pyth- 
eas could have reached Iceland in six days. In Greek enumeration, 
as in our own, an error of transcription is very easy ; and it is more 
rational to look for a mistake there than to reject a fact of observation 
which is certainly not applicable to the Orkney Islands ; these, more- 
over, are several in number, and are so close to the mainland, as not 
properly to fall under the description of being six days' sail from Britain. 
Some have thought that he had come upon a portion of Norway or 
Denmark, but the evidence of this is not conclusive. He visited some 
island at least, and probably named it from his native telos, meaning the 
goal or the farthest point. 

Pytheas afterward entered the l^altic, and reached a river which he 
called Tanais, which critics believe to be the Elbe. Here he found a 
people who made use of amber instead of wood, and as that substance is 
still found in large quantities in Prussia, there is little doubt that he must 
have visited that joart of Europe. H^^ gave an account of his voyages in 
two works—" Description of the Ocean "—which contains his voyage to 
Thule, and " Periplus," or circumnavigation. He seems to have been 
the first to determine the latitude of a place from the sun's shadow, and 
the first to suspect that the tides are influenced by the moon. It is safe 
tosaythat he had more of the spirit of discovery and observation Lhan 




h..s untn.vclc.1, though scholarly, critics, and with the- li.^ht of n.o.lcrn 

research and the aid of modem appliances, suci, a spirit woul.l d.,nhtless 

have done mnch to unravel the tangled skein of northern mysteries. 

Thetrue inception of Arctic discovery has already been referre.l to 

the Norsemen, whose .levelopments and achievements we may now do 
well to consider. 


The Norsemen, or Northmen, were known to the ancients as Scan- 
dniavums, a distinctive and appropriate designation which again 
bids fair to become current '"""^ 

in our own dry. Some 
words are like fashions in 
clothing, they are discarded 
for a time, but in a genera- 
tion or two are once more 
hrought into use because of 
some special appropriate- 
ness or utility. Every town, 
city, county, state, nation, 
or other geographical dis- 
trict may have its North- 
men, but Scandinavians or 
Norsemen are a special 
class of Northmen. Norse- 
men is to l)e preferred for 
its ters.'ncss, and because 


Sca„<, „uvi„n ,„„ „„ „p,„,,„„^, „, „^,„„ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^ ^ 

.hey ,pn,„. scorn., .„ „.„„ ,,,, „„„^, „,^, ,^,^^ __^. ^^^^ 

wh,ch ™,n,.e„ fro,„ ,„e hi,h,,,„.,s „f C„„.n„ Asi,., ,„e ,„,■,„„ „,„„„ ,„ 
h. I .I..E,„-„„„,,„ ,„ fa.nily „f ,,,,,. j,, „„„, ,,„, ,,,^., 
they 1,0,..,, .„ ,„„, „„„„, ,„„„ f„,. ^ „^^^ ,^,,,_^^._ ^,^^^ J^^^ - J 

m,g,:u„,y experience, if ,„„ otherwise, that thelr ehler h,„lhor,,, L Pe,- 





sians, Greeks, Latins, Celts and Sclavs, had seized the southern and cen- 
tral portions of Asia and Europe, and theie remained hut the laiHls of the 
inhospitahle North. These they overspread, suhduin}^ tlie earlier inhab- 
itants, the stunted and swarthy Finns of tlie great northern peninsula. 
This was an overland mij^ration, and the iniinij^rants had no knowledije 
of ships. 

In the ei{,'hth century of our era they had so lu oased and multiplied 
that they mi<i;ht he said to have been compelled to renew their travels, 
this time by water. Meanwhile they had learned to build and use sliips. 
The cold hillsides of their native land liad been brou_<,'ht into rude culii- 
vation to supplement the more fertile plains. Hut still they jjrew and 
multiplied and necessity tau<,dit them to find in their inlets and bavs a 
valuable addition to their stores of food. Fishinj,', the natural introduc- 
tion to seafaring, is calculated to jiroiluce hardy and dexterous seamen. 
And we find that the Norse leaders andaheir crews, when they sprun" 
into the foreground of mediioval history, were bold and skillful mariners, 
brave and active fighters, and ever ready to face danger in pursuit of 
spoils. They were more than a match for the agricultural, manufactur- 
ing and commercial nations round about them. Their agriculture was 
scant, and of trade and manufacture they were ignorant. If to t'^^se be 
added the all-pervading infiuencc of a religion which taught that death in 
battle was but a passage to the happy immortality of Valhalla, we have 
a combination of the conditions necessary to form a conquering people. 
As is usual in the early history of nations, they are fouml divided into a 
number of tribes or clans under petty kings or chiefs. At the actual 
period of their historic inroads they were just passing into the more pre- 
tentious form of consolidated monarchies, with the chiefs of the old reg- 
ime crystalizing into the hereditary nobles of the new, a*ul especially of 
the rank known in their language as jarls, in ou' earls. Though jiolit- 
ically subordinate to the sovereign, these earls retained much of their 
former power in their relations to those beneath them. Wheth^ . n. 
term vikings we are to understand these chieftains— as if" vice s-- - 

or, as seems more probable, " fiord-folks," it is certain that leaders and 
people were ent(>rprising and brave. 




It wa. .oo„ fou.ul that the relatively h.xuriot.H a.ui efTemina... <len|. 
.ens of Houther., la.uls couhl he easily in.h.ce.l hy a little show of vio.cnce 
to purchase their lives hy the surren.ler of a portion of their wealth, or 
be made easy victims to the hardihoo.l ,,.,.1 clari.i^r of those 

"Orlni vikings, wlio foiirul rupture 
In tin- sea-fipht, and the capture, 
And the h'le of Ninvery," 

to which .hey ,.eclu<:«l such a> wore „o, rich enough to „ , r.,„.,„m. 

TiK. Norse vil<i„„.s, „i,l, „o wealth hut tl,eir ,l,ips, „„ I,,,,,,. |,„t ,heir 
.words swannci up..,, the occnn, plun.lereci every clistrict they could 
»„ci,, ,u,<l for several ceuturies spread hlood, ,api„e aud ,n,se;y over 
ho na.,o„, of Euro,x.. All their habits, feeliug, a,„l assoeiatiou, we,o 
ferocous. Tl,ey re!;a,ded pi,-aoy aud pl,„,der as the most houorahle 
n>etho,l ,,, securi,,. wealth. Raw Hosh was a ,o„thso,ne .loliccy, pity 
was weakuess, a„d ,oa,s were „u,uauly. They .elieved ,l,e m„„o,„„y 
of the regular occupatiou of killi,,,, au.l pluuderiuj; a,lults l,y a „„., „f 
»portive «„,„- iu which they tossed f,.„,n lauce to lauce, with wonderful 
dexlonty aud precisiou, helpless infants wrenche,! f,on, the a,™s „t their 
s an,h,e,.ed ,u„,ho,s. They knew „o „|o,.y hut the destructiou of their 
"ene,.,es..o,., Wheu they fell upon a disfict they uot o„lv 
rohhcl ,t o( ,ts acc„,„ula,e,l wealth, hut dostroyd the growiu,, co,;, 
wn I, ruthless harhari,.. Peaceful. p,.osperous aud civiii.ed Co.:,,:,:: 
h.u a ,.y ,„,,,„ ,„|„^, „^„,.,^,,^ |^__^.^.^,^^ ^^ he gathced all the ,„„,.o 
eas,ly hecanse ofihe iefi,icment <if the owueis. 

With ,1,0 exception of the warlike Franks i.uncd .o wa,-.s alarn,, 
. e couraged In a l„„g „r,.„y „f ,„i,i,a,,, ,„,_,„ „„„„ ,,^. . 
Ka, (Charlemagne), Europe lava, the feet of the freohooter. , . , „; 
Wt . To do ,he,„ justice, however, or .-athcr to enforce the law 
wh,ch ,mpels n,a„ to postpone the ha.a,<l of his life m peaceful 
n,oans of suppo,, „,„ exhaustetl, we call the ,.eado,-s attention to • foN 
ow„,s fact. Before onteriug on a career of piracy, .ho No,,hu,o„ , ^1 

X :„;::"■" •*= "^ -'".>-"'-p:tahie ..ogions of icd., 

and G.ccland, as .,, , .s .no ,„„re genial hut ci,.ou,„scril,e,l .-egions of 




the Faroe, Shetland, and Orkney Islands. It was an age when the neces- of a surplus population appealed to the law of the strongest Our 
more civilised .nethods of piracy do not so harrow human sensibilities, 
but the law of "might gives right," may still be traced by any one 
givc'i to reflection. 

At first the marauders paid only flying and stealthy visits to unpro- 
tected coasts; but afterward, emboldened by success, and strengthened 
hy the acccosions which the fame of their exploits and the resultinc. 
harvests of booty brought to their support, they made deeper inroads^ 
and finally effected permanent lodgments in Russia, England, Ireland 
and France. In Russia they .vere known as Varangians, that is, - .ea- 
warnors," who gave a king and <lynasty, Rurik and his successors, to 
that country. In England and Ireland they were known as Danes; and 
m France as Normans, where they because possessors of Normandy 
whence too, under their Duke William, their descendants invaded and 
conquered England in 1066. 

Their first permanent settlements in the Faroe, Shetland, and Orkney 
Islands are supposed to have been made about the middle of the ninth 
century. In Iceland the date is more authentic, being placed by the best in A. D. 874. The accidental discovery of Greenland fol- 
lowed two years later, but no effort at coloni^ation seems to have been 
ma<lc unfl 985, two years after its re-discovery by .Eric the Red Ice- 
land became self-governing in 928, and remained independent until 1,87 
when it submitted to the king of Denmark and Norway. Greenland 
_ prospered for several centuries, receiving its first bishop in 1121, and 
■ts last one in ,406. The population was decimated by the " black 
death -and that of Iceland, also-and it could no longer support the 
expens,ve luxury of a bishop. With the bishop, in ,409, doubtless went 
the annahst of the colony, as there is no further record of Greenland for 
nearly two hundred years. The truth probai^ly is that as onlv the pre - 
sure of over population at home could ha^-e reconciled them ti, an abode 
- dreary Greenland and n-o.en Icelan.I, so when that was removed bv 
^- 'black death," which swept off 35,000,000 of the populati<,n I, 
Europe ,n three years (.348-5,), there were no new accessions, and the 






more enterprising and active of the survivors in botii colonies may have 
found more congenial homes among their kindred in Europe. 

Besides these authentic voyages of the Norsemen to Greenland and 
Iceland, there are some alleged voyages to the latter made by more 
southern navigators. There is a story of the Zeni brothers, of Venice, 
who are said to have explored those Northern seas, and to have discov- 
ered certain northern islands, one of which is conjectured to have been 
Iceland. And it is even possible that Columbus himself visited those 
latitudes fifteen years before his great discovery; for in one of his letters 
is found this statement: » In 1477 I navigated one hundred leagues 
beyond Thule." A favorite identification of the Thule of Pytheas of 
Marseilles has been with Iceland; but it Is thought that medieval 
wnters may have rather inclined to identify it with the largest of the 
Shetland Islands. 

An incidental result of the discovery and colonization of Iceland and 
Greenland referred to above, was the discovery of the continent of North 
America, and some of the smaller islands along the coast, although, as 
IS well known, this fact led to no very permanent results. Biarne 
Herjulfson is said, by tradition, to have sailed from Iceland for Green- 
land, in 9S6 A. D., but on account of fogs and north winds, los^ his 
course and came upon the coast of a strange land, which he sighted at 
d.fferent times i,i a northern direction. It is thought that he came upon 
the Atlantic coast of North America, perhaps at Newfoundland or 
I-abrador, and sailed along it until he arrived at the colony of Eric. He 
did not land, hcv.'ever, until Greenland was readied. 

In the year 1000 this discovery was repented by a son of Eric the 
Red, who, with tiiirty-fivc men, explored the coast of North America 
for a long distance from north to south. After landing at a spot sup- 
posed to have been Labrador, he sailed to the south, and discovered a 
pleasant country, which was called Vinland, from the abundance of' 
grapes found upon it. Here tlicy spent the winter, and two years later 
Thorwald, a.iother son of Eric, visited the place and discovered Cape 
Cod. After this Vinland was quite extensively colonized from Green- 
luP.l ..,nd was variou.!y.^ visited by Norse voyagers. The colony was 

^ » ■ T ' »t ' H ' waa'fc?i|.< i -} i k»i.afe j |Mty iia?«.g5^ 


supported for a few years, but owing to the fierce attacks of the natives, 
the enterprise was finally abandoned. A son born to Karlscfne, the head 
oftheVinland colony, was t he first child born to European parents on 

guished families of ^^S^SHt old Zl to^^^Zt 

Newport, Rhode Island, and the inscription upon Dighton Rock, which 
hes upon the bank of Taunton River, are memorials of the visits of these 

Such a beginning, then, had the series of adventures to whose de- 
scription this volume is devoted-adventures which, made in the cause 
of scence, and requiring the highest degree of manly courage, must 
thrill all with their dangerous and desperate character. 







The gradual way in which the maritime enterprise of the Portuguese 
led them to the discovery of the ocean route to the East Indies, marks 
tlio distinctive character of their voyages. The final result was the slow, 
deliberate and laborious outcome of several previous adventures carried 
on in a systematic manner. To Prince Henry, surnamed the navigator, 
because of his patronage of these enterprises, Portugal was largely in- 
debted for her early naval supremacy among modern nations. 

Madeira was discovered in 1420; Cape Bojador was passed in 1439; 
and Cape Verd in 1446. The Azores were discovered in 1448 ; the 
Cape Verd Islands in 1449, and St. Thomas in 1471. In 1481 the Pope 
granted to the crown of Portugal all the countries which the Portuguese 
might discover beyond Cape Bojador. In i486 Bartholomew Diaz, 
while on an expedition to explore the west coast of Africa, was driven 
by high winds to the mouth of the Great Fish River, actually, but un- 
consciously, doubling the most southern point of Africa. On his return, 
in 1487, he named the headland Cape Tarmentoso. In 1497 Vasco da 
Gama doubled Cape Tarmentoso, which he named the Cape of Good 
Hope, and in 1498 arrived in India. By this discovery of an ocean route 
to India, the trade of the East was diverted from the old channel of the 
Red Sea and the Mediterranean, and the commerce of the world was 

Eariy in 1500 Pedro Alvarez de Cabral, on a voyage to the East 
Indies by t'.o wMy of (he Cape of (iood Hope, fell in with the land now 




known :.s IJnuil, and promptly took possession of the for the crown 
c^f Portuj,.al. Two Portuj^uese voyaj,a-s to North America, un.icr Caspar 
Cortereal, ni 1500 a.,.! 1501, Jcft no memoraI)le incidents, except his cruel 
kidnappinjr of natives on the first, and his own disappearance on M.e 
second. A third voya-c, in 1502, under Miguel Cortereal in search of 
h.s brother Gaspar, resulte.l in a similar disappearance; and I'ortu.^al 
never gahu..! a foothold in North America. The success of Da Ganv, 
and Cabral had found a more profitable outlet for Portuguese commerce 
and colonisation, and their va-ious enterprises in South America, West 
and South Africa, and the adjacent islands, as well as in the East Indies 
afforded ample scope for all the surplus energies of prince and people.' 
Before dismissing Portugal from the field of observation, we wotdd re 
mn.d the reader of the well known voyage of Magellan, a Portuguese 
.n theservceof Spain, in 15.0, and the discovery of the straits called 
by h. name-a southwest passage to India, or rather to the islands of 
(lie 1 acific atui to Australia. 


The greatest and most wid.-rcachi,,,- i„ influence of all the voya.rcs 
of<l.scovco', was that of CoIunAus, in ,49=, In scare* of a western J,,. 
Base to In,lia. His great discovery was not like so ntany of the preced- 
.ng ones, an ],appcni„g or a lucky hit, „or tl,c direct consc- 
qucncc of other epilations innt.xliatcly preceding, a, was Da (Janra^s ; 
but the restdt of an intellectual conception carefully elaborated and ,o,n,d- 
«1 on geographical data. Any nn^hcr of discoveries ,,y stornt-driven 
No,se,„en or cod-fishing Bretons, or adventt.rous Welsh.nen-were the 
facts established beyond all doubt-eould not rob Colt.„,bns of the pecu. 
bar glory of his great achievement. 

By birth a Genoese, hn. failing of proper encouragenren. at hotnc 

. .n o, er conntnes to which he ba.l subn.itted his projects, C rbus, 

the, .n the of Spain, sailed front the port ofPalos ,„ flnd a 
western passage to In.lia, an.l in ten weeks came in sight of , 

i^;'; """ " ' ''^""■"" -O-i" "..n,e rcpeatcl here, as oulv its 

."Huence and beanng, upon later voyage, fartner nh, within 







.lK..c,,pc..f„,„...„,.k. ],„ .lie.l f„„„„e„ ,..„rs ,a,o,-, i„ p„ve«y ,,„J 
ncgk-ct, alUT f„„r v.,va(;o, ,„ ,h„ Now W„,I.I, „i,, ,„„|,r „,, i,^,,,,,. 

W,.h,„fif.,, ,..,» ofh„ di,covc,j,,h..go„gn,phicd k„„wlodgc h, ...^ 

possession of mankind 
was doubled ; and the 
foundations of modern 
accuracj- and fullness in 
that ie^r;„-(l were deeply 


Spanish navigators in 
great nmnbers followed 
in the wake of Colum- 
bus, some originally his % 
subordinates and asso- 
ciates, others not spec- 
ially connected. When 
the way is opened by 
genius, talent is ever 


;T;^ '"*." i" ^""' «""^^-- ^=™"'- Ojeda, Vcpucius Pi,„„„, Baseidc, 
Ba,b.,a, Gnjalva, Dc So.' . Do Loo.,, D. Cordova, Co„c,, D. AyUon 

! ::r -"'7"«™-'"" -.y other, increased .he area orSpa.dle.' 

mfamy of he,r ,a„el oppression and heartless e„sh,ven,en. and depopu- 
la. o o he na.,ve raees, in Cen.ral and Son.h Ameriea, in mUC 
-d.heWes. Indies. The Spanish e.plora.ion of Nor.h AnreHrC 
Gon,e., n, ,53,, led .0 h„p„r,an. resnits, h„. .as si.nali.ed l.v .he e, ' 
.on,ary barhari.y .0 .he na.ives, several of who,, were Id 
napped and sold in.o slaver,, „,akin, .he ven.nre eo^nereiall/;. ." 
able, h„. morally ,„fa„,„„,,. ,^,,,1 so i. ha.h ever been- 
" Regard „. „„r],||^ ,„„^k ,,„„, j,,!,,^ |_|^^^ 
And low aba.e Ihc l,l„l,, IktoIc spiril. " 

















The wealth which Spain wrenched with heavy hand from the luck- 
less natives who fell under her sway, was lavished in wasteful luxury and 
expensive wars. Like others, her growth would have been more solid 
and her prosperity more enduring had she been content with fair retiuMis 
froin her American possessions. But her voracious greed and atrocious 
cruelty pUicked out the eyes of the New World — and her own. Mexico 
and Peru were extinguished, their civilization destroyed, and their wealth 
confiscated by the unwise, as well as cruel, policy of her conquerors. 
Liberty and justice are the two pillars of national prosperity which no 
violence of brute force can pull dov.n, and which alone can defy the 
assaults of internal and external foes. After nearly four hundred years 
of mistaken j^olicy, a new generation of nobler sons have begun to guide 
the ship of state on wiser principles. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus, and the recognition that 
the land surface of the globe had been considerably enlarged by a long 
stretch of territory, the width of which, however, was not ascertained till 
long afterward, the search for a passage through it to the Indies was not 
relinquished. In 1513 Balboa had found the "South Sea," now the 
Pacific Ocean, and after having with immense labor, patience, and perse- 
verance, built some vessels on tlie Gulf of Panama — "an enterprise no 
leader save he could have carried to a successful issue " — he cruised on its 
waters beyond St. Michaels. But his premature death at the hands of 
his rival Davila, of Darien, in 151 7, deprived him of the opportunity of 
further exploration. The reports sent by Balboa to Sp'^.in in relation to 
the great wealth of the regions south of Panama inflamed the zeal and 
avarice of the Spaniards, and manv expeditions were organized with a 
view to exploration and conquest. In their search for gold they enlarged 
tlie area of geographical knowledge, but their destruction of the civiliza- 
tions of Mexico and Peru has robbed humanity of an inheritance for 
which that is no recompense. That would eventually have been reached 
without their aid, but the loss referred to can never be repaired. 

One of the first results of Columbus' discovery of the New World 
was the re-discovery of North America. The English " Society of 
Merchant Adventurers," was established in 135S under the name of "The 




Thomas a Heckct Society," and the whole body of E.i-hsh traders were 
ea-er to share in the commerce of India, China and the East -enerally. 
The Pope ha<l early -ranted, ahnost as soon as the discovery was fully 
authenticated, a sort of monopoly of the advantages of the Eastern dis- 
coveries to the Portuguese, and of the Western to the Spaniards. Jiy a 
l)ull of 1495 the meridian of 100 le ivrues west of the Azores was estab- 
lished as a line of demarcation between the two powers. By the treaty 
of Tordesillas, in 1494, and a confirmatory bull in 1506, the line was ex- 
te.ided to the coast of Brazil, or 375 lea-ues from the Azores. The 
adjoining country inland, extent unknown, was understood to follow the 
fortunes of the coast. The method of division was unscientific and un- 
fortunate, but as far as oth.;r nations were concerned it was supposed to 
cut them off from all share in the great discoveries of the period. The 
English were determined to find, if possible, a solution which, while it 
would not formally antagonize the high authority of the Pope— at that 
time an accepted and important element in international law— would let 
them into a substantial share of the results. This was the origin of the 
celebrated theory of a Northwest Passage to India and Cathay, or China, 
which will be more fully treated in a succeeding chapter. 

In pursuance of this theory the Cabots, John and Sebastian-father 
and son-sailed with three vessels, in 1497, from Bristol, then the lead- 
ing commercial port of England. They virtually discovered North 
America, as it is not known that the discovery of the same region some 
5ooyearsbefore, had any influence on their course or its results. As 
t.early as can be now determined, the region actually discovered, and 
which they loosely designated by the name of " The Land First Seen," 
was Labrador. Though not signalized by large immediate i.-^sults, and 
in a commercial sense unprofitable, this voyage was one of the most mo- 
mentous in the history of the world. It was the corner-stone of Eng- 
land's colonial system and indirectly of the greater glories of the 
American Union, with itr, incalculable contributions to the elevation and 
progress of mankind. Our minds cannot grasp the immensitv of these 
results, but the effort h. seize the dim outlines of the mighty fobric will 
amply repay. 


' Vx ^\ '\> vs. \. 


. II 




In u second voyajje, about a year later, Seliastian Cabot, in command 
of two vessels and 300 men, explored the coast from Labrador to Chesa- 
peake Bay, perhaps to Florida. He named Newfoundland and noted 
the <freat iunnl)ers of codtisii to be found on its banks— a discovery, 
however, in which he had been anticipated, it is thou<,'ht, l)y the fisher- 
men of France. He reached latitude 58% and perhaps hij^her, but en- 
countered so much floatinj,' ice,thou«,'h it was in the month of July, that 
he concluded to return to Enj,Wand. Nothin<^ more is heard of Sebastian 
Cabot until 15 13, when he entered the service of Spain, where he re- 
mained until the death of his patron, Ferdinand V., in 1516, Soon 
afterward he is again found in the service of England, being given the 
command of an expedition to Labrador, iu 1517, by Henry VHL To 
the cowardice or malice of an associate, Sir Thomas Perte, is usually 
attril)uted Cabot's failure in this third voyage to North America. But 
it can hardly be just to attribute it to such a cause. Complete success 
was impossible at that early stage— step by step man prog; esses. He 
explored what is now Hudson's Bay, ascending to 67° 30', and naming 
several places. Dissatislied with the result, or innuenced perhaps by the 
dissatisfaction of his principal, Cardinal VVolsey, who was at that time 
emphatically "the power behind the throne," and far more interested 
in Ihuling a passage for himself to the papacy than in promoting the 
efforts of the merchants of London to discover a route to India, or for 
some cause not clearly ascertained, Cabot left Engl uid and re-entered 
the service of Spain. The unexampled prestige of its young king 
Carlos, elected emperor under the historic name of Karl or Charles V., 
ni 1519, n)ay have inspired C:'l)ol with the hope of securing in that pow- 
erful tjuarter liie necessary patronage for his cherished project, the 
Northeast Passage. It is said that he iiad secured a favorable hearing 
from the late king for that fantastic dream, but in l-:nglan(l the North- 
west Passage was still in the ascendant. He was ajjpointed pilot-major 
of Spain, and was for some years engaged in (piietly discharging the 
duties of that ofHce, for which his exact knowledge of detail and liirge 
experience in naval matters from his boyhood, specially qualified him. 
With Cabot we turn again to Spain and its maritime enterprises. 

.fc,»V--r'»-!l.t &^ 


Fcrnaiulo Mafralliacns .,.• Ma-dlan ( 1470-1521 ), a I'oitu-uesc nav- 
igator, had attainctl some dlHtiiictioii in tl;c service of his country in the 
East Imlies, and had taken part in tiie conquest of Malacca in leii. 
While servinjr under Alhuquerciue he had made a voya<,'e to the Mc 
luccas or Spice Islands, which he afterward learned were witliin the 
jurisdiction of Spain as estahlished by papal adjudication and the treaty 
of Tordesillas. In 151 7 he opened his project of fmdin;r a West 
passa-e to the Moluccas, to Charles V. of Si)ain, and an a-reement 
was entered into, March 23, 151S, whereby the Kin- was to defray the 
expenses, and receive the lion's share of such commercial advanta<,a's as 
should accrue. Magellan received command of five vessels and 337 men 
for the expedition, and having finally got all things in readiness, he 
sailed for the New World in 1519, The expedition had to struggle 
against l)ad weather, insubordination and mishaps of various kinds, the 
details of which would be foreign to this stage of our narrative. Ma- 
gellan discovered and traversed the Strait called by his name in 1520; 
and was killed in battle with the natives of one of the Philippine 
Islands, in 1531. His subordinate, Sebastian del Uano, completed the 
voyage, reaching Spain Sept. 6, 1533. lacking fourteen days of three 
years since the departure of Magellan. 


Cabot conceived the project of reaching Peru by a more direct route 
than that discovered by Balboa from Panama, or by Magellan through 
the Straits which arc called by his name. He secured the command '^.f 
an expedition to explore the La Plata, in 1536, and search for a South- 
west Passage to the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, and thence to the East. 
In 1527 he ascended the La Plata 120 leagues, and discovered Para- 
guay. He was feebly sustained by the home govertiment, and returned 
to Spain in 1531. As with the cardinal in England, so with the emper- 
or in Spain, the pre-occupation of more congenial pursuits dwarfed the 
interest in maritime exploration, and Cabot concluded to again try Eng- 
land, whither he went, in 154S. He perhaps hoped to be able to in- 

FRENCH vor Annus. 

tcrest the viiforous and cnterprisiti^j Duke of Somerset, protector of 
Eiij,'laii{|, ill his now favorite project. lie was crcateil inspector of the 
navy, and instructor of the youn<j Kinj,' Edward VI. in tlie nautical 
science of tile day, whce we will leave him, while we call atten- 
tion to another branch of our subject. 


Durin}^ the fifty years succeedin<; the disco^'cry of America i)y Ct)- 
lumbus, Cabot, and Vespucius, France was too deeply involved in Euro- 
pean wars to give much attention to maritime discovery. Louis XII. 
(1498-1515), Francis I. (1515-47) and Henry II. (1547-59), successive- 
coast of North Amer- 
ica. After the peace 
of Cambray, Francis 
— failing to find, as he 
said, any claui.e in 
Adam's will disin- 
heriting France in 
favor of Spain and 

ly struggled with 
Austria for the pos- 
session of Lombardy. 
The defeat of Francis 
at Favia, in 1525, by 
throwing the nation 
into financial and po- 
litical disorder, put an 
end to \'errazzano's 
otherwise successful 
cxploi.ition of the 

Portugal — renewed 

v;^^--NxsJ<^ his interest in Ameri- 
jAct^L'Ks cARTiKR. cau cxploralioiis. In 

1534 he sent out Cartier, who discovered the Gulf and River of 
St. Lawrence, and in a second voyage, in 1535, ascended the river to 
what is now Montreal, where he wintered peacefully with the 
natives. In two other voyages (1541-1543) he maintained the most 
friendly relations between the French colonists and the Indians. Pont- 
grave in 1599, De Champlain, from 1603 to 1635, De Monts (1604) 
and other French explorers of North America followed the example of 
Cartier, or the natural instincts of their race, in the humane treatment of 
the American Indians, winning a place in iheir good graces which no 
other Europeans have been able to reach. The story of these events, 
however, belongs to the history of colonization, not to that of Arctic 
voyages, but being the most northerly voyages of the period which left 
abiding results, they are at least worthy of brief mcntit^n. 



i: I 



In the .ncantime Cabot had elaborated his pot scheme of reaching 
I.Kha by a Northeast Passage, evidently having no adequate conception of 
he extent or configuration of the north coast of Asia. But however 
ludicrous it may now appear, the project led to important results It 
opened the way to commercial relations with Russia, then starting out on 
an mdependent career; and it has also exerted great influence on the his- 
tory of Arctic voyages. 

Under the auspices „f Caboe an.l his royal pa.ron, the search for the 
Northeast P,.sage was „o„ beg,,,,. I„ ,553 three ships were fitted out 
a. the expcse o, the -. Me,ch„„t Adve„.,„.ers „£ London," and under 
the s„per,n,e„de„ee of .he aged Cabot. The ve..,els we.e na.ned Buona 
bpe,a„.,, or G00.I Hope; ,;„„„„ Confideneia, Good Confidence; and 
Buona Ventu,,, ,;„„d .Success; and were co.n^anded, .espective v, by 
^r Hu,h W,l,„u,hby, CornCius I>u,.fo,,h, and Richan, Chanedlo," 

Wall?:, r """'."" *" ^°"' "' ""'">■• --«• "'■' ■" "- Loffoden 
islands, oi after rouncimg the North r-..-.^ fi.„, i 

.u„r. ,r ^"''" *-"'P^' tliey became separated, and 

.he Bnona Ventura entered the White .Sea, till then unknown o Euro;ean 
nav„a,o,,. The o.her .wo held .o.e.he,- son.c .i,nc longer, dri.Z 
around between .he north coast of Lapland and .he Arc^c slan of 
Nova Ze,„b ,. Be,„,e the close of .he year .he . Confi.lcnce " .e.nrne" 
.0 England, having hecon,e separa,e.l f,.„,„ her consort in ano.hcr s.o, n 
T e ensun,g year some Russian fishermen found .he G„o<l Hope 
hen,™cd „, by ,ce a. the ,no„.h of .heDwina, in Lapland, a,,,, her en.ire 

554, and .hat was „„ douh. .he date of thei, ,lestr„c.ion-.he fl s. of .' 
long ser,es of vieti,ns .0 .he sevc-i.y of Arcc seas, and .heir ow,! ine.;. 




periencc. Had they been skilled in the resources of the north, tlicy 
could have j^rotected themselves against the severity of the weather by 
laying in a stock of the mossy turf or peat, for fuel, and have secured by 
hunting, ample provisions to sustain them through the winter. The in- 
telligence of the most advanced nations must be combined with the hard- 
ihood and experience of the rude inhabitants of the North before Arctic 
exploration can be other than a useless sacrifice of human life. 

Chancellor, more fortunate, reached the mouth of the Dwina, antl 
landed at the monastery of St. Nicholas, near where Archangel was 
founded in 1584. Notwithstanding the hardships of the journey, Chan- 
cellor proceeded to Moscow, the residence of the sovereign, who was no 
other than Ivan IV., VasilievitchlL, that is, son of Vasil or Basil, and 
surnamed " The Terrible." Some ten years before he had changed the 
modest title of Duke of Russia for that of czar and autocrat. However 
well Ivan may have deserved his surname because of his excessive cru- 
elty to his enemies, the Tartars, and his abuse of unrestrained power 
over his subjects, he was quite gracious to the English navigator. It was 
in reality a " good venture " for both parties— the merchant advcnturcis 
of London and the autocrat of Russia. 

The realm of Ivan was strictly continental and the trade with West- 
ern Europe was through the dominion of his enemies, the Poles. Chan- 
cellor therefore received every encouragement to renew his venture, and 
obtained an excellent market for his wares. He returned to England in 
1554^ '"^"d the next year made a second voyage to Saint Nicholas, with 
four ships and accompanied by two agents who made an advantageous 
treaty with Ivan. On the return voyage, accompanied by a Russian 
ambassador to England, he lost one ship on the coast of Norway, and a 
second in quitting the harbor of Droutheim. He was soon afterward 
driven by a violent storm into the Bay of Pitsligo, in Scotland, where the 
Buona Ventura was wrecked. He succeeded in getting the ambassador 
into a small boat with himself, but the boat was upset and tlie navigator 
diowned, while the inexperienced landsman escaped with the loss of • 
some wares and gifts which he was taking to England. 

In 1556, the Muscovy Company — as the Merchant Adventurers of 




London were now called — dispatchcxl the Serchtrift in command of 
Stephen Burrough, who had served as pilot, or sailing master, of the 
Buona Ventura in 1 553, to make further search for the Northeast Passao-e 
and the mouth of t!ie' Obi. Burrough reached the strait between Nova 
Zembla and Vaigats Island, now known as Kara Gate or Strait, but was 
driven back by the ice and returned to England. Burrough wrote an 
account of his voyage. 

It was thought that the promontory forming the eastern cape of 
the Gulf of Obi was the northeast corner of Asia, and that therefore 
Nova Zembla and tne Kara Strait were distant only some 400 miles 
from the east coast of Asia. In this view the great geographer of the 
day, Mercator, concurred; and this naturally gave fresh impetus to the 
unavailing search. But the best authorities are liable to err, even in the 
line of their special investigation. 

« I do not know," says Milton, « what I may seem to the world, but 
to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, 
and diverting myself in now and then finding a smooth pebble, or a 
prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undis- 
covered before me." 

All attempt to explore the route to Asia by the way of the White 
Sea and the Gulf of Obi was now abandoned for nearly a generation, 
and English enterprise was again directed to the Northwest Passao-e 
which they had given up in 1517. This change in the direction of ex- 
periment is the best evidence of the strong hold the problem had taken 
of the public mind. England had as yet no hope of becoming mistress 
of the ocean, and she wished to have a route to the East which would be 
less exposed to the attacks of an enemy's fleet. It is thus that a "Teat 
part of a nation's efforts and resouices are wasted in j)reparing to defend 
itself against the hostility of other sections of the human family. 





It was almost fifty years since the failure of Cabot, when Martin 
Frobisher succeeded in again turnihg the British mind toward the 
Northwest Passage. In 1576 Sir Humphrey Gilbert published his 
" Discourse to Prove a Passage by the Northwest to Cathaia." This 
was the year of Frobisher's first expedition, but he had been some years 
laboring to secure the acceptance of his views; and Gilbert's pamphlet 
shows the bent of public opinion rather than the source from which, as 
has sometimes been alleged, Frobisher received his inspiration. It is 
more probable that his fifteen years' pleading with the merchants and 
nobles of England for aid to enable him to attempt the execution 
of what he called " the only great thing left undone in the world," was 
the origin of the " Discourse." 

Frobisher had at length found a patron in Ambrose Dudley, Count 
of Warwick, and a favorite of Queen Elizabeth; and set sail on 
the 8th of June from Deptford, now a part of the city of 
London, with three vessels, two of which were only of twenty- 
five and twenty tons burden, the third a man-of-war; or as others say, 
with three small barks of 35, 30 and 10 tons. As he moved down the 
Thames he was graciously saluted by the queen from her palace at 
Greenwich. The smallest vessel went down in tlic first storm, as might 
have been expected, and all her crew perished. The second returned to 
England, while the largest, under the immediate command of Frobisher, 
safely reached the coasts of Greenland and Labrador. After coasting 
around the Savage and Resolution Islands, he entered the strait which 


,,; «.>-• .irf 


(Ki~;-«'.--'<<tasHi< ti,.,. 












he named after himself, and which is so called to this day, near 63° 
north. He was hindered hy the ice from extending his voyage farther, 
but before returning to England he went ashore and took possession of 
the country for Queen Elizabeth, and established some slight but friendly 
intcn-ourse with the natives, whose land he named Meta Incognita, that 
is, Unknown Boundary. 

Taking with him some dark, hard stgnes, the luster of which 
was erroneously attributed to the presence of gold, he set sail 
for England, where he was enthusiastically received. The report 
that Frobisher had brought back some gold-bearing stones intlamed the 
public mind; and there was no danger that he would be compelled to 
languish another fifteen years, waiting for patronage. A second expe- 
dition, with three vessels of goodly size, was soon m.-ule ready and set 
sail under his command in May, 1577. At the entrance of Frobisher 
Strait his passage was again blocked by the ice, but he took aboard 200 
tons of the " precious ore," and returned to England with the blissful 
consciousness of having made a j^rosperous voyage. In 1578 a fleet of 
fifteen vessels were placsd at his disposal, and he hastened away before 
Portugal or Spain should learn of the great " find" that was destined 
to dwarf the treasures they were draining from the East and West 

" The best laid schemes o'tnice and men 

Gang aft a-glee ; 
And leave us nauglit but grief and pain 

For promised joy." 

One of Frobisher's largest vessels was crushed by an iceberg at the 
entrance of the strait, and forty lives lost, while the whole fleet was 
strained and injured by the ice floe. It had been intended to establisii a 
military colony of 100 picked men, and to build a fort for the protection 
of the rich surface deposit that Frobisher had the good fortune to have 
discovered lying around loose on the shore of his famous Meta Incognita. 
On a survey of the situation it was found that a considerable part of the 
wood destined for the fort would l)e required to repair the injured ships; 
and as the eflTcctive force of men had been seriously diminished by the 




losses sustuincl, it was thouj^ht best to abandon tbat project 
NVc M,ay well inia,^Wne that tlie dreary, desolate and forbiddinj. aspect of 
the country, in a season of excessive severity, woul.l so chill the ardor of 
th..sewhoweretobcleft hchin.l, that they took counsel of their f ears preferred to retur.i with the lleet whiic they had the opportunity. 

I'oKTK.ur OF rKonisiiF.n. 
The dreams of Frobisher, and other san^^uine participators in his delus- 
.«.., ^vere rudely dissipated on his return to England, when it was fbnnd 



L^Bs ■' 

svflSfe. ■>.. ' .,A4,.,- .,f, 



cct of 
lor of 



that his tons of precious ore were so much worthless stone, hrought 3000 
miles to swell the rock piles of England. His last voyage had heen the 
.severest of the three, and the 500 tons hrought home, while they might 
have compensated for the sacrifices and trials, had they proved valuable, 
were hut an aggravation of the general sense of injury felt by the people 
of England at the bursting of Frobisher's bubble. Ten years later Fro- 
bisher redeemed his name from any obloquy that might otherwise have 
attached to it because of the great and almost ludicrous disproportion be- 
tween his sanguine anticipations and the meager results. In the contest 
with the Spanish Armada, in 15S8, he was captain of the Triumph, and 
did such signal service in the discomfiture of the arrogant ^Spaniards, that 
he was knighted for his bravery. All honor lo Sir Martin, and a genial 
smile for his quaint conceit that the finding of a Northwest Passage was 
the only thing of note left undone in the world. It was found a genera- 
tion ago, yet the array of notable things still undone, wonderfully sup- 
plemented as they have been by discoveries and inventions never dreamed 
of \^y honest Sir Martin, remains substantially undiminished, for " the 
thouo-hts of men are widened with the process of the suns." 


Sir Humphrey Gilbert, already referred to, received from the queen in 
1 5 78, a patent to make discoveries in North America, and to take pos- 
session of any part found unoccupied. In .579 he sailed for the New 
World with the purpose, as is generally supposed, of colonizing New- 
foundland, but tliis opinion Is based mainly on what is known of his sec- 
ond attempt. One of his vessels was lost, but he arrived safely in 
England. Four years later he resumed the undertaking under more en- 
couraging auspices, but with a more disastrous issue. " On the eve of 
his departure," says Bancroft, "he received from Queen Elizabeth a 
golden anchor guided by a lady, a token of the queen's regard." He 
sailed with ^\\c vessels and 360 men, and arriving in Newfoundland, dis- 
covered by Caliot in 1497, he proceeded to take formal possession in the 
queen's name, and issued leases to such of his company as desired them. 
But the spirit of colonization, with its hard work and slow results, was 

j^^^- ^ 




F//fS T E.Var. /S/f SL A \ 'E- T/iA DER. 49 

al)scnt.; and he s,,,,,, proceeded witli liis whole company to seaicli Cor 
silver mines. Soon the lar-est ship was wrecke.l throujrh the ne-li-ence 
of the crew, and .nosl of those on hoard were lost. Gilhert now" con- 
cluded to return to I':n-lan<l with what remained. On the voya-e a 
severe storm arose, an.l he was earnestly entreated to take refuj,'e in^he 
lar-er of the two remainin- vessels, from tiie little hark of^'oniy ten 
tons in which he had set out tor the coastin- voya-e. His reply has l-e- 
come historic, and has elicited much admiration for the calm intrepidity 
it <lisplays. It savors, however, fully as much of fatalism as of piety, 
and thoujrh his action may he re-arded as heroic in declinin- to ahand<m' 
his associates, the princii)le implied in what is itself a mere truism, is 
more poetic than praiseworthy. The scene is thus descrihed, with 'all 
proper accessories : 

" The general, sittin-ahaft with a hook in his haml, cried out to 
those in the 'Hind': ' We are as near to heaven l,y sea as by land.' 
That same night about twelve o'clock the lights of tiie ' Squirrel' sud- 
denly disappeared, and neither the vessel nor any of its crew were ever 
seen again." 


These three were famous English navigators of the period we have 
now reached, being contemporaries of Davis. But as they were chiefly 
engaged in combating Spanish domination oa the ocean, they hardly 
come within the scope of this work.- In prosecuting their paramount 
purpose of crippling Spain, they contributed some little to geographical 
knowledge, and on that account deserve passing mention. 

Sir John Hawkins has the bad distinction of being the first English 
slave-trader, and in pursuing that infamous business lie became fanriliar 
with the west coast of Africa. He suffered heavy loss in an encounter 
xyith a Spanish fleet in 1567, which closed his "commercial" career, 
but gave him the opportunity of winning distinction by his services 
against his personal and national enemies. He helped to rout the Span- 
ish Armada in 1588, and for the rest of his life, to 1595, his efforts were 
directed aguitist Spanish trade with the West Indies. His voyages in 

li-'^ktu^^ ■ 



those waters increasc-a the sum of knowledge in relation to that portion 

of the American coast. 

Sir Francis Drake was with his kinsman Hawkins, n, .567, when 
they were overwhelmed hy the Spanish fleet, and like hin. ha.l h.s na- 
tional antipathies influenced by the sense of personal loss. From 1570 
t„ his death, in :S9S, he did his utmost to spread havoc among the Span- 
Ish-American fleets, and was frequently successful. In 15?^ he gamed 
n view of the Pacific Ocean, from the Isthmus of Darien. In 157S ^^ 
s.uled through the Straits of Magellan and plundered the coasts of 
Chili and Peru. He sailed north to 48° in the hope of finding the 
Northwest Passage on the Pacific ^'de. Failing of that expedition, he 
returned to what is now San Francisco, which had been previously d.s- 
covered by the Spaniards. He took possession of the country for the 
Queen of England and named it New Albion, and spent several weeks m 
friendly intercourse with the natives. He gives this account of h>s re- 

''^u When we landed they appeared to be greatly astonished, aiul 
showed us great respect, thinking that we u ^re gods, and they 
received us with a great deal of reverence. As long as we remained on 
shore they came to see us, bringing us bunches of beautiful featners of 
all colors, and sometimes tobacco, which the Indians regard as an herb, 
.nd make great use of. Before approaching us "they would remani at 
some distance in a respectful attitude, then, making a long harangue 
accordinc. to their custom, they would lay down their bows and arrows, 
and approach, ofl-ering their presents. The first time they came they 
were accompanied by their women, who remained at some distance; but 
they commenced to scratch their cheeks and tear their flesh, makn.g 
sicns of lamentation, which was altogether inexplicable, but we after- 
ward learned that it was a form of sacrifice or offering which they made 

*° Teavinc. California, Drake crossed the Pacific to the Moluccas, 
and thence^-eturned to England by the Cape of Good Hope, 
manv points, most of them previously discovered, and reached home, 

Nov' 3d, 15S0, after an absence of nearly three years, being the 




first Rncjlish circumuavijrator of the jrlc.h.. 1 U afterward took an active 
l)art .„ tlie .lefeat of the Spanish Armada, an.l in the English rava.^es on 
Spanish commerce in the West In.lies. He was so engage.r with 
Ilawlcins in the last voya«>e of hoth in 1595. 

Thomas Cavendish, or Candish, was also en-aged mainly In con- 
flicts with the Spaniards on the sea; and in 1^87, with three small ships 
fitted out at his own expense, he wrenched ,nuch plunder from the 
Spanish settlements on the Pacific coast of South America. The towns 
of I'araca, Cincha, Pisca, Paita, an<l the island of Pmia, were made to 
disgorge over $3,000,000. At Aguatulio he seized a Spanish galleon 
or treasure-ship, with $133,000 and other booty on hoard. He then' 
proceeded to the Philippine Islands and returned home by tiie Cape of 
Good Hope, arriving at Plymouth, Sept. 9, 15S8. He was the 
second Englishman to make the voyage around the world. In 159, be 
set out again with five vessels, but failed i.i his efforts to replenish his 
wasted wealth, and died in 1593 before reaching the English coast He 
.s credited with having rendered some services to the sciences of geo-ra- 
piiyand hydrography. '^ 

,-iaaat( ''St* 



Notwrithst.iiiJiiij,' previous disappointments— so tenacious is the pub. 
lie inintl of an idea once ardently embraced— the London merchants 
could not entirely abandon the hope of finding,' a passa«re to Cathay. 
Onee, after a respite of seven years, several of them "cast iii their 
adventure" and dispatched Captain John Davis, in 1585, with two ships, 
the Sunshine and the Moonshine, of fifty and thirty-five tons respect- 
ively. Thou,i,'h the El Dorado of Labrailor had disappeared in the 
flumes of the assayer of Froliisher's ore, there was yet no invincible dem- 
onstration that a Northwest Passa;^e could not be found. They pn.bably 
felt, as men have often felt before and since, that if they hail not allowed 
themselves to be diverted from their oriijinal purpose by the <?old mania 
of 1576-S, the route to China mii,dit have been laid bare, and the wares 
of the East brou<,'ht to London by way of Labrador. It was worth an- 
other efTort; and so they sent out Davis, a navigator of unquestioned 
ability; and witli a refinement of thou<,'htful attention supposed to l)c for- 
cijrn to the minds of mercenary traders, they furnished him with a band 
of music— the number and Uiml of instruments not stated— " to cheer 
and recreate tlie spirits of the natives." Cunnin-,' traders, had they 
learned that to bewitch the natives with music was a good investmeni 
toward getting furs clieap? 

[uly the 20th, forty-three days out, Davis discovered what he 
named the Land of Desolation, which is a much more ajjpro- 
priate designation than the m.snomer Greenland, which it bears. In 
Gilbert Bay he traded advantageously with the natives, giving glass 
beads and other trinkets for valuable furs. A few days afterward, allured 



(loulUlcHs by the im.sic of the band so thou-lufully sent forward by 
their London nympathizcrs " to recreate their spirits," and of which the 
first lot of native traders had spread the fame ta. and near Ihron-h the 
camps of the Ksquiniaux, no less than thirty-seven canoes surronndcd 
tiie Enjrhsh ships. On the 6th of Anjrnst they came in sijjht of a hi-h 
mountain— the Snkkertoppen— and sailing' still northwest they reached 
land at 66^' 40' free from « the pesters of ice, and ankered in a very 
fair rode." Davis th<)n<,'ht he had reached the entrance to the sea wliich 
commnnicated with the Pacific Ocean. He explored the re<rion of Cum- 
berland Sound and the entrance to Frohisher and Hudson Straits, jriy. 
uij.' names to tlie Hay of Tatness, and to the Capes Dyer and VValsing. 
ham, and returned to Iviifrland. 

In i^SO Davis was put in command of four vessels — the two of the 
previous voyage, tofrcthei with the " Mermaid" and the "North Star." 
On June 39, when fifty-three days out, he again reached Greenland, 
at r^*'', whence he sent the "Sunshine" and "North Star" along the 
east coast to seek a passage farther north, while with the other two he 
proceeded to foilov/ ;ip his investigations of the previous year on the 
west side through the strait called after his name, advancing as far as 
69". The ice was found more massive than on the previous year. One 
great field was encountered in the middle of July which it took thirteen 
days to pass. The wind from olF the ice so froze the ropes and sails 
that his men became discouraged and pathetically admonished him that 
"l)y his <n-er-boldness he might cause their widows and fatherless chil- 
dren to give him bitter curses." He thereupon retraced his course, and 
after souk- further exploration of the region of Cnmberland Sound and 
a conflict with the Esquimaux, in which three of his men were killed 
.'iiid Iwo wounded, he returned to England, unsuccessful but hopc-fiil. 
He wrote to a friend that he had reduced the discovery of the Northwest 
Passage almost to a certainty. 

May 15, 15S7, he left London with the " Sunshine," "Elizabeth, " 
"Darlm.nith" and "Helen," and arrived on the coast of Greenland, 
June 15th. This expedition was fitted out on the express condition 
that the 

('Xi)eiises ^\m\\ 

lid be ligbtencf! liy fish 

ing wlienevt-r practicable. 



For this purpose two ol' their vessels were left near the scene of their 
former explorations, while with the others he pushed forward in Baffin's 
Bay as far as 73° 12', naminj^ the highest point he reached Sanderson's 
Hope, in honor of his chief patron — falling short of the latitude of Uper- 
navik about italf of one degree. Again stopped by the ice and forced to 
go back, he made some further explorations lower down. He passed 
the entrance to Hudson Tiay, and failing to find tlie two vessels at the 
appointed rendezvous, he returned to England whither they had pre- 
ceded him. Though unilaunted, and hopeful of final success, he could not 
secure an outfit for a fourth trial, and was compelled to relinquish the 
joroject. The results of his voyages were important geographically, 
but the English merchants were more affected by the financial aspects, 
as their ardor had been efTectually chilled by six successive disappoint- 
ments in twelve years. 


It is not as the founder of tiie Roanoke Colony, in America, nor as 
soldier in France or Ireland, n(M- yet as a favorite of the Queen of Eng- 
land, or member of the British Parliament, nor even as one of the most 
renowned and remarkable men of his age, that Sir Walter Raleigh 
finds a place in this history of great navigators. His two voyages to 
Guiana and persevering attempts to find the El Dorado of the age, the 
fabled paradise of gold-seekers, entitle him to a place in the list. 

On the 9th of February, 1595, Raleigh sailed from England with 
five ships and 100 scldicrs, besides seamen, officers, and some gentlemen 
volunteers, on his first voyage to Guiana. 

Arrivinsr at Fastaventura in the Canaries, he took on board fre:;h 
supplies of water, and after a stay of four days, proceeded to TenerifFe, 
where he was met by one of his captains. Waiting eight days in vain 
for the appearance of Captain Brereton, he sailed for Trinidad, where 
he met Whiddon, another of his captains. De Berreo, Spanish com- 
mander of 'frinidad, suspicious of the designs of Raleigh, forbade, under 
pain of death, all intercourse with the English. Raleigh landed under 
cover of night with 100 men, burned the town of St. Josci^h, and took 



Berreo, with some of the principal inhabitants, aboard his vessel as 
prisoners. He was here joined by two vessels of his squadron under 
command of Gifford and Knynin. They proceeded at once to the 
mouth of the Orinoco, and after passing through a number of islands at 


its mouth, ascended the river a distance of 400 miles. He failed to find 
Manoa, the city of gold and gems, unsurpassed in grandeur and magnifi- 
cence, and in comparison with which, the riches of Mexico and Peru 
dwindled into insignificance. All this and more, Raleigh learned from 
his Spanish captives and Indian visitors. To which they kindly added 



\.\ ■■> 

it costs but little to enlarge, when one draws on his imagination for 
facts — that there was no winter at Manoa, and no sickness ; that the soil 
was excellent ; that there was abundance of game ; and that the songs 
of birds filled the air with a perpetual concert. The emperor of Manoa 
was, however, a inighty potentate, and Raleigh with his handful of men 
would be foolhardy to attempt to cope with him. His people were high- 
ly civilized and jealous of their immense treasures — within their 
territory there existed a mountain of gold — and it would be rash to at- 
tack them. Raleigh felt otherwise, anu pressing his Indian informant 
to act as guide, he was astounded to learn from his lips that Manoa had 
been submerged and was then under water, as was no doubt the golden 
mountain. He might have added that it was the native version of the 
story of Atlantis, as paraphrased from what they had heard from the 
Spaniards or other visitors. Though Raleigh may not have believed all 
that he had been told, it is clear that these marvelous stories had their 
influence upon his imagination and judgment, for he says : 

"Some may perhaps think that I am enthusiastic and visionary; but 
why should I have undertaken this enterprise if I was not convinced 
that this land of Guiana was a country abounding in gold.'' Whiddon 
and Milechappe, our surgeon, have brought me many precious stones 
which resemble sapphires. I have shown these stones to many people 
in Orinoco, who have assured me that there is a mountain full of 

He returned to England before the rlose of the year i 595, but through 
all the honors as well as trials which intervened between his first and 
second voyages, he does not seem to have lost the hope of making rich 
discoveries on the Orinoco. Upon his release from the Tower in 1615, 
after a confinement of thirteen years, we find him at once busying him- 
self about an expedition to Guiana. He sailed in 161 7 with thirteen 
vessels and a considerable body of men, for the expectation of great re- 
sults ran high, and his personal jiopuhirity had been much increased 
through sympathy for his undeserved punishment. Arriving on the 
coast of Guiana, he dispatched an exploring party up the Orinoco. At 
St. Thomas they encountered the S Miiards and were driven back with 



loss, among others that of the eldcsi and favorite son of Raleigh Nor 
had they heard anything further of the sapphire or gold mountain, or of 
the cty and people of Manoa. On their return, Raleigh sailed for New- 
foundland to refit and revietual, purposing to renew the search, but his 
men ,m>tm.ed and insisted on sailing bac]< to England, where thev 
arnved in July, i6iS. Raleigh, broken in spirit and fortune, soon found 
that h.s English enemies were as unrelenting as his Spanish foes- and 
through their united eftorts consent to his execution on the old sentence 
was obtanied from the weakly compliant James I. 


Vv. *iS«Si*« ~^ 



This l>rHve, enterprising, and incUistrious people had scarcely suc- 
ceeded in establishing their independence, when they began to turn 
their attention to the question of the age— another route to India. In- 
deed, that independence was not yet acknowledged by their late masters, 
and the f.n-mal recognition of the right of the Netherlands to a place in 
the family of nations, was stubbornly resisted by their oppressors until 
1609. The narrow limits of the "Seven Provinces" naturally impelled 
them to seek a position among maritime Sta^'^s. And as the southern 
avenues to the coveted commerce of the East were controlled by Spain, 
they were driven, like the English, to search in northern latitudes for a 
route to China. Their first efforts were directed to the exploration of 
the Northeast Passage. And as a practical convenience toward the ex- 
ecution of that project, they proceeded to establish trading posts at Kola, 
in Lapland, and at Archangel, in Russia. The fLiilure of the Englisli to 
penetrate the Straits of Kara suggested the idea of going to the north of 
Nova Zembla, in which they were encouraged by the counsels and sug- 
gestions of Peter Plaucius, an adept in the nautical science of the day, as 
well as a distinguished theologian and astronomer. 


In 1594 the merchants of Amsterdam, Enkhuyscn and Middelburg 
fitted out a squadron of three vessels to institute a search for the North- 
east Passage. The command of these they gave to Cornelius Corne- 



li.oon, „,„« Y*n,„t.oon, and Will„,„ Daren,., „f whom .he last 
ha, become .he ,„„,. fan,„n,. They left .he Texel on Jnne 6.h, with 
Baren.. n, con„na„J of the .Merenry." Having reaehed the eoas. of 
Lap and, d,ey proceeded eastward toward Nova Zembia, where tirey 
■v. e, I arent. .eepin, to .he we. of that i„and, s.rnck toward 

" *• "r """^■- '-" ™"""-l i" "« » direction as before nntil 

^,ey reache, wl,at tirey called Vaigat, ( Win.Uhole) Strait, .sonth of 
K S ra, ro,„ wlJcl, it is separated by Vaiga.,, Island. I. was .his 
K..,a Stn„. that the English had found impassable by reason of the ice 
gorge wh,eh they there encountered. The Dutch, more fortu„.ate in 
hnv,„g gone farther south, an.i i„ experiencing a more favorable season, 
nrade then- way througl,, though with .he u.most difficulty 

Arr, v„,g at the cas.ern entrance of the strait, they saw to their great de- 

TL ^r'r/T;'" -' "'"^ °P^" -^ *=>=hing to the horizon, now known 
as the Culf of Kara. Fin.ling, too, .hat the land to their right receded 
.apK ly to the soutlreast, they felt triumphant. They had solve.l the 
great problen,; the prouronlory they had jus. doubled coul.l be no 
o her than the famous Cape Tabis of Pliny, and but four hundred miles 
of sea separated them from Canton, in China. They did not know 
that hey were d.stant from tl,e northeastern point of Asia ,20= or 
one-thn-d of the whole circumference of the globe. Entirely'hed 
ot the nnmense value of .heir discovery, they hastened back full of 
pa.not,c enthusiasm for the fame and prom of their youMg country, to 
ena le the government to take proper measures for seeur' g the fruits 
of .hen- pnx ...ous success. Meanwhile Harent. had .loubled Cape 
Nassau .and, July ,oth, encountered great fields of ice, through which 
e ought h,s arduous way until he reached Orange Isla^ls at the 

the lattu les of several points with rare precsion for those days, and 
proceede.1 to make the homeward voyage. On his way he me hi! 

f»™er companions on the coast of Lapland d the disguLd Ba „' the ex„ Bran, and Cornelius, rcurned togetlJto the Tell ' 
lite merchants of Rof.erdam now combined wi,h those of 'h 
'h.-ee cities interested in the former venture, and together' they fi,.U 


!l ) 



out six vessels for :i second voyaj^'e, laden with wares for the Eastern 
market. This scjuadron was placed under the supreme command of 
James Van IleemskerUe, with Barentz as chief pilot. To it was added 
a yacht, the sole duty of which was to serve as a dispatch boat to 
bring back the tidin<,rs that the fleet had safely entered the Gulf of 
Kara. But merchants and voyagers were doomed to disappointment. 
The Vaigats Strait was found impassable, being blocked l)y huge 
masses of ice which defied the continued efforts of the determined mar- 
iners. Findnig that the impossible would no^ yield to their wishes or 
exertions, they sadly retraced their course, and arrived in the Texel, 
Sept. iS, 1595, with feelings quite different from their predecessors' of 

the previous year. 

Yet another trial was decided upon, and May 16, 1596, two vessels 
were sent out under command of Heemskerke and John Cornelizoon 
Rijp or Ryp, with Barentz again as pilot, and Gerrit de Veer, who 
became the historian of the voyage, as mate. Passing the Shetland and 
Faroe Islands, they encountered ice on the 5th of June before reaching 
Bear Island, where they landed on the nth, and which they so named 
because there they had found and killed a bear. On the 19th they discovered 
the land which they named Spitzbergen, and which they supposed was 
a part of Greenland. They explored the west coast for a considerable 
distance to the nc^rth, but were compelled by the ice to fall back on Bear 
Island. Here the vessels separateil, Heemskerke and Barentz slowly 
making their way through the ice toward Nova Zembla, having heard 
that from the highest points of Orange Island the open sea had been 
seen to tlie southeast. 

On tlie i6thof July they readied the west coast of Nova Zembla, 
then known to western navigators as Willoughby's Island. Pro- 
ceeding northward they douliled Cape Nassau on the 6th of August, 
and the Orange Islands some days later. Having reached the 
same latitude previously attained by Barentz in his first voyage, they were 
compelled by the ice to turn south on tlie eastern coast, where they soon 
became ice-locked in a small harbor, latitude 75^' 4/?'' >" which they had 
taken refuge. " 'I he cakes of ice, " says De Veer, " began to pile up 


11 ;.,..SB**^^' 



around the ship on all sides, and pressed against it so closely, that it com- 
menced to crack and give way, and it seemed as if the vessel would 
break into a thousand pieces ; and when the ice moved it pushetl 
and rais-d the ship as if some huge machine were elevating it in 

the air." 

Giving tip all hope of extracting themselves from the ice, they pro- 
ceeded to effect a landing, and transport provisions on shore for a 
winter's sojourn in that inhospitable region. A few days later some 
of the men discovered a river some nine miles in the interior, on which 
they found floating a considerable quantity of wood. They also found 
tracks of the bear and the saiga, a species of antelope. A quantity of 
driftwood, probably from Siberia, was found on the shore, and they were 
enabled to build a warm cabin, large enough to hold them all, besides 
having abundant firewood, « for all that cold winter, which we knew," 
says De Veer, " would fall out to be extremely bitter." They were sev- 
enteen in number, and under wise, careful and competent leadership. 

By the 33d of September the ground had frozen so hard that they could 
not dig a grave for their deceased comrade, the carpenter, who, though 
he would have been specially useful in the construction of their winter 
quarters, was the first to succumb to the rigor of the climate. They 
buried him in a cleft in the rocks. On the 2d of October their house was 
completed, some of the ship's furniture being used in its construction. 
As they grew apprehensive thi-.t the vessel would soon go to pieces, they 
began to sleep ashore on the 1 3th of October; and soon after they 
carri^-d ashore everything that could be of use to them. They began 
immediately to reduce the daily rations, fearing their supplies would not 
hold out. A chimney was erected reaching to the top of the house, and 
a place was reserved near the central fire-place for a sick comrade. On 
broad shelves, or bunks around the walls, they placed their beds, and 
from a large cask they extemporized a bath tub, the surgeon insisting on 
cleanliness as absolutely necessary to the preservation of health. The 
sun soon disappeared entirely, and they had fairly entered on the long 
and dreary winter. " We looked pitifully one upon the other," says Dc 
Veer," being in great fear that if the extremity of cold grew to be more 



and more, we should all die there of cold, for that what fire soever we 
made, would not warm us." 

A Dutch clock transferrcl from the ship helpe<l to remind them of 
honie, as well as to mark the slow march of time. The house ^vas soon 
covered with snow several feet de. p, and to get out thev had to ttuu'.el a 
pathway. During one period of adverse winds for four .lays the fire 
would not burn, and the ice grew two hiches thick on the sides of their 
bunks, while their clothes were thickly covered with frost. In a short 
time they began to be surrounded by bears and foxes, who threatened to 
tear the roof ofl^ the house; and the foxes learned to climb down the 
chimney. They trapped several of these, and shot some bears, the skins 
of both proving a great help in warding o{^ the intense cold. They 
used the flesh of the foxes for food, but through some unaccountable 
prejmhce they failed to utilize the more valuable bear's-meat, which 
would have been a great preventive of the scurvy, from which they 

Early in December a violent storm arose, blowing from the northeast 
and producing intense cold, when they made a great fire of coal, which 
they brought from the vessel. Closing every crevice, and eJen the 
chimney, to retain the genial warmth, they soon began to co,«plain of 
dizziness, whereupon one ran to open the door and another the chimney 
when they recovered. Notwithstanding their constant privations, and' 
often intense sufferings in exceptional weather, they labored to maintain 
a cheerful spirit. On January the 5th (1597), the eve of Twelfth NLWit 
a feast long celebrated throughout all parts of Europe, they propose,? t,! 
have a little merriment suitable to the occasion. « We prayed our 
Master," says De Veer, "that we might be merry, and said that we 
were content to spend some of the wine that night which we ha.i spared 
and which was our share (half a pint) every second day, and whereof for 
certain days we had not drunk. And so that night wc made merry, and 
drew lots for king. And thereof we had two pounds of meal, whereof 
we made pancakes with oil, and every man had a white buiscuit, which 
we sopt in the wine. And so supposing that we were in our own coun- 
try, and amongst our, it comforted us as well as if we liad made 




a ^rrcat banquet in our own house. And we also made trinkets, and our 
gunner was ma<le kinj? of Novaya Zenilya, which is at least 800 miles 
lonjj, and lyeth oetwecn two seas." 

lanui.ry 34th the sun reappeared, and (hou<rh they lost, the same 
day, one ..f their number who had been ill all winter, their ho,)es rose 
hi-her; and on the 2Sth, the .lay bein- fine, they played a game of ball 
in'the bracing northern air. Ivuly in March the ice began to move, but 
they c.uhl not yet leave thc-ir <,narters. April 15th they visited the 
ship, wiiich they found in bottc-r condition than they had anticipated. 
May 1st the men thought they might leave, but the more experienced 
Barenlz declared they would have to wait a month, as the vessel could 
not he liberated sooner; and that it was doubtful whether she would be 
found seaworthy. In the event of her proving unsafe he promised 
that they would rig out the two boats for the liomeward voyage. On 
the 20th, becoming satisfied that the ship must be abandcmed, they began 
with a will to get the boats in readiness. It was, however, the middle 
of June before they took leave of their late residence, and, doubtless not 
without misgivin-s, trusted themselves to tlieir fVail crafts for so long a 
voyage liarcntz inclosed a record of their piishap in a gun barrel, 
which he fastened to the chimney, that shoulil a search party be sent, 
they miglit learn their fate. They proceeded by the way they had come 
and in a short time reached Orange Island. 

In the interval, and when only four days out, the boats got hemmed in 
hy enormous blocks of ice, and giving themselves up for lost, they silently 
took leave of each other. Hut I)e Veer, with the instinct of self-preserva- 
tion, taking the end of a strong rope in bis hand, clambered from block to 
block initil lie reached a large Hoc, on which they sut-ceeded in getting first 
tiie sick, then the stores, and finally the two boats safely landed— a feat often 
performed since, but for those days of inexperience it can be regarded as 
nothing less than a liriliiant stn^ke of genius. The boats had been badly 
nipped, and they repaired them as well as they could on the ice floe. He-; 
it was that Barentz, and one of the sailors, Nicholas Andrien, died. On 
the 3oth of June, while floating northward with the ice, on the west coast 
of Nova Zembla, the worthy pilot closed the voyage of his life, <lying 

niRIM. OF n ARE NT/.. 


vcrv unex,H-ctc.<lly t., th. ,„cn, th<n.j,l, apparctly not to hi.nsolf. ^< The 
death ..f Willia.n Uarent. .„acK- us all fed very sa<I, seein,. that he wa. 
our j,nmlc and pilot, and one in vvho.n we had every c.mfidenee 
Hut we could not resist the will of God, a,.d this thoujfht ,nade us cahu," 
says the faithful chronicler. 

After conunittinjr the reniains of Uarenl. to ,he deep, an.l fre 
qnently baling, their repaired boats ,o keep then, fron, sinkin-s .1k-v 
succeeded in reaching. Cape Nassau. Haulinj, the larj;er boat ashorl- 
for repau-s, she was upset, and they lost nearly ..11 their provisions and 
came very near losin;^ their lives. On the igth of fuly they a-^in put 
to sea, and on the 28th they had reached the southern poin^ of the 
island. In the ope.i sea beyond the boats became separated in a fo.. 
and d.d n<,t again meet until they reached Cape Kanine, at the entrance 
to the White Sea. Meanwhile, their scanty stores had been supple- 
mented from time to time l)y the kindness of Russian fishermen with 
whom they chanced to fall in. This, with rigid self-denial in the use 
of what remained of their original stock, prevented them from dyin-^ 
of starvation. They now learned that at Kola they would find three 
vessels of their country getting ready to return to Holland. 

Sending one of their number across the gulf with a Lapp guide, he re- 
turned in three days with a letter signed John C. Rijp, the commander 
of the second ship, from which they had become separated thirteen 
months before. Sept. 30, Rijp followed with a boat-load of provisions, 
and conveyed his countrymen to Kola, and thence to Amsterdam' 
They had been 104 days in performing the trip from their winter 
quarters to Cape Kanine. Four of the seventeen had died; the 
thu-teen survivors were welcomed home with much enthusiasm, and 
entertamed at the expense of the city until they had received the money 
that was due them. Ten years later, in 1607, Heemskerke received 
the co>pmand of a flc. ^ of twenty-six vessels, and lost his life in a naval 
battle with the Spaniards. 


On the .d of July, 1598, Oliver Van Noort, a young but 
experienced navigator, left Amsterdam with two ships, two yachts and 


248 men. The second in command win James Claaz d'Ulpenda, and 
nn able Enj,'lish seaman named Melis, was pilot. The Northwest Pas- 
sa^'e had been sou^'ht in va'n by the En^'Hsh, and the Northeast one 
by both En},'lish and Dutch, with substantially the same result. For, 
althoujjh a route had been discovered, it proved impracticable or uncer- 
tain on .'iccount of the ice blockade to which it was subject. It became 
necessary then to abandon all hope of share in the profitable traffic 
with the East, or else break up the Spanish monopoly of the southern 
route by the Cape of Good Hope. 

The latter alternative was chosen, and Van Noort, with his little 
band of 248 men, umlertook to fight his way to the Spice Islands, if he 
could not succeed in eludinnf the watchfulness of his enemies. Knowing 
that the route by the Straits of Magellan was the least frequented by 
the Spaniards, he determined on pursuing that course. After touching 
at Gorcc, they landed on Prince's Island, on the Gulf of Guinea, where 
they lost twenty-one men including the pilot and a brother of Van 
Noort, at the hands of the Portuguese. They discovered Annobon 
Island on Jan. 5, 1 599, and sailed thence for the coast of Brazil. Driven 
off by the hostile Portuguese and natives with the loss of seven men, 
they reac bed a small island off the coast, where they found fresh pro- 
visions and water, of which they were much in need. The admiral's ship 
was injured by being driver on the rocky coast of the Island of Santa 
Clara, and one of the yachts was abandoned for want of men. Noort 
also lost one of his captains, who was buried at Port Desire. Here they 
were attacked by the Patagonians, losing some men, but wreaking a ter- 
rible revenge; thry annihilated the whole tribe. This was but a few 
days before the close of the year 1599. Some weeks later they lost one 
of the two larger vessels in a storm, and the squadron was reduced to 
the flag-ship and one yacht. 

But now their fortunes began to mend. They were kindly received by 
the natives of some islands on the Pacific coast which they had reached 
through the Straits of Magellan. The rich settlen^ents of the Spaniards in 
Chili and Peru afforded opportunities for plunder of which Noort and his 
men were not slow to avail themselves. In those days English and Dutch 


.. »aM ,„ Sp„„l„„N „„,, p,„,,„,,„,,,, „„„ ,_,.^,^^_^^,_.^^ 

on ,,o„ .„,„ba.a„., „„,, .h.> ,„„,„„,,., ,„,,_ „„^^,, ^,,^,_j J^" 

.r„ .„„„„,. .hrou,,,,,,,, ,hc. civilize., wor,.,. Thoir „„„ .,,. .„„, „ 
.he .s„,h.e,e p,,npHo„ of i„,„bordi„atio„ ,. ,,i,e„„,c.„., „„,. „,;,j 

Ik „..,».» abamloncl them „„ desert Uia,,,!,, ,„.- ,„„., |„„„„„, ,„. ^,|, 
the penal.,.. kn„„n ,o that bl„,„ly pcri,«i_p„e >hem to death. 

I. w„, ab.,ue .he , „f S.p,e,„be,-, ,6o„, „hcn ,hey bore away 

pn,e Wand, OC ,,, where .h.y .,.„k vc.eanee „:, .he ,.„„„,J1 
for .he ,,a„, .er of tbeh- comrade. ,.„. .hey were swayed ,„„r ', 
sp,r,. o. eruehy an.l rapaei.y .ha„ of re.ribu.ion for injuries receive,! „ 
even. be Chinese ,,„.» which. hey eneo„n.ered in .hL eas.: . 

sha,ed ,he ,an,e ,a,e a, .bo ship, and see.le^ents „f .heir wes.ern ene. 

";7; ""^ ^' '•''' ""•' Po^-K'-e, In .ru,h, .be au.horize,! naval force, 

o .hose day, were bu. be,.er .ban freeboo.ers and pira.e,, and 
often ,e below .he s.andard of ,|,e „„„„wed bnccaneer,. Finally . e 
D.,.ch lell n, wi.b .wo Spanish ships which ,ave .be. ba..le. .,f ,1 i 
en,a,e,nen. .bey los. „ve n,e„ ,<i,led, and .wen.y.five .akcn prisoner,; 
and abo,.. a, many woun.lcl. They also los. one of .heir ships; bu. .he 
Spaniard, 1„,. .wo b„„dre<: n,e„, and .heir flas-sbip .o„U Hre and wa, 
dcroyed Noor., now in con,n,and of only a ,in,de vessel, had .be pecu- 
har Ro,.l forU,ne .o fall in with a rich pri.e, a vessel of .he enemy laden 
w,.h a valuable cargo of spices which be cap.ured in .he, o£ Bor- 
neo. He n.ade all has.e .o reach home by the Cape of Good Hope, and 
.-.mved a. Ro.,crdan,. An,. .6, ,&,, after a vova.e of over jhree 
years. He was .he firs, of his coun.ry .o circumnavigate .he world ; and 
h,slas.p,eceofs„cces, reimburse.1 hi. pa.rons for .be on.l.ay incurred. 
Bu. wha. was of more impor.ance he had shown his coun.rymen .ha. 
.he Spaniards were no. more invincible on .be ocean .ban .hev had 

.shed .he follow„,g year, and attracted so much attention that it was 
ranslated n,.o several languages. Van Noort survived his return at 
least ten years, beinj. on record as late as .6i i. 



But, although this famous voyage attracted the attention of the world, 
and won great ere lit for Van Noort among his countrymen for the skill 
and coura.cre he had displaycii, it was of little commercial advantage. 
Almost simultaneously with Van Noort's expedition, a squadron of five 
sliips, fitted out mainly at the expense of the merchant Verhagen, left 
Rotterdam under the command of James Mahu, with the famous Eng- 
lishman, William Adams, as pilot, and Sehaldde Weert as captain of one 
of the vessels. They lingered too long on the African coast, losing 
Mahu and some of the crews. Reaching the Straits of Magellan they 
were detained therein five months by adverse winds, and suflfered much 
from scarcity of provisions, and the severity of the climate. They were 
reduced to the necessity of eating raw herbs and shell-fish, which pro- 
duced disease, and added to their misery. Some of the ships finally 
effected a passage into the Pacific, but were dispersed in a storm. Adams 
succeeded in reaching Japan in one of these vessels, with only five men 
able to work on their arrival. His fortune, and that of his companions 
in Japan, possesses much interest, but is foreign to the scope of this 
work. Sebald de Weert, detained in the strait four months longer, 
where, too. Van Noort passed him by without rendering any assistance, 
finally effected his escape into the Atlantic, and discovered the islands 
now known as the Falkland, but which he named the Sebaldine. After 
a tedious voyage homeward he reached the Meuse some time in the year 
1600, with only thirty-five men out of a crew of one hundred and rive. 
This'expedition, or the part of it which arrived in Japan, led to the sup- 
planting of the Portuguese by the Dutch in the lucrative trade with that 

I i 

^'ik ,jj^ i 

le world, 
the skill 
1 of five 
Lgen, left 
)us Eng- 
in of one 
it, losing 
Han they 
•ed much 
ley were 
lich pro- 
)s finally 
I. Adams 

five men 
)e of this 
s longer, 
le islands 
e. After 
1 the year 

and rive. 
:) the sup- 
with that 



« up! tcp! let us a voyage take! 
Why sit we here at ease ? 
Find its a vessel tight and strongs 

Bound for the northern seas. 
There shall we see the fierce white bear; 

The sleepy seals aground., 
And the spouting whales that to and fro 
Sail with a dreary soundP 






P.KST .»c™ VOVAOH »„.„ -K..C._..., ,,,., ,,.„„,,,_ 
HOPEW,E._.„ACKE„ .V S. V,.„ES -VOV.OES OK H„„sO. _ 

I.. .60. ,l,e English r=,«w.d Aeir attempts .„ fl„a ,,, j,„,,„^^^, 
Passage, .he search fc- which had been abandoned afte,- ,he las. voyag 
of Dav.s ,n ,587. Cap..„.h was intrusted wi.h .he new ve!- 
ure Pass.„g .hrongh Hudson's S.rai., he reached .he en.rance .0 Hud- 
.ons B y w,thou.; but was d.iven back by „ violcn. s.onn and 
returned wt.hou. achieving any definite result. 

Distinctively Arctic vovao-pn nnrlw,- v. \- i. 
fir,,v„ re ^"^^ ""''=' English auspices began wi.h the 

fi s. oyage o. Steven Benne., in ,603. He sailed wi.h one small ves- 
se^ .he .Gotlspecd ," fi.ted out a. .he expense of. the worshipful Fran s 
atKU ,7^*7'''- -S-Wch he was iustruc.ed to' dispose o 
a. Kola the Dutch post in the north of Lapland. After sellin. 
his goods he was to proceed to the Arctic Ocean on a voyage of discov! 
ery. Bennet complied with his instructions in both particnirars. On J, 
voyage fronr Kola northward he rediscovered the island which Z 
rent, had discovered nine years before, and called Beat Island. Here 
Benne. fotn,d foxes, but „o inhabitants, and named the islan.l Cherry 
Island. He determined its latitude .0 be 74" 30'. He „,..,de a second 
voyage thither in ,604, and found it covered with wild fowl and ,ea 
horses or walruses. The teeth of the la.tei were a article of 
commerce and Bennefs crew endeavored to secure a return cargo of 
hem They crnelly blinded the animals with small shot, and then at- 
emp.ed .0 kill .hem with ha.che.s. Bu. .heir cruel.y did no. av 1 
h m much, for out of a thousand which .hey maimed, .hey killed only 
fifteen. In ,605, being be,.er equipped, they succeeded no. only in .^e.- 




ting a carjjo of teeth, but in boilinj,' the blubber into oil. In 1606, Ben- 
net collected in a iortnight three hofrsheads of teeth and twenty-two bar- 
rels of oil. In 1608, he was again on Cherry Island, and in seven hours 
he and his companions killed 1,000 walruses. A couple were brought 
alive to England, and the male was exhibited at court, "where the king 
and many honorable personages beheld it with admiration for the 
strangeness of the same, the like whereof had never before been seen in 
England. Not long after it fell sick and died. As the beast in shape is 
very strange, so it is of strange docility, and apt to be taught, as by good 
experience we often proved." 

The weather at Cherry Island at the end of June, was reported to be 
calm and clear, and about as warm as in England at the same time of 
year. Three lead mines were discovered; and in 1609 five English ships 
were there at one time, with crews numbering 182 men, all loading with 
furs, oil and walrus teeth. 

Meanwhile, John Knight had been sent out by the Muscovy Com- 
pany, April 18, 1606, in command of the " Hopewell" of 40 tons, to 
resume the search for the Northwes^Passage. He had previously com- 
manded a Danish vessel on a voyage to Greenland, and was a brave 
and experienced seaman. Detained for a fortnight in Pentland Firth, 
he struck across the Atlantic on a due west course. May 12, and about 
the middle of June found himself on tlie coast of Labrador. Here he 
encountered stormy weather, with a north wind which brought down 
upon him huge masses of ice. The ship was soon surrounded with it, 
and her rudder was carried away. Her hull also had been severely 
nipped, and Capt. Knight was fain to take refuge in the first inlet, to 
overhaul his ship and examine the stores and provisions. 

His first chance not proving satisfactory, he crossed the inlet on the 
next day, the 26th of June, with his brother and one of the crew. They 
were seen to ascend a small hill not far from the shore, and before passing 
to the other side they waved their hats as a parting salutation. Disappear- 
m-.r on the other side, the boatmen waited on the shore for their return. 
The day wore on, the sun went down, and evening darkened into night 
without bringing any sign of their return. The men fired ofl' their 




muskets, slKHitcd long and loudly, and blew their trumpets, but no 
answer came. Disheartened and alarmed they pullai back to the ship 
with the sad news that the commander and his companions were doubt- 
less lost. To add to their mishap the night grew excessively cold, and 
ail their efforts to reach the shore next morning proved unavailing. Ice 
hemmed them in on every side, and despite their anxiety to go to the 
relief of the missing, the most sanguine were compelled to yield to the 
impossible, and leave the absent to their own resources. After two days 
of this painful uncertainty, rendered doubly dreary by their apprehen- 
sions for the safety of their friends, the knowledge of their fatn came 
to them. 

On the night of June 28 they were themselves attacked by the 
savages, to the number of perhaps fifty, who appeared determined 
to make them share the same fate. They were only eight, but they 
made up their minds, if die they must, to sell their lives dearly. With 
a large mastiff, the companion of their voyage, in front, they attacked 
the fierce savages, and soon dispersed them. The volley of musketry 
created havoc in their ranks as well as a superstitious dread, and they 
fled to their canoes and made off in hot haste. They got entangled in 
the ice-floe, and were long in getting beyond range of the muskets, and 
as volley after -volley from the weapons of the besieged struck them, 
cries, groans and lamentations rent the .lir, and aade the night hideous. 
They were small of stature, of a tawny color, and slightly built, with lit- 
tle or no beard, and flat noses. Dreading the return of the savages in 
increased numbers, the Englishmen preferred to trust their lives to the 
ice-covered sea in their disabled ship rather than take tlie chances of a 
second onslaught from the barbarous savages, whom they suspected of 
adding cannibalism to their other atrocities. Without a rudder, and 
kept constantly at the pumps for three weeks, they reached the island 
of Fogo on the northeast coast of Newfoundland, July 23, aided 
chiefly by the current and their exertions at the oars. Here they were 
assisted by the'fishermen, and after a delay of four weeks spent in repair- 
ing the vessel, they set sail for England, where they arrived in safety 
on the 34th of September of the same year. 

I! iO*** ^ 





In 1607 Henry Hudson sailed from England in command of one 
small vessel with ten sailors, furnished by some merchants of London, to 
search once more for a route to China. This time it was neither the 
Northwest nor Northeast Passage that was to be sought, but an entirely 
new route by the North Pole. This was therefore the first 
VOYAGE, properly so called; and, like the preceding ones by the other 
routes, was projected in the interests of commerce. The plan had been 
suggested eighty years before by Robert Thorne, who may therefore be 

regarded as the first visionary 
who indulged in uttered dreams 
of reaching the Pole. It remained 
in abeyance while repeated efforts 
were put forth to find the desired 
rente through more southern and 
less forbidding waters. Whether 
now revived by Hudson or his 
patrons is not known, but he was 
intrusted willi its execution. He 
soon reached latitude 73^ on tlie 
east c(jast of Greenland, antl pro- 
ceeded thence to the nortliern 
point of vSpitzbergen, in latitude So°. Despite his most strenuous efforts 
to ])ush forward to the Pole, he could only reach Si'^ 30', his further pas- 
sage being blocked by the ice. He returned to England, with the con- 
viction, often shared by many since his time, that the passage to the Pole 
was forever made impassable l\v the ice. 

In 1 60S he made a second voyage, followed by Barentz — an internie- 
diiite route between what might be called the North Passage of the pre- 
ceding year, and the Northeast Passage by the Straits -of Vaigats. He 
reached Nova Zembla and went as high as 72" 25', but was again driven 
back by the ice. In 1609, in the service of the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, he tried the Northeast Passage and was again baffled by liie ice. 



He gave up all hope that that route could ever be made available for the 
purposes of commerce, and proceeded at once in the opposite direction, 
aiming to make Davis' Strait and search for the Northwest Passage' 
Striking the western continent in the region of Nova Scotia, he sailed to 


the south and explored the coast to Chesapeake Bay, hoping perhaps to 
find a West Passage to the Pacific. Retracing his course, he had the 
good fortune to discover the island of Manhattan, now New York, and 
the important river which now bears his name. He explored the Hud- 




I '!f 

son almost to the site of the present city of Albany, and took possession 
of the country in the name of the Netherlands. 


Almost simultaneously with Hudson's lirsl voyajife of discovery to 
Arctic seas, in 1607, under tlie auspices of the Muscovy Company, two 
voyages of colonization to the coasts of the North American continent, 
were undertaken at tlie expense of two other English companies, the 
London and the Plymouth, May 13, 1607, twelve days after the depart- 
ure of Hudson, a squadron of three vessels, under the command of 
Christopher Newport, was sent out to Virginia. There were 105 col- 
onists; and these founded ainid great suffering and despite much disun- 
ion, the first permanent English settlement in America, at Jamestown. 
Among them were Bartholomew Gosnold, who had sought to establish 
a colony, in 1602, in the vicinity of Cape Cod, but failed; and John 
Smith, who explored Virginia ami Chesapeake Bay, and the coast of 
New England, some years later, in 1614, 

The second English colony of the year 1607 was the Kennebec col- 
ony, on the coast of Maine, which was sent out under the command of 
George Popham, three months later, in August. They were forty-nine 
in number, and failing to find the mines, which were the primary object 
of their venture, they returned to England in 1608. The French also 
had made several voyages of colonization, and in 160S founded Quebec. 
But we cannot turn aside to record the numerous voyages of this sort 
that soon became an almost everyday occurrence; and we must return to 
our subject. On the 17th of April, 1 610, Hudson left London for his 
last voyage. His ship was named the Discovery, of but fifty-five tons 
burden, and provisioned for only six months. Li all but the skill, cour- 
age and experience of Hudson, this expedition lacked the chief elements 
of success. It was specially unfortunate in the crew selected who, as the 
sequel showed, were utterly unworthy of their brave commander. 
On the I St of May they lef» Harwich on the southern coast of 
England, and sailed for the Shetland and Faroe Islands. Leaving 
these behind, they sighted Iceland on the nth, and bein<'- en- 



velopcd in a fog, and in clanger of running ..n the rocks, they cast 

When tiie fog lifted they proceeded along the .oast until they 
reached VVestnianna Islands. They saw the Jokull, che Snaefell 
and grandest of all, Hccla, tlie n..ted volcano, in the blaze of an' 
eruption, and landing farther o,., tiiey bathed in one of the outflows 
ot the great geyser, which they found hot enough to boil a fowl 
Leaving Iceland, tiiey reached the east coast of Greenland in foi„- 
days, and found it lined with a barrier of ice. " This <lay," says 
Hudson, "we saw Greenland perfectly, over the ice; and this night 
the sun went down due north, and rose north-northeast, so plvin- the fifth 
day, we were in 65"." Turning Cape Farewell, and running toward 
DaN-s' Strait, they encountered a large number of whales in the vicinity 
of Cape Desolation. They now proceeded west-northwest, and at the 
end of June discovered Resolution Island. Proceeding through the strait 
that bears his name, and driven by turns to all the points of Ihe compass 
to escape the icebergs, Hudson discovered and named several islands and 
capes. Sailing around, buffeted by storms and ice floe, and threatened 
with destruction from icebergs which were never out of sight, and land- 
ing occasionally on an island or promontory, he readied the entrance to 
the great bay that was destinCd-with the river and strait previously 
d,scovered-to preserve his name. This sea, as it proved to b., he called 
Michaelmas Bay, because discovered on the feast of St. Michael, the 
39th of September. It has since been .lamed Hudson, in his honor 
With equal modesty he had called this discovery of the previous year 
the great North River, through which he had vainly hoped to reach' the 
Pacific, the River of the Mountains. 

Beclouded by fogs, stranded on shoals, <h- lodged on shelving rocks, the 
ship made slow progress, and was fast becoming leaky and unsafe. The 
nights were long and cold, and the ground was covered with snow. Giv- 
nig up all intention of retracing his course, doubtless in the hope of find- 
nig the coveted No-thwest Passage in the spring, Hudson now prepared 
to go mto winter quarters. November first thev found a suitable 
place to haul the vessel ashore, and by the tenth they we-e frozen in 




On examination, the provisions were found so nearly exhausted, notwith- 
standing the occasioita! .light assistance derived from huiitin--, that it be- 
c:imc necessary to j it the men on short rations. A reward for every ad- 
dition to their supplies was offered bv the commander in the hope of stim- 
ulatinji^ the men to extraordinar\ ux-ruons in hunting. The alternative 
of making an effort to escape before iliey had been compietf^ly hemmed 
in seems to have been the choice of the greater portion of his crew, and 
his adverse decision irritated them. 

About the middle of November the gunner died, and the mal- 
contents attnl)utcd his untimely end to the st verity of the commander. 
Being filled with the sublime anticipation that in this broad, expand(.d sea, 
was to be found the outlet so long desired and so patiently sought ff)r more 
than a century by the chief navigators of Europe, may have rendered Hud- 
son somewhat insensible to the more commonplace aspirations of his su- 
bordinates, who in the midst of such dreary surroundings could not help 
longing for the sight of home. And they felt that if there was now but 
little chance of their ever enjoying that gratification, it was all due to the 
perverse obstinacy of their commander. f hey might ere this have been 
safely under cover of their respective roofs in Merrie England, instead of 
facing death by starvation on the dreary shores of this inhospitable land, had 
he yielded to their suggestions four months earlic, 

When they had passed through Hudson Strait and entered the 
great sea in August, most of them believed that the coveted passage 
and South Sea had alike been found. Three months were wasted, 
as they felt, in explorations which should have been left for the next 
season's work, and the six months for which they had undertaken 
service would have expired by the time tlicy arrived in England. 
The reasoning was specious, but defective. It ignored the funda- 
mental principle of associated action. Executive authority may rightly 
be counseled or even remonstrated with, but mr-tnot be contravened 
under penalty of disaster. The smoldering fires of discontent burned 
secretly through the winter, ready at any moment to break -nto 
inextinguishable flame by the fanning of any fresh breeze of disaf- 
fection which might arise. Meanwhile, they had been able to subsist 





fa.rl,- well on .hdr »ca„, ..ore, and ,hc proceed, oi ehoir hunting. They 
k.lcd .nunnbero, wild fowU-.^ do^en of •• white p„,,ridgcs"alo„ei 
and wctc thei,. „i„d, „„. dise.,,.- hy the taint „£ ,n„,i„y ,hey would 

ground. ,... h. acfon. Indeed, it i, h.^hly probable that he hatl hoped 

to reaeh the ,en,al elin.e of China before the season wa, over; and when 

he found no outlet to the south or wes, fron, the bay, hn nterely resigned 

■mse f to the .evitable. The hope of success ba.l held hi^, captive 

unttl ,. was ,„„ late to set out. It an untoward ,nishap, and led to 

.s unt,„ely .,„, undeserved fate-a„ error 'of jt„l«,,.eut for which he 

should not h;ivc been lield responsible. 

In the sprin,. they were visited by the .savages who traded valuable 
furs for kn.vcs^ buttons and trinkets, but who unfo- unately had no surplus 
prov.s,ons to barter. On the breakin,-up of the ice .".ht -nen were 
deta.led to eateh T ., in whieh they had some success, affbniing temporary 

but precarious relief. It i^ iinnn«Mrl fV,^«- *.u • 

^ '^ ^jpposccl that the consj n-acy against the 

commander was distinctly formulated on that •ccasion. He took an 
other bo t and attempted to open communicatio vith the natives where 
be had seen fires occasionally during the winter, in the hope of rcplen- his stores from what he conceived were permanent settlements 
But he l.nle<l to find any, and determined to leave James Bay. The stock 
ofprovsions was almost ex hau.sted, and after being on short al owance 
dunng the whole wi.aer, actual starvation now threatened them On 
the eve of resuming th. voyage with the purpose of returning to Eng- 
lan<l by the way they ha<l come, Hudson doled o what remained of 
the provsions brought from home-a loaf of bre. ^ u. ead., and five 
cheeses, equally divided among them. Eighty s, fis.cs were taken 

soon after ; and with strict self-denial thev might, .t ,,s said, have lived 
on these short rations for two weeks. How short they ^vore .s sho^^ n 
by the statement .a, ^n one day the boatswain consumed his whole al 
1.- ance, with the usual penalty for such excess when followinu on th^> 
heels of continued privation, that he was . tor several "davs in 

The spring had passed, and they had fairly entered on their second 




summer; when, on the Jlst of Jinie, ihret.' of the (lisiifFected suddenly 
pounced upon Hudson as he came on deck, an<l securely hound him. 
Witli his son John, and the sick, si\ in number, and the ciU'penter, sturdy 
John Kin^, whom tliey were unahle toenhst in their wicked seheme, the 
jjaihmt commander of thi' " Discovery," the immortal Hudson, was thrust 
into the ship's hoat, which was cut adrift, and left to shift for itself The 
mutineers then stood to sea, steerin<x to the eastward tVoin their late 
winter (juarters. In a few days they ran into the iie in a storm, and 
were held fast fourteen days. It was probably in this storm that Hud- 
son and his companions were lost, as they were never afterward seen or 
heard from. So perished toward the close of June, i6i i, Henrv Hud- 
son, one of the most able and distinjjuished navifjators of any aji^e 
With very inadequate resources his fjreat talents secured the hiy;hest 
results. One after another he tried the several proposed passajjes to 
China, and his clear judijfment pronounced them all impracticable, at least 
for commerce. He searched the Atlantic coast from the Chesapeake 
to Greenland, and satisfied himself that there remained but one chance 
for reachin}^ the Pacific by the Northwest, namely, bv the open sea 
south of Greenland. He probably died in the conviction that Hudson's 
Bay was not the openin;^^ soujjht, and had he not been cut ofTby the 
treachery of his men, he mij.^ht after one or two more voya<ijes have an- 
ticipated McClure's discovery by over two hundred years. 

By the 37th of July the ship had reached the entrance of the Bay, 
and on the 3Sth some of the men landed to shoot fowl. On makinjj the 
land at Cape Dudley Dij^^fs — so named Mie year before bv Hudson in 
honor of one of the patrons of the expedition, as was Cape Wolsten- 
holme for another — they encountered some natives bound on the same 
errand, with whom they trafficked peaceably. The next day, however, 
when, unsuspicious of danger they resu iied the intercourse, they were 
attacked liy the natives, and four out of the six engaged in the enter- 
prise were either killed outright or died within a few days, of their 
wounds. Others of the mutineers died on the homeward voyage, and 
all suflcred dreadful privations. They finally reached Bere Haven, in 
Bantry Bay, on the southwest coast of Ireland, whence, with the help 


7-//^ SUtiV/VORS HE AC// ENG/.A/VD. 


i.f frcHh seamen t<, work the ship, they were e.mhlecl to reach EiiKlaiul. 
Ilahl.akuk I'ricket, who wrote an account of the voya-e, and Robert 
IJillet or Hylot, mate and acting' master ..f the vessel on her arrival, 
were the only ones wh.. presented themselves before the auth.,rities, the 
other survivors slinkin;,' away into obscurity. 





voyage under baffin fotherby bylot discovery ok 

Baffin's bay,, 

In 1610, 161 1, and 1612, Jonas Poole, in the emjjloy of the Mus- 
covy Company, made three distinct voyages to the Arctic regions, or 
Northern Ocean. Like four others of the same class by Steven Bennct, 
1603-8, they were all divested of any strong claim to scientific or 
geograjohical voyages, though projected in part for that purpose, mainly, 
no doubt, by the forco of circumstances. On their arrival in those waters 
the commanders found very little to discover or explore. Seeing no 
avenue to new discoveries in the wide waste of water studded with ice- 
bergs instead of islands, they are not to be blamed, if, deeming it of more 
advantage to return laden than empty, they turned their attention to the 
hunting of seals and walruses on the coasts already discovered, especially 
on Cherry Island, the Bear Island of Barentz, of which the Muscovy 
Company took formal and exclusive possession in 1609. In his first 
voyage as commander, in 1610, Poole went as high as 78'-^ and in his 
report emphasized the observation of some of his predecessors that the 
climate in the open sea toward the Pole is more temperate than in lower 
latitudes. " A passage," he says, " may be as soon attained this way by 
the Pole as any unknown way whatsoever, by reason the sun doth give 
a great heat in this climate, and the ice that freezeth hero is nothing so 
huge as I have seen in 73'." 

He finally reached 79'-' 50' on this trip whicli was iiiti nded not 
only to "catch a whale or two" but also for northern discovery. 
These were his instructions : " Inasmuch as it hath pleased Al- 
mighty God, through the industry of yourself and others, to discover 



unto our nation a land lying in eighty degrees toward the North 
Pole; we are desirous not only to discover farther to the north- 
ward along the said land, to fintl whether the same he an island or 
a main, and which way the same doth trend, either to the eastward or to 
the westward of the pole; as also whether the same be inhabited by any 
people, or whether there be an open sea farther north than hath been 
already discovered," etc. 

In 1611 Poole again proceeded to the Arctic in company with 
the first English ship expressly intended for whaling. Si\ Biscayans of 
experience in killing whales wore added to the crew. Leaving the 
whaler at work, Poole proceeded northward to So*?, and then crossing 
westward, he explored the east coast of Greenland to a point about two 
degrees north of any previously reached, or at least noted on the charts. 
On liis return to the whaler, he found that, with the aid of the Biscayan 
experts, they had caught thirteen, and they proceeded together to 

In his voyage of 1613-13, Poole found no less than twenty whalers- 
six of tlieni Englisli, and one of these in command of the afterward cele- 
l)rate(l William Bathn— in the sea of Spitzbergcn. French, Biscayan, 
Spanish and Dutch were all represented; and all quietly submitted to the 
ordcir of the English, who took exclusive possession of the island and 
contiguous sea for the cnnvn of England, in 1613. 


The first voyage in search of a lost explorer was undertaken, in 1612, 
by Sir Thomas Button. Ke was accompanied by Pricket, the historian 
of Hudson's last voyage, and Bylot, who had served on the same voy- 
age, as mate. Button was placed in command of two vessels, the Reso- 
lution and Discovery. He foUowt-d tlie route pursued by Hudson 
through the strait till he reached Southampton Island. Sailing west he 
fell in with tlie main land at 60" 40', to which part of the west coast of 
Hudson's Bay lie gave the name of Hopes Checked. He then sailed 
towartl the south and discovered the bay called after his name. Farther 
south, at 57" 10', he discovered Nelson River, on the 15th of August. 






Here, near the point of York Factory, lonef the chief center of the 
Iludson's Buy Company's fur trade, he made his preparations 
to winter. Some: of the crew died from the intensity of the cold. In 
spring they were ahle to kill a plentiful supply of game, especially of 
"white partridge," of which no less than iSoo dozen are said to have 
been taker, and consumed liy the crews of the two vessels. 

In April, the ice disappearing early, he sailed northward along the west 
coast, discovering what are now called Mansfield's Islands, in 65°. He then 
proceeded homeward, and arrived in England in the autumn, in thirteen 
days, from Cape Chudlcigh, without having found any trace whatever 
of the lost navigator. He carried with him a conviction, hut on what 
based is not stated, that the Northwest Passage would be found leading 
from Hudson's Bay. The iuHuence of his name did much toward hold- 
ing his countrvmen in the trammels of this error for generations. As 
will be seen presently, a navigator of more experience; birt lc«s influence, 
attempted to correct the mistake a few year* later; but p«*4ic opinion 
was swayed by tiie authority of a great name, and England chose to err 
witii Button rather than to be set right by IJylot. Such things happen 
yet, and in Animca as well as elsewhere. " 1 he influential" still carry 
weight, not aidy as they should in matters of which they are fully cog- 
nizant, and (lualified to pronounce upon, but also in matters entirely for- 
eign to their line of thought and experience. Herein lies the mistake of 
the public, " ravished with the whistling of a name." The world has 
l)een long hekl in tl> tiiraldoni of various errors by the authority of 
"•reat names, for<retting that one cannot mention a single delusion in the 
history of humanity for which the autiiority of some great man may 
not be quote<l. 


In 1612, also, Capt. James Hall, with William Baflin as pilot, in 
the service of the Muscovy Company, made a voyage to Greenland. 
Hall had previously seived as pilot to a Danish exploring expedition of 
three vessels, which had been sent to (rreenland in 1605, to search tor 
the old Norse colonists in that quarter. On that occasion he hud reached 




latitude 69% Init the crews refused to proceed farther, and in 1606 he 
had also served as pilot to another Danish scpiadron of four vessels, 
which were dispatched in search of gold aiid silver mines in Greenland. 
At Cunningham's Ford they " landed to see the silver mine, where it 
was decreed," says Hall, "we should take in as much as we could." 
They kidnapped live natives from a settlement they found on the hanks 
of the river in 66° 25', and took them to Denmark. In 1607 he was 
compelled, hy a mutiny of his Danish crew, to return, unsuccessful, from 
his third voyage to Greenland, under Danish auspices. He then seems 
to have returned to his native country, but did not come into notice again 
as an Arctic navigator until 1G13. On that ill fated voyage, having 
landed at 66" 35', the scene of the kidnapping venture \\\ 1606, he was 
recognized hy one of tlie natives, who \V\\\ at him and wounded liim 
with his lance before he could defend himself, or even perceive his 
danger. He died soon after; and all intercourse with the natives having 
ceased with the attack upon Hall, HaiHn anil the crew returned to Eng- 
land. It was in his report of this voyage that Bathn first indicated the 
method of lliiding tlie position of a vessel at sea by obser\ation of the 
heaveidy Iwdies. 

In 161 3, as lias been stated, William Uallin was in the sea of Spitz- 
tft»f<fcn with ttvc other captams, in the employ of the Muscovy Com- 
pany, Like hii. predecessors in that line— IJennet and Poole— and his 
cow^^y^^mfk of tlia«» season — names indcnown— Hallln turned the vovage 
of 1613 ifXik-lU' into a commercial \eiUure for his employers. It was, 
liouever, on this voyage that he remarked the extraordinarv refraction 
of the atmosphere in nortliern latitudes, and deterniined its (piality at the 
horizon to be twenty-sivc miiiates. He modestly lulds: " I suppose the 
refraction is more or less according as tiie air is thick or clear, which I 
leave for ])ettei- scl-iolars to (fecuss." He also entertained the hope, based 
on an o])en sea l)etween (jreenland and .Hpitzlu-rgen, that a passage to 
the Pole miglit be disc/wered. lie recommended to the company an an- 
nual appropriation of $750 or .^i,cx)o for th;rt pur(X)se, deeming a small 
vessel with a crew of ten men adeijuate to the uiMlcrtaking. He meant 
l)erliaps that sucli a \essil detaciie'l from the whaling ileet for an 


annual experiment might in some favorable season achieve the desired 

In 1614, Captain ()il)l)ons, a rehitive of Sir Thomas Button, and a 
comixmion in tlie search voya-?e of 1612, proceeded ro Hudson ]?ay in 
search of the Northwest Passajjfc. The season {jroved very different 
from that of 161 2. lie was iiarassed incessantly by high winds, floatin<j- 
ice, dense fogs and tlie resulting discouragement of the men, and re- 
turned in safety without accomplishing anything. 

In 1614, also, Robert Fotherby, with Willinm HafTin as pilot, made 
an Arctic voyage, still in the service of the Muscovy Company. Reach- 
ing latitude So'-'', tliey were repulsed by the ice and compelled to return. 
And again, in 1615, Fotherby, on another Arctic voyage and in the ser- 
vice of the same company, essayed the route of Hudson in 1607, and 
like him was batlled in the effort to proceed beyond Spitzber"-en. He 
had opportunity to correct some calculations made by Hudson, and more 
definitely establish some of his observations. In 1615, also, Robert Bv- 
lot, in company with BafKn, maele a voyage in search of the Nortliwest 
Passage. They proceeded to Ihulson's Bay and searched in vain for an 
outlet on the west coast of that great interior sea, whicli thev iiad sup- 
posed was a gulf of the Pacific. How little they andd have imagined 
that were the way as open as that by wiiich they had come, they would 
yet be but little more than half way from Enghuul to the " South Sea" 
in the latitude they were exploring. All analogy pointed the other 
way; sea and land alternated at comparatively short distances. There 
was no such lireadtli of unbroken continent within their knowledge. 
Northern Asia presented a similar, and with Northern Europe, a broader 
continuity uninterrupted hy ocean or sea, but tliose regions were as much 
unknown to the men of tliat age as the recently discovered New World. 
Captain Bylot's report was unfavorable to tlie theory based on Sir 
Thomas Button's opinion, that the Nortluvest Passage was lo be found 
leading out of Hudson's Bay. 

It would have been a great gain had Bylot's opinion prevailed 
instead of Button's, and had Hudson's IJay been thenceforth 
avoided by all in s>earch of the long-sought passage. The limits, 



one might say, within which it can alone be found, if at all, are 
being narrowed; but the distance is long and the way lies through a lab- 
yrinth of straits and islands. And every mile of tl\e way is more or less 
liable to be blocked by the ice according to the changes of the wind and 
the seasons. Yet the isroblem remains, and challenges humanity for a 
solution; and so generation after generation of heroic navigators nerve 
themselves to the task. Each successive aspirant for the distinction of 
discoverer of the hidden pathway, dwells on the difficulties, ponders over 
them carefully, studies all the pros and cons until he has solved the puz- 
zle in his closet. He then enlists some government or wealthy in- 
dividaal in his project; inspires them with a share of his enthusiasm or 
magnetism, and the outfit is provided. Arriving at Greenland, he finds 
ice-floe and icebergs utterly impenetrable to enthusiasm, and almost 
equally so to sails and oars and sledges. And thus for generations 
the work progresses. Brave, skillful and hardy navigators snatchmg at 
the risk of their lives, and of the lives of men under their charge, here a 
headland, there an expanse of water; again an island or a river, and 
ever the problem remains unsolved; but ever, too, the possible limits are 
narrowing, and man becomes satisfied that if to be solved at all, he is 
evermore nearing the solution. Such problems have their uses in the in- 
crease of knowledge and the development of the race. 

In 1616, Bylot and Baffin, giving the entrance to Hudson's Bay a 
wide bertli, pushed northward through Davis' Strait und discovered 
what they named Baffin's Bay, and thus in their turn gave currency to 
an error which had as much influence as that of Button, in retardiii"- the 
actual discovery of the Northwest Passage. They seemed to have been 
deceived by the western trend of Greenland, and to have on that account 
concluded that the broad expanse of water which they had discovered, 
was land-locked on the north. They entered Lancaster Sound as well as 
Jones' and Smith's Sounds, and yet did not doubt the correctness of their 
conclusion. They bclicvcl all three to be inclosed gulfs or inlets to the 
bay ; and so, lacking c^.portunity to explore them more thoroughly 
they returned to England, and Bylot's report of the voyage gave cur- 
rency to the error. Bylot and Baffin had earned their reputations iis 




' I i 


to II 

caiLful and experienced navi{,':itors ; and where their observations could 
be verified they were found to be exceptionally correct. What more 
natural than not to suspect the fallacy tiiat had deceived them ? 
Whether Lancaster, Jones or Smith Sounds were straits, or gulfs, was 
not a question to be determined by conjectures of even experienced navi- 
gators, but by actual exploration. And in this way are errors often 
generated and perpetuated. In this famous voyage the crew consisted 
of only fourteen men and two boys, besides Rylot and his mate or pilot, 
Baffin. The vessel was the Discovery, the same that had so often 
braved the dangers of tliose seas. They saw icebergs— fortunately they 
did not meet them at close quarters— which they computed to reach 240 
feet above the water, and to be probal^ly in all, 1680 feet high. In the 
neighborhood of Resolution Island, Baffin witnessed the phenomenon of 
seeing the sun and the moon at the same time, and availed himself of the 
opportunity to compute the longitude. He adds : « If observations of 
this kind, or some other, were made of places far remote, as at the Cape 
Bona Speranza, Bantam, Japan, Nova Albion, and Magellan's Straits, 
I suppose we should all have a truer geography than we have." Ob- 
serving the tide to flow from the northward they were at one time con- 
fident of success, but finding the water shallow in the inlets they had 
entered, and being threatened by the ice, they returned, passing Resolu- 
tion Island in the l)cginning of August, and arriving in England a 
month later, without tlie loss of a man. 



The defeat ami death of Sebastian of Portugal by the Moors at Al- 
cazar-Kebir in 1578, and the extinction of the old line of soverei-ns, hy 
the death of his uncle, the archbishop, Kinjr Henry, in 15S0, led^y'the 
union of that kingdom with Spain, and the decay of its maritime and col- 
onial power. The Dutch exerted themselves, with success, to seize the 
Portuguese with the East, without, however, embarrassing them- 
selves by establishing military colonies or waging wars of subjugation. 
The trade, not the territory, was what they sought, and this they adroit- 
ly slipped into. Their late sovereign, Philip H., who had just imited 
the crowns of Portugal and Spain, had exhausted his finances in the long 
effort to subdue them; and was more interested in quarrels with France 
and England, than in maintaining the maritime supremacy of his 
dominions. This pre-occupation furnished the enterprising Dutch with a 
favorable opportunity to prosecute their schemes of commercial aggrand- 
izement. They soon secured a virtual m.mopoly of the coasting^trade 
of the East. Within a few years of the organization of theh- great 
trading corjooration, known as the East India Company, in 1602, "they 
had established central entrepots, for revictualing and repairing, as well 
as for influencing the natives and controlling their trade, at the Cape of 
GoodHopeJava, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Moluccas. They secured 
exclusive control of the spice trade with these last named islands. 

Meanwhile, through the good fortune of the discovery, in 1609, by 
Hudson, while temporarily in their employ, of tiie Delaware and the 
Hudson, or as they called them, the South and North Rivers, the Dutch 
gained a foothold in North America, which they were not loner in mak- 





\\v^ use of ;is a center of trade with the savajifcs of the New Worhl. In 
1613 they sent out a mercantile colony to occupy Manhattan Islaiul, 
now New ^'ork. In 161 f Adriacn Block explored Lon<^ Islaiul Sound, 
in a small vessel l)uilt l)y him in American waters; and the same year 
Cornelius Jacohsen Mey was sent out from Amsterdam to explore the 
coast north from the Delaware. The (ixclusiveness of the Dutch I'^ast 
India Company in relation to the specially j)rofitahle spice trade of the 
Moluccas, led to an important maritime discovery, 


The States-General of the Netherlands were sharers in the profits of 
the trading company they had established,, and had ordained that none 


hut tlie servants of the company should <^o to the Spice Islands. As an 
at'.leil protection, llie routes by the Cape of Good Hope and the Straits 
of Magellan were by law reserved for their exclusive use. The other 
merchants might traUk- all the world over with these trilling restrictions, 
but to ste( r their barks l)y either of tliese routes entailed the penally of 


A' I 



confiscation of the vessels, and arrest of the owners. Schontcn, a navi- 
f^-ator of experience and ability, conceived the project of (hulin- a passa<re 
south of the Straits of Maf,a>llan. Assisted in the enterprise by Lemai^e, 
who also accompanied him as snpercar<.o, or perhaps as captain of one of 
tiie vessels, and some other merchants „f Horn in Holland, Schonten, 
i<. 1615, Htted out two vessels, and made the first voya-e by way of the' 
American Cape, which he called Hon, in honor of the town in Holland 
where the expedition had been or^janized. 

The strait between Terra del Fue^^o and Staten Island-that is, 
.stand of the States of Holland, also so named by Schonten_he 
named m honor of bis companion, Lemaire, who, for all that it 
appears was himself its actual .liscoverer. After many adventu'res 
and discoveries in t],c islands of the Pacific, they arrived "n safety 
at the Moluccas, in sixteen months from the day of their rleparture 
trom the Texel. Their vessels were confiscated bv the East India 
Company, an,l ofik-ers and erew sent home for trial. Lemaire 
cl.sappomted and excessivel'y cha.<.rinecl at such a reward for the services 
rendered, and the discoveries nuule by himself and companion, died on 
'He voya<^e home, at Mauritius, in ,616. Schontcn, less sensitive than 
h.spatron,then.erchant,and, as an experienced captain, more accus- 
tomed to tile arbitrary proceedings of the officials of the great Dutch 
company, lived to perform several routine voyages to the East, and died 
■n ^(^^S. "i tlie Hay of Antongil, on the east coast of Madagascar, where 
he liad taken refuge from tempestuous weather on his last return voya<^e 
-a liero of maritime exploration not so celebrated as some, but wonhy 
ol benig rescued from olilivion. 


Christian IV., of Denmark and Norway,made an advanta<aH,us 
peace with Custavus Adolphus in .6,,^; an.l was thus enabled to turn 
Ins attention to the welfare of his sul^jects. Kc strengthened the mari- 
tnnc uuerests and power of his kingdom, a,ul extende.l its commerce to 
t'H' I.ast Indies, where be was the first sovereign of Denmark to gain 
possessions. \\^- curbing the encroachments of the Ilause towns he en- 



lar<ijc(I llii> splicrc of inland trade- for liis snlijcct' . I'^ioni a soverciijfn of 
such I)roa(I ideas and niaj^uanimoiis purposes it was nnlnial lo seek for 
cncouraj^L'incnt in nortlicni exploration, lie had anthoii/ed a^ early as 
1605 the search expedition under Admiral Lindeinan, with the Enj^lish- 
nian James Hall, as pilot, and tin; other (rreenland voya'^es of that 
period, wliieh have heen previously mentioned. And now, in 1619, an 
able navijj^ator named Jens Munk was sent out in command of two ves- 
sels, one with tortv-eii^ht seamen and tiie other with oiUy sixteen. He 
left Elsinore on the iSth of Mav and maile foi' the south coast of (irecil- 
land. He pioceeded from Cape Farewell lo HudsoiTs IJav directly 
throu<:fh Iludsc^i's Strait, which he named ChristiaiTs Strait in honor of 
his sovereign. The new name was not retained. DaiiiNli voyai^ers were 
too few, and I^iiLi'lish too man\- in those waters, to permit it. He met a 
yreat deal of 'ce, and on the 7th of Septemhcr entered what is known 
as Chesterlield Inlet on the northwest coast ol" Hudson's l>ay, wiiere he 
was compelled to winter. The ice closed in rapidly around him, and 
he l)e<,'an at once to erect huts. As soon as these wei'c completed they 
bet^'an to provide winter su[)plies hy lumtinLT. 

I'^ortunately .i^ame was abundant. Hears, foxes, hares, parlridijjes, 
and various wild fowls were made available, and they collected 
a ;_;()odlv store, yet not enough for the loni;- winter. With the 
perversitv born of superstition thev interpreted some unusual appear- 
ances thev noted in the sun and moon as ill omens. And when 
their brandv, wine, and beer, expanded by the frost, hurst the 
casks, a part of the evil pro])hec\- was fulillled because of^ 
their ignorance. They consumed these to excess to keep them from 
bein!4- entirely lost, not knowiuL;' that to lose them wouKl ha\e piox-ed a 
great .Li^ain, since imprudence in their use rapidlv lirouL^ht on disease, 
and this hastened the fuliUlment of their wor>t forebodinn-s. The rei^u- 
lar supplies of food were rannin;^- low, and the scuiAy and other diseases 
to which they had fallen a prey throuijjh over-indulLjence in spirituous 
and malt liquors, untilted them for replenishiuLf their stores. Wild fowl 
was still abundant, but they could not kill or capture them. IJefore the 
end of May, 1620, sixty-two out of the sixty-lour men had jierished by 

ifi . 



famine an iiscnsc, ami only Munk and two seamen survived. liy su- 
l)crlii \iitions they inana.i^ed to obtain some means of suhsiHtetice; 

"lid l> rajua;^ away tlic snow icy found some jjrasses, roots, and 
iierhs, lii' relieved tl in o*" the -y. They crawled to a nei;^h- 

1)1 inj,' stream and cauj,'hl fM nod by this healthful food, and 

free fi in thi- (hm^'er of :iK()hoiK sli nilants, they soon were able to kill 
birds and aiiiii ds, '''hey now proceeded to fit the smaller vessel for the 
homeward vc^ i^je, I actually accomplished the feat, arriving in Nor- 
way on the 25th of ,Sepleml)er. 


Amoii<r the vovai^es of 
;^j coloni/atioii of this period, 
.: ' "^^y none is more notew thy 
- - than that of the " May» 
flower," which arrivetl at Cape Cod, 
with the " Pilgrim '' colonists Nov. 
i.A.Nni.NG 01 tut: MAvi'i.owKK. 2 1, 1620. "^riierc were fortv-one 

adult male- besides wunicu and children, and lormed the nucleus of the 




/i "^Md ///// ^ 






1.0 Iria IIM 



I^ 1^ 12.0 

1-4 llli 1.6 




WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 



^cT C'? 







New England settlements. These first arrivals were r. branch of the 
Puritans, and had souglit refuge in Holland from the persecutions to 
which they were subjected in England. Not finding their associations 
and surroundings congenial in Holland, they conceived the idea of set- 
tling in America. They obtained a grant from the southern branch of 
the English colonization company, known as the London or Virginia 
Company, but haj.pened to land on the domain of the northern or 
Plymouth Company. 

In 1 62 1 a colony was established in Newfoundland by Lord Balti- 
more. Several other colonization voyages to various points along the 
Atlantic coast of America were inaugurated under English, French and 
Dutch auspices, in the time which intervened between the northern 
exploring voyage of Jens Munk, the Dane, and the next one of the 
same sort which merits our attention. Some of these were to foimd 
new settlements, and some to strengthen those already established; but 
all are alike foreign to the scope of our work, and though full of 
interest, must be omitted. 





In 1631 Captain Luke Fox was given command of cnc of the 
kmg's ships, to search for a Northwest Passage. On taking leave the 
kmg furnished him with a chart exhibiting all his predecessors^ discov- 
eries, a letter of instructions, and a letter of introduction to the Emperor 
of Japan. Fox says " he had been itching after northern discovery ever 
smce 1606, when he wished to have gone as mate to John Knight " In 
h.s account of his voyage, he warns -'the gentle reader not to expect 
here any flourishing phrases or eloquent terms; for this child of mine 
begot in the northwest's cold clime, where they breed no scholars is' 
not able to digest the sweet milk of rhetoric." 

In Hudson's Strait, Fox was much hampered with ice, and yet the 
masses he met were " seldom bigger than a church." At Salisbury 
Island, in Hudson's Strait, 63°, 37', he observed that the needle became 
sluggish, which he ascribed to "the sharpness of the air interposed 
between the needle and the attractive point." He gave the name, Sir 
Thomas Roe's Welcome, to an island on the northwest coast of Hud- 
son's Bay, but the channel dividing Southampton Island from the main- 
land ,s now known by that name. It has not yet been definitely ascer- 
tained whether Southampton is one or many islands. On the island 
discovered by Fox was found a burying-ground of the natives; and it 
was ascertained that they had deposited with the dead, bows, arrows and 
da.ts, miny of them with iron heads, and one with copper. At Nelson's 
River he fcund the cross erected by Sir Thomas Button. It was in 


i til 

W I 



this neighborhood that he met Captain James' vessel on the 29th of 
August, which he visited with a few of his men. He seems to have 
sailed directl\ homeward after that interview, for he arrived in Eno-. 
land on the last day of OcLober, " not having lost one man or boy, nor 
any manner of tackling, having been forth nearly six months; all 
glory be to God." At Roe's Welcome he had observed the tide set 
in from the north, and this, together with the great number of whales 
met there, leil him to think he was near the Northwest Passa<re. or 
entrance to the South Sea. He contributed to keep up the theory that 
in Hudson's Bay would be found the coveted route to Japan. 

Bylot and Baffin had pronounced against it, but they had also de- 
clared against Baffin's Bay, and public opinion in England was divided, 
but with a preference for the former. It certainly opened far to the 
south and west, which was as certainly the direction in which lay the 
South Sea. What is more natural then than to connect the two in im- 
agination, and infer their connection in fact.? 

Not to be outdone by the London merchants, who supplied Fox's 
outfit, those of Bristol furnished a similar exiDcditiou on the same errand, 
in the hope of winning the glory of the coveted discovery for the good 
city of Bristol, from which the Cabots had sailed five generations before. 
Their sliip was intrusted to Captain Thomas James, who was kindly 
furnished liy the king with a duplicate of the documents given to Fox. 
James selected a crew of twenty-two picked men for his vessel of 
seventy tons, or twice as many as were absolutely necessarv. They 
were all active, sober young men, and unmarried, and had been chosen 
from a body of seamen who had never made a voyage to those regions. 
They left Milford on the 17th of May and sighted Greenland on the 
4th of June. One of the boats was ripped by the ice, but soon 
repaired, the ship being carefully provided with all things necessary to 
meet such accidents, as well as with a supply of provisions for eighteen 
months. This was largely due to the wise forethought of the com- 
mander. Around icebergs and through ice hoes, with sails and cord- 
age frozen, they threaded their weary way to Resolution Island, which 
they reached on the i8th. For five days they hung between life 

! S 




and death, engaged in an incessant struggle to keep tiie ship from 
being crushed by the icebergs, which somotimes overhung her deck 
and gratecl her sides. In gratitude for their escape from destruc- 
tion they named the place the » Harbor of God's Providence." Cap- 
tain James, with great exertion and at great risk, found a sheltered 
cove at 6i?24',to which they now succeeded in working the boat. 
The rise of a favorable wind on the next day induced them to leave 
this secure refuge and renew the battle with the ice floes. Not an 
acre of open sea could be discerned from the masthead, and the ice- 
pack crunched against the sides of the ship with such violence that 
they feared it would tear away the planks and break her to pieces. 
It was the 6th of August before they got into the open sea, and on 
the nth they saw land on the western shore of Hudson's Bay, in 
latitude 59%o'. On the 22d, while at anchor, tho ship was dri'ven 
by a gale, but fortunately the anchor again caught, while the sudden 
shock nearly proved fatal to several of the crew. Eight of them were 
hurled from the capstan, and all were more or less injured. One, the 
gunner's mate, had bis leg so crushed that it became necessary to 
amputate it. 

After the visit from Captain Fox, whom they entertained on board 
as well as circumstances would permit, on the 29th of August, some- 
where in the xicinity of Nelson River, they continued to explore the 
southern coast, moving eastward. On the 3d of September they 
sighted the cape at the entrance of the bay which has been called James' 
Bay in honor of the navigator. This headland James named Cape Hen- 
rietta, in honor of the Queen of England. Proceeding south, he next 
discovered an island, in latitude 52^' 45', which he named Lord Weston's 
Island; and in 52^ 10', one to which he gave the name of his patron. 
Sir Thomas Roe. James had some hope of finding a passage to the 
" River of Canada," the St. Lawrence, from the foot of the bay. They 
landed on several small islands m search of an eligible spot for winter 
quarters, a^- it was growing late in the season and their ship had received 
some injury in its battles with the ice, rocks, and shoals. On the 2d 
ofOctober,^four months after they had sighted Greenland, a landing 




■ 'I ! i 



*• !.■ 1 


was effected on a well-wooded coast which they first named for the Earl 
of Derby, but this name they afterward changed, for some unexplained 
reason, to Charlton Island. From its highlands they could see nothn.. 
more suitable to the south, tne bottom of the bay being studded with 
rocks and shoals. 

They now cut a large quantity of wood, enough at least for three 
months' fuel, and at the request of the sick, erected a hut on the island 
They explored the island carefully, among other objects to ascertain if 
there were any savages. They found traces of them, but none were then 
on the island. A party of six proceeded into the interior on a hunting 
expedition, Oct. 14, and returned the next day with one deer 
which they had brought twelve miles. They reported havin^ seen' 
some others. A few days later another p.irty set out to explore thelsland 
and returned unsuccessful and disabled by the cold. They lost one m.n 
who, in crossing a pond, broke through the ice and was drawn under 
They dug a well near the hut, obtaining drinkable water but of a pe 
cuhar taste. On r he 12th of November the hut took fire, but they were 
able to save it. Thenceforth they kept up a regular fire-watch; for as 
they required great fires to protect them from the cold it was necessary 
to use every precaution to prevent the disaster of being burned out. On 
the 32d died one of .heir number who had lost a leg at the time the 
eight had been hurled from the capstan. 

Not finding a sheltered spot for the vessel, she lay at anchor off the 
.slar J, exposed to the ice, and on the 24th she was driven by the pressure 
toward the shore and stopped a mile from the land in twelve feet of 
water. Finally, on the 29th, after the ship had been forced close to 
the shore by the wind and ice, they scuttled and sunk her. They saved 
most of the provisions, but lost their clothes and the medicine chest 
The seventeen that had remained now joined the sick in the hut, and 
thawed themselves out by a rousing fire. The captain encouraged them 
to hope for the best, reminding them that if the worst came they wei- 
as near to heaven there as in England. They pledged themselves to be 
faithful to one another, to do their utmost for the common welfare, and 
obey their commander to the death. Should the ship prove irrecovera- 


or the Earl 
ee nothinj^ 
idded with 

t for three 
the island, 
iscertain if 
were then 
a hunting 
one deer, 
ving seen 
the island, 
: one man 
k^n under. 
: of a pe- 
thej^ were 
:h; for as 
out. On 
time the 

r off the 

s feet of 
close to 

ey saved 

le chest. 

but, and 

ed them 

sy were 

es to be 

are, and 



ble or unseaworthy in the spring, they would build a boat from the tim- 

bers and the wood on the island, and try to return to the haunts of civil- 

ized men, if not to England, by that means. 

On the .oth of December the carpenter began to work on the new 

boat. The crew were busily engaged from the first to the twenty-first 
of the month, rescuing goods from the hold of the vessel, and taking 
them to the shore with great difficulty. The well had frozen, but they 
found a spring of water under the snow at a short distance, which served 
them better. They constructed three more huts, one of which was to 
serve as a kitchen. The snow covered their houses, adding to the 
warmth, and they celebrated Christmas as joyfully as could be expected 
Knowmg nothing of Gulf Stream or isothermal lines, they were at a 
loss to understand how the climate could be so much more severe than 
in the corresponding latitude at home. They were about on a line with 
the port of Harwich, and not quite one degree and a quarter north of the 
latitude of London. 

By the end of January the ground was frozen to a depth of ten feef 
and the men were terribly afflicted by disease, accompanied with sores,' 
pams and swellings ; fully two-thirds being ut.der the surgeon's care. 
They bore up manfully, and despite their privations and sufferings, strug 
gled bravely for their common safety. With feet frost-bitten and shoe- 
less, and wrapped in rags as a substitute, they walked into the forest to 
gather their daily supply „f u'ood. And so thev fought the battle 
through February, with the special discouragement' of thT> illness of the 
carpenter, around whom chiefly clustered their hopes c.f seeing their 
native land again, l^ut the brave carpenter managed to make some 
headway with his boat and kept at Nvork even when so ill as to require 
to be carried to it. He supplied models of the timbers he wanted, and 
the men searched for suitable trees through the forest, cut them down 
and brought them to him. By Easter, April ist, he was entirely dis- 
abled, with four others; of the remainder only as manv more retained 
strength and appetite to consume their daily allowance of food. The 
well waited on the sick, the sick did what service they could, and so they 
continued to fight the good fight, and do their duty one to another. 







\r\wg April those wlio were st 

am in 

injjf the vessel, trying' to 

ronjTcst busied themselves wit! 

h ex- 

tiew boat was about half built, but th 

ascertain it" she was seaworthy. The 

both f; 

le car 


:ul It would be necessary to cross to the mainland 

penter was dying, and should 

eup. They celebrated the last ni<fht o/ April, 

on the ice, before it 

the eve of May-day, 

wuh the observances customary in those days in En,.land, thus trying to 
keep up their spirits by feignino- a jollity they .lid not feci, and uncon- 
sc.o.,sly n^cogni^ing a law of human liti- that cheerfulness promotes 
health. Ihe uKuster's n>ate died on the sixth, and the carpenter on the 
eighteenth of May, reducing their number to eighteen besides the cap- 
tmn Still they worked at the ship, and to their industry and activity is 
probably to be ascribed the survival of so large a proportion of them. 
The captam seemed born to lead under adverse circumstances. And he 
was ably seconded by his men. The dying carpenter kept at his work 
t.ll the last moment, and left the boat in so forward a state that the men 
could nnish it, should the ship be found unfit for use. All honor to the 
memory of William Cole, one of the earliest heroes of Arctic exploration' 
On the 22d they succeeded in pumping the ship almost drv, and on the 
24th the >ce broke all along the bay with a tremendous noise With 
then- habitual foresight they cleared a spot for vegetables a month earlier 
and these, together with some wild vetches, were given to the sick, who 
were much benefited thereby. 

By the Sth of June they had pumped the ship entirely drv and 
she floatcl in the dock she had excavated by her own weight "in the 
sand. On the nth they were enabled to hang the rudder, which had 
been lost months before in the storm, and which they had hunted for 
with great labor under the ice, and rescued three weeks b >fore On the 
16th they got the vessel into deep water, and on the 19th ihev saw a 
considerable expanse of open sea, and towed their vessel to where thev 
had originally anchored her, about a mile fron. the shore. They now 
got the ballast which they had previously thrown overboard, and placed 
It and the provisions again on board. June 21 Capt. [ames erected a 
cross on which he inscribed the names of the King and Queen of Eng. 
land, with the added title of Sovereigns of Newfoundland, and of ^these 




torntones to New Albion," still .....e.- the i.nprcssion that they were 
near Cah ornia arul the Sonth Sea. ()„ the 35th he built a Hre on the 
.snn. n.the hope ..f attracting the natives, if there were any ..n the 
■slancl, and had ditHcuhy in escaping nnharn.e.l. TIk- fire spread rapidly 
and bnrned the honses they had constrncted, but they had fortunately 
removed everything of value in advance. My the last of the month they 
a.l the.r sh.p full .,,,..., an.l everything, in order, not for^ettin,. their 
dead comrades, over whose .raves they raised n.emorial cairns. The 
body o the one buried a, sea had been thrown up n.eanwhile, an.l was 
-n erred the others. July the ,irst the captain n.ade a record of 
what ha<l transpired and of his future intentions, and left it at the cross 
he had erected. They paid a ,lna! visit to the to.nbs of their dead, 
where mormn, and evenin, prayers were read, and the last meals on 
and were prepare.l an<I eaten. The captain, with characteristic ^ood 
feelm-, composed the following lines: 

I were unkind, unless that I did shed 
Hoiorc I j,art, some tears „pon our dead ; 

And when my eyes he dry, I uiH „ot cease 

In Iioart to pray their i,ones may rest in ,>eacc. 

'I'heir better parts, good souls, I know wcmo -iven 

With the intent that they return to Heaven. 

'i'hcir lives they spent to the last drop of hlood, 

•Seekin- (Jod's glory and their eo mtry's good ;' 

And as a valiant soldier rather dies 

Tha.i yield his courage to his enemies, 

And stops their way with his hew'd tlesh, when death 

Hath quite dei^rived him of his strength and breath ; 

■So have they spent themselves, an<i here they lie, 

A famous mark of our discoverv. 

We that survive, perehanee may end our ilays 

In some employment meriting no praise; 

They have outlived this fear, and their brave ends 

Will ever be an honor to their friends. 

Why drop you .so, .nine cyes.^ Nay, rather pour 

My sad departure in a solemn shower. 

The winter's eold that lately froze our blood, 



Now. were it so, ,ni«ht do this «ood 
Ah make these tears bright pearls, wnica r w'ouid lay 
rombMsatelv with vou. til, d..o,...s ratal da,; ' 

rhat .n this solit^try place, where none 

VV.ll ever eon.e to breathe a siKh or ,,roa„. 
^o.„e remnant nu^.u be extant of the true 

And faithiul love i eve, tender-d you. 

On! rest in peace, dear friends, and-let it be 
No Prule to s„y_the sometime part of ,ne. 
What pain and anj,nush doth artliet the head 
1 he heart and ston.aeh, when the li„,hs are dead ^ 

i>o grieved I kiss vour m-.-e. „ . 

- """^ K''i' es, and vow to die 

A foster-father to your n,emoryr 


Wind and icebergs in rrmes' 1^'!"".' '^"^"^"'' ^'"' '^'"'■'' '''''■'-'" "bout by 
.hey Cape il.i..::„ '' ^j'^^ ''^ """'^ -""'• <■"■■ "-..h 
it on eho 30th. On the d^hth of A u^^ ""'' "^"^"^ ''"'"" ""«» 

'-l^ing , week,, ..Le-a .:"! ,f ■?"■, ;''• '-'- —"» 
grea. danger a, ever, for the ship fcLcl' si, In 7 ""'" "'"' "' " 

were they ,e. free of .heir p rsi, „. „ ' T'^' •'^'"""" '-• ^or 

.n«:"hesai<,.ohavebee,/„e HetTo^r '" '"" '^'"^■" '^^^ 
'he .7.h, .hey go. clear of .he ice nd I .h 7 '"'"'*'• ^'■"""^' "" 
-« 'wodays,a.eri„ 63" 30' ibo ' Th "' "^" "' "^^ ° -'• 

«" ie. .hey „igh. he e!™p' ed' .„ rl ^ Lr";'" "' ""*^"'' ''"^• 
energy .0 p„. .,,e„ fo„h hj^| ,,;„ ' '~" "'"'^" """ "'e 

».°™ arose o„ .he .,.h ,„ , , 7"°" ''™'" "^= '''^'-" "-« 

'we„„r hours. To a d h ■','° """'" '"' ""-'-1' '- 

>'~eo„ch,dod .0 .urnti:::" r ."•", ''^ ■"- '->'• 

eo„.i„„ed .0 warra„.„„. ......her effo,,, 't e, , "'" ""'" """""» 

1'he year had been exce„.io„,„ / ''""°" '""'='" '"'"'^'i''"^- 

--red on .he ,6.h .^Z'Z:;^"' """ '"^^ """ '^'-""^ 
When .his resolution was .akenTl ,^ "^ ""' '" '"«'■'"<■■ '^5° 30', 

taken, .,nd s„II among icebergs which over. 


ARRIVE AT liRlsroi. 

topped the mast.hca.l. In :. week dw-y reached Resolution Island, at 
the mouth of Hudson's Strait, and it was not until Oct. 2Z, ,6», that 
they reached Bristol, harassed to the very last by adverse, after 
.n absence of seventeen months and five days, or very nearly the period 
for Capt. James had provided .tores a, d supplies in .-..Ivance 



CAPTAIN ,:aVEN U,SES ,ns .S,n,._,.HUTAMTV «,. A m cu 

A \onir interval in Arctic voyaj^cs of exploration now eusuai. The 
labors of Capuuns Fox and Janu-s had increased the probability that the 
Northwest Passa,a. shonld he so.:,ht elsewhe.e. Th. one had failed to 
nnd ,t n, the extreme north, the other in the extrcn.e south, and they 
and the.r predecessors, in the west of Hudson's Hay. And, as we have 
seen, Baffin's Bay had been declared against by its discoverers. Public 
opmion ceased to be occupied with the question, and in England it was 
very earnestly engaged in discussing the great religious an.l political 
questions of the day. The persecution of the Puritans, the beheadin.. of 
Charles I., the rise and fall of Cromwell, the restoration of diaries H 
the revolution and expulsion of James n.,with the turmoil and confusion' 
and pre-occupation incidental to these various changes, left little leisure 
for outs,de enterprises. "The tight little island" itself supplied an ample 
field for the enterprise and daring of her most adventurous sons. It is 
only m tunes of peace that man occupies himself with discovery, or 
makes any important advance in the arts of hfe. The art of w^r is . 
deadly avs and all its tendencies are to destruction. It may sometimes 
be necessary, but even then is only a choice of evils. 

In France, " the wars of the Fronde," the struggles of the parlia- 
ment and of the nobility ..gainst the encroachments of the crown, the 
burdens of taxation and administration, and later on the militarv erup- 
tions of the " great monarch," with the attendant glory, produced the 
same results as in England, in relation to voyages of exploration. 
Meanwhile, the -Phirty Years' War," 1618-48, had embroiled all 




Europe. And so the remainder of the seventeenth century, stormy 
enough on land, was marked by a complete lull in maritime exploration. 
Such voyacres as were undertaken to America had colonization, not dis- 
covery, for their object; and in them were engaged some of the most 
enterprising spirits among the English, French and Dutch of that age. 
But commerce, besides supplying the wants of the belligerent hosts con- 
tending on almost every battlefield of Europe, was not unmindful of the 
peculiar riches of Arctic seas. Accordingly we find that Dutch and 
English whaling voyages continued uninterruptedly, and from among 
the-i a few have been selected as most noteworthy for the stirring ad- 
ventures, hairbreadth escapes and tragic endings which characterized 
them. Through such experiences, in great measure, has been slowly 
and painfully gathered a knowledge of the methods and precautions 
neLC.-nry to tlie preservation of human life in those northern latitudes. 


The Dutch had offered prizes to such as would volunteer to spend 
a winter on Mayen Island, the headquarters of the whale fishery. This 
island had been discovered and taken possession of for the States of Hol- 
land, in i6ii,bythe captain of one of their whalers, Jan Mayen, for 
whom it was named. In the summer of 1633, before the return of the 
whaling fleet, seven men volunteered to winter there, in latitude 71°, not 
quite midway from Iceland to Spitzbergen. Their sojourn began with 
the 26th of August, and they sulTered no inconvenience until the 8th of 
October, when a fire first became necessary to their comfort. After that 
date the winter approached rapidly, and on the 19th ice began to form 
on the shore. The cold and ice grew in severity until the 19th of No- 
vcnber, when the sea became frozen as far as the eye could reach. 
Afterward the weather grew mild for about three weeks, but on the 8th 
of December the cold set in with renewed severity, and they confined 
themselves to the luit for nearly four months, idle and inactive. They 
had lived meanwhile, on salt meat, and had killed but few bears, and 
their supply of beer and brandy was, perhaps, too liberal for their 


About the middle of January they succeeded in killing a single 
bear, the flesh of whicli aflfbrded a healthful change in their diet. It was 
the middle of March before they killed another; but scurvy had set in 
and taken such hold by that time that the relief derived was only pallia- 
tive, not preventive nor curative. On the 3d of April only two of the 
seven could stand erect; and on the i6th one of them died. This entry 
was made on the record a few days later: « We are now reduced to so 
sad a state that none of my comrades can help themselves, and the 
whole burden, therefore, lies on my shoulders. I shall perform my duty 
as long as I am able, and it pleases God to give me strength. I am 
now about to assist our commander out of his cabin; he thinks it will 
relieve his pain; he is struggling with death. The night is dark, and the 
wind blows from the south." On the 23d he died; and on the 26th they 
killed their dog, a poor substitute for bear's meat. On the 2Sth the ice 
left the bay, and on the 30th the sun shone brilliantly. But it was yet 
thirty-five days before the whaling fleet appeared, and when at last it had 
arrived none of the seven were found alive, and the record of April 
30th was the last made. A little of the energy and forethought of Capt. 
James and his crew in James' Bay, two years before, would have saved 
them all, for though they were almo.t twenty degrees forther north, the 
winter was comparatively mild, and the genial breath of spring visited 
tliem early. It is now understood that the chief danger from Arctic 
winters does not arise from the high latitude, but from the neglect of 
proper precautions. This principle is enforced by the result of a similar 
experiment farther north, the same year. 

Seven other Dutchmen had volunteered to winter in North Bay on 
the north coast of Spitsbergen, latitude So?, and began their trial four 
days later than those on Muyen Island. No sooner had the fleet left 
than they set to work to collect fresh provisions to last them until the 
return of the fleet in 1634. They hunted the reindeer and caught wild 
fowls, and gathered herbs. They killed whales and narwals, or sea- 
unicorns, and thus secured both food and exercise. When the sea began 
to freeze in October, they broke throu-h the ice and let down their nets 
to catch fish. And when toward the close of October the cold had be- 




come so intense and the ice so thick that they could no lon-er fish or 
even go abroad, they exercised themselves as actively as they could in- 
doors. And so they passed throu<.h the winter without a death, or 
even serious illness; and o., May 27, ,634, only eight days earlier than the 
arrival of the fleet at Mayen Island, they were taken aboard safe and 
sound, after a sojourn of nine months, lacking five days, in latitude 80^. 
If further illustration of the principle referred to be desire.!, it may 
be obtained from the annals of the same people. Before the fleet re- 
turned to Holland in 1634, seven otlier men were left at North Bay to 
renew the experiment. They were supplied with an abundance of salt 
provisions, liquors and medicines, and began their sojourn on the nth of 
September. Either because they were of the indolent disposition of the 
men left on Mayen Island, or because of the eleven days' later advent, or 
possibly because the denizens of the forest, anticipating a keener winter, 
withdrew earlier to their winter quarters, they failed to provide a store of 
fresh provisioi s. They soon became victims of the scurvy, which they 
tried to guard against by eating separately, and avoiding contact with 
each other, foolishly supposing it was caught by infection instead of 
recognizing that its fruitful source was the salt provisions, which they 
had not the energy to vary with the fruits of the chase. On Jan. 14 
one died, and on the 17th another, and soon a third followed. The 
surviving four busied themselves in making coffins for their dead com- 
rades—an unprofitable industry which showed their good feeling, but 
not their good sense. In the early part of February they killed a single 
fox; and bears prowled around for whom they should have made living 
coffins in their stomachs. On the 22d of February only one was in a 
condition to feed the fire; and on tiie date <.f the last record made, four 
days later, the four were still alive, but the fire-tender had succumbed 
with the others. « We cannot long survive," writes the penman, 
"without food or firing; we are unable to render each other the least 
assistance, and each must bear his own burden." On the arrival of 
the whalers for the season of 1635 they were dead, not one having 
survived, thus completely reversing the record of their predecessors on 
the same spot. 



- ;- s„„„ ..... „ .M:::::i:rr:it:T7T'"' 

Enghshmsn were rescued fr„,„ ,he fee bv C , , '"'''° 

Mu„:.e„, after ..e, „., Been e.polltur.: it " xr^r,?" 
a deep hole in the iee and piled block, of ice r ' "^ ' ''"" 

ficm the weather. They had for " , '"°'""' '" """""=' '^"" 

the time of year was , «/?"""' ""■""™"' """ '■""».'«<' 
year was not unfavorable, beincr the enri «r a/t 

.beg.nning of June. Bu, three died in a few " i [ ' "' 

^c=,':n..tern:::;;t ';;r;i~:^^^^^^^^^^^^ 7- .. - 

less than fourteen Dutch whalers Z 1. u ^" '^^5 not 

Be.en. Capt. Corneliustl'e'ri: Zr onbi!;:;'"-'' "" '""■ 
saved after being tossed about for fourteen dl, „ ' ""'"' ""■■= 

years before. This ,ear his ship „„d ot fh n!'" ""'" "' '°™' 
to the border of the in,Benetrahle i ^ """'P-'"^ ''°'^ 

breaking loose of the iX;, " " '^^' ""■= =^"^'^"' "^ " -"'^- 

The crews ra.anaged to scramble on to the ice before the 
entirelv submerged, and they .aved the bo,ts and ""' 

Bille, with a few of the mor'e enterpri^: Vthe coX:"""" ''''"■ 
persons, took two of thf>l,n..f. ^ « ^ tne combined crews, sixty 

ten da; those w ,o h 1 ' T'" ""'' "^ °*"^'- "''••""^- ^f- 

w.est,:,d they:t t: ' "r rxir rr ^--^^ "^^ '^^ 

wbaler, and were humanely taken a Wtl. E d^ f'",l ""^ " '""''' 
to trespass on tho F.v.., t . " ^'''-"'" "°^ wishing 


"'™^->- ">^ '■-a. capt. etWed : ;:' r::;;;^^""; ,^-'"='^ 

compelled to t.ake refuge on the ice Thl ' " "•' ""= 

der the shelter of a saif, within sil ht of " ' """" ""^ """" ""• 

was a. anchor. the em , <^'>""">">en whose ves.,e, 

. w,n„ to the remonstrance of his men, or dreading that 





I \ 

his misconduct might be reported at home, the surly captain relented so 
far as to permit his shipwrecked countrymen to sleep on board. A few 
days later, while on the ice, he weighed anchor, leaving them behind. 
They pursued in their boat, and were at last taken on board another 
vessel. In 1676 a fleet of Dutcli whalers was suddenly caught by the 
ice in Vaigats Strait on the eve of their return, and were saved by the 
resolution and jMesence of mind of Capt. Kees, who allayed the panic. 
After a detention of nineteen days, the weather grew mild, a thaw set in, 
and ihey found themselves free as suddenly as they were previously locked 
up. Coolness and courage, patience and energy, a keen insight, good 
judgment, and tjuick execution, together with abundance of fresh whole- 
some food— which the canning process has .now made easy— are the 
chief requisites to success in Arctic voyages. But the examples given 
also show tliat while these precautions reduce the risk to a minimum 
there is always gr^-at danger, which only the best trained and hardiest 
can hope to cope with successfully. Arctic explorers should be selected 
with great care; and no unfit volunteer should be permitted to endanger 
the lives of others and his own. 


It was now nearly seventy years since Hudson liad pronounced 
against the availability for commercial purposes of a northeast route to 
China and India, and exactly one hundred years since Frobisher had 
tried in vain to accomplish » the only great thing left undone in the 
world," a Northwest Passage to 1' same countries. Many attempts 
had been made in both directions, some new geographical information 
had been gleaned at infinite cost and labor, but the problem remained 
unsolved. The latest trials had been made in the west, and there too, 
they were resumed. Baffled and disappointed, but not entirely cast down,' 
civilized man would not give it up and rest content. The ocean should 
yet be made to surrender its seci :ts to the lord of creation. This was 
more than a hundred years before Byron sang, '^ Man marks the earth 
with ruin; his control stops with the shore,"— a dictum which man will 
not accept. Man's control of the sea is different, but it is also very real; 



" Britannia rules the waves • " 

:-:;:;:j::;t;;rr;r::r:;;:: fr- 


WEST PASSAGE — Hudson's hay company chartered a 

pilot's story ok the north pole — voyage ok wood — wreck 


A generation had passed away since the voyages of Fox and James, 
and Hudson Bay iiad begun to pass into oblivion, as no other than a 
dreary and dangerous waste of water in the midst of inhospitable and 
uninhabited landi,, when in 1669 ^^^^ attention of England was again 
turned to it. 

The fur traders of New France had penetrated through the forests of 
Canada in every direction in pursuit of that very profitable branch of 
commerce. One of these enterprising adventurers, Grosselier, reached 
the shore of Hudson's Bay. Believing he had made an important orig- 
inal discoveiy, he returned to France to lay it at the feet of his sovereign. 
But t\-\Q grand monarque — Louis XIV — was more concerned about ex- 
tending his home dominion to the Rhine than his transatlantic domains to 
the Hudson Bay or elsewhere. So Grosselier's story fell on deaf ears, 
until it reached those of the English ambassador, who encouraged him 
to try the Court of .St, James, and gave him a letter to Prince Rupert, 
cousin of Charles II., who had been admiral in the war of the Restora- 
tion, and a few years later against the Dutch. He was favorably re- 
ceived, and intrusted with one of the king's ships, for the purpose of 
founding a colony on the shore of Hudson's Bay, and searching for the 
Northwest Passage. Henry Oldenburg, first secretary of the Royal 
Historical Society, established in 1662, and correspondent of Milton and 
Boyle, thus wrote to the latter in relation to this voyage: 

♦' Surely I need not tell you from hence what is said here with great 



joy of the discovery of a Northwest Passa-e made by two English and 
one Frenchman, lately represented by them to His Majesty at Oxford and 
answered by the royal <,nant of a vessel to sail into Hudson's Bay and 
thence into the South Sea; these men affi^minf,^ as I heard, that with a 
boat they went out of a lake in Canada into a river which discharged 
Itself northwest into the South Sea, into which they went and returned 
northeast into Hudson's Bay." 

In .670 the king -ranted a liberal patent, or charter, to the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, which consisted of his cousin Rupert, and a few 
specified associates. The company was actually invested with absolute 
proprietorship and a real though subordinate sovereignty, and the 
exclusive traffic of a territory of unknown extent, loosely described as ' 
Rupert's Land, and ordained to coverall that had been discovered or 
might yet be discovered within the entrance to Hudson's Strait-a 
magnificent grant, truly ; there was nothing mean about Charles •' I„ 
consideration," says he, "of their having undertaken, at their own cost 
and charges, an expedition to Hudson's Bay for the discoverv of a new 
passage into the South Sea, and for the finding of some trade in furs 
minerals and other commodities, whereby great advantage mi.^ht prob' 
ably arise to the king and his dominions, His Majesty, for better pro- 
moting their endeavors for the good of his people, was pleased to confer 
on them exclusively all the lands and territories in Hudson's Bay 
together with all the trade thereof, and all others which they should 
acquire," etc. 

Though discovery was one of the primary objects of this princely 
endowment, Capt. Zachariah Gillam, who was placed in command of 
the expedition, seems to have added but little to the geographical knowl- 
edge of the regions of Hudson's Bay. He wintered at the mouth of 
what he named Rupert's River, in honor of his patron, and built a small 
stone fort at its mouth, which he named Fort Charles, in honor of the 
king. This was the first English settlement in the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany's territory; and for about a century they confined themselves to the 
coast, and are not known to have made a single eftbrt at additional dis- 
covery. The indisposition of monopolists to diminish their dividends by 
8 ' 




unprofitable expenditures, acconnts for the omission. I„ 1770 they 
explored tiie basin of tiie Coppermine, and toward the close of the cen- 
tury, that of the Mackenzie. In the first half of the present century 
they patronized two or three overland expeditions, all of which will 
receive attention in. .lue tin.e. In .S69 the company was finally bou^^ht 
out by the British <,^ovcrnment for $1,500,000, and its territory formrily 
incorporated with the Dominion of Canada in 1S70, on payment of the 
same amount. 

Capt. Gillam spent a more tolerable winter, owing probably to its 

bemg a .nilder season, than his predecessor, James, had done on Charl- 

^ton Island, in nearly the same latitude, and returned to E.igland with- 

out havin- received any clue from his supercarj^o, Grosselier, or any 

one else. 


Turn we now to the eastward to see what the navigators were able 
to achieve in that direction. Joseph Moxon (1637-1700) hydrographer 
to Charles II., and manufacturer of globes and maps, as well as writer 
on mathcr.uitics and navigation, and Fellow of the Royal Society 
theorized about the Northeast Passage to China until he satisfied him'- 
self and some others that i: was feasible, and a new interest was awak- 
ened. He adduced many arguments, mainly from his inner conscious- 
ness, as was the custom in those days, and not to any large extent from 
demonstrable facts, which is the modern and scientific method. He 
added the following story, which doubtless proved convincing, but it 
lacks one clement of persuasion with even the most incredulous-truth 
He relates that the pilot of a Greenlander, or whaler in Greenland seas' 
declared to him that he sailed to the North Pole, and continues thus: 

"Whereupon, his relation being novel to me, I entered into dis- 
course with him, and seemed to question the truth of what he said- but 
he did assure me that it was true, and that the ship was then at Am'stcr- 
dam, and many of the men belonging to her could justify the truth of 
It; and told me, moreover, that they had sailed two degrees beyond the 
Pole. I asked him if they found no land or islands about the Pole. He 

replied, «No; it was a free, onen sei ' r n i . i • .. 

wha. wche,. ,he, h,„, „„,' ',J ' "'T.:''" "" ''■'■ ' ^-'-' '""■ 

LcnKini 111 the simmer tune, aiui as hof '" tm 
lonj,aM- he anv .l.,ul,t. The hirdv nil ^ . '" "*"''' "^ 

. ho„', c«.. "'"■" "'"■""' ""» -■"""" ^' l>-l "» I--.- as 

orsans. In ,6„ „e „„„ .,„ „ ,„„„„,,„, ,„ ,|,^ ^ 

RU,„c e.pecea.ton, „f .,u,™<„a,.!„g all, U ,W. , ,' 

,,<..,.c.l that h„ p,cdocos,„r,, ,„ay liav. missel the proper „■,.,-, J H 

^ l™. a,u, hi. ,„.otho. the D„.e „f Yo,-,, .he fat,, e , I \ 

^™.-. ea^: :rr;zr ,:;:;:::::::■ ^f^:- ---■- 

1 . V ^""' loute. 1 roinment inoinh-inf. 

and .,av,ga.o,, were eo,.„,te„ h, .he Ui„g, hut the „eh,»i„,. , . ': ^ 
tl'em a, well as Moxon „„.l w„„,l. [t w.:- i„ the ,i,- III- 
..iarhat foolish enterprises hefore a„„ since. T^Z^::' """i 
.i^e .in,.s Shi,., w.s plaee.l at h,s .lisposal, an,, Htte.i ^ iTl. :;: 
,lockya,<ls at Deptford, at .he Idn..', exoense .<1, ' 

».. ..e hes. ,^„ianees of the peri^, an^ r^h::,:: Z ^ :" ,„e„. The Dake of York a„,l seven associates fl.te,, Z I 

expense a s.naller vessel of , ,o tons, na.ned .he "P,o,„e,„„s " „ ,1 
paiiy the " Si)ecdwell " «l,.. . "°'1"-"»'N t" accom- 

J opecuwell. bhe was raanne,! by eishtce,, mc„ Mom 

- »aj„ hkely ,o find a ,eu,ly ,„arke. in Japan. Capt. Fla,„es 



^^^^■j 1 





luniniyKBiH^^BE ^ 

'IMHI^^^BH j 




^^^^^^Hk| pB 



took „f the "Prosperous"; an.I it was agreed between the 
comiiiaiulers that they should direct their course hctvveeu Nova Zembla 
and S,,it/.her-en. '« My idea was," says Wood, « to follow exactly thl 
track of Marcnt/, a.ul proceed <h.c> ....rthcast after reachin- the North 
Cape, in order to get between Greenland." Spitzbergen was then sup- 
l)osed to be a part of CJrcciiland. 

May 3S, 1676, the vessels left the Nore, and on the 2,1 of June took 
refuge from a northwest gale in IJrassa Soun.l in the Shetlands. On the 
tenth they weighed anchor, and on the 23d had rounde.l North Cape, 
whence they sailed northeast and immediately encountered the ice in 
latitude 76 = . For five days they skirted this great mass of ice vainly 
seeking an opening. Wood conclude<l it was one vast ice continent 
stretching from Nova Zembla to ''Greenland," and that IJarentz and 
others were mistaken in the opinion that there was lanil to the north of 
Soo . On the 29th of June he changed his course to the west, abandon- 
ing his cherished theories. They had jn-occeded but a little way when 
the "Speedwell" struck upon' hidden rocks, the extensio.i of 
which, in sarcastic contrast with tiie name of his ship, he named Point 
Speedill, in 74' 30', the most western promontory of Nova Zembla. 
The ship lay heating on the rocks for several hcnn-s, the crew lalK.ring 
in vain to save her. The weather clearing a little, they were amazed to 
find land right un.Ier their stern. A boat was sent to ascertain if a land- 
ing could be elfected, but it returned unsuccessful. The fog lifting more 
completely, the captain descried a clear stretcii of beach, which the long 
boat with twenty men was enabled to reach. The boat returned. Some 
provisions and supplies were now put aboard the small boat, but she 
was upset, and her cargo, including the captain's papers and money, 
and one of the crew, were lost. Another seaman was left aboard so ill 
that he could not be removed. All the others were taken ashore by 
the long boat, and a tent was erected and a fire built. On the 30th 
the ship began to go to pieces and much of the wreck Hoated to the 
shore, supplying them with material for huts and firewood. The next 
two days they secured some provisions that were washed ashore from 
the wreck. Finally on the eighth their more fortunate companion who 

Kfipo/rrs OF A cophEit mine. wn 

had the shoals on the 39th of June and jrono out to sea, returned 
in se- rch of her consort, and took the survivors s.fely on hoard. After 
thi^ great misfortune and fortunate deliverance; Capt. Wood almndoncd 
the pursuit of the success of which he had heen so sanfruine a few nionths 
before, and on the very next day the "Prosperous" sailed for England, 
where she arrived on the 23d of Auj^'ust. 


The fate of Wood's expedition in 1676 very naturally dampened 
not only his own ardor hut that of the English people for the discovery 
of the Northeast Passage; and indeed, his was the last attempt under 
Enghsh auspices in that direction. The burden of searching for the 
Northwest Passage had been officially laid on the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany in their charter of ,670, and the rest of England was virtually 
debarred from trespassing. After the manner of monopolists, the com- 
pany seem to have interpreted their charter stringently as to privileges, 
and loosely as to obligations. In ,719 the governor of their trading 
colony at the mouth of the Nelson River was James Knight. He was 
almost e.ghty years of age, or old enough to have gone out with their 
first colony in 1670. He was now at least al the head of affairs, and ap- 
parently had been in those regions some years. He had learned from 
the nafves that at some distance to the north and on the bank of a navi- 
gable river was to be found a rich mine of copper. This inforn.ation 
stnnulated him to undertake a voyage of discovery, .„d he applic-d to 
the Company for the use of two ships for that purpose. Preferring 
the ddigent prosecution of the fur trade, they .leclined; but Knight, who 
apparently had been awakened to a sense of duty by bis desire to Hnd 
copper, now reminded them of the obligation imposed by their char- 
ter to u^stituce voyages of discovery, and to n.ake the reminder 
effective, threatened an appeal to the kings ministers. 

The company finally yielded to Knight's peculiar powers of persua- 
sion, and fitted out two vessels which were placed at his disposal. They 
were called the "Albany" and " Discovery," and were respectively under 
the nnmediate command of George Barlow and David Vaughan 








Knii;J,t, witl. his captains an<l crewn, ««ilc,l in the summer „r autumn of 
l7'9."l>y(io.|'s pc-nnission t.. Hml ,.ut the Straits of Ainan, in order 
to .hscover jroi.l an.! other valuahle commo.nties to the northward " 
Havn.jr won i,i. point. Kni^jht seen,s to have eared as htth- about the 
Northwest l'a,ssaKe as his c-.nploycrs. The ships never returned. In 
•7-!^ the "Whalehone" was dispatched umler Capt. S,toj,.jjs to seareh 
for K..iKht an.l his companions. They saile.l from Churchill River in 
l^'tton's May, to the northwani; hut in his report Scro^^j^s ,««,,,, no 
.nent.on of havin- instituted any search whatever for the lost navi^fa- 
tors or tor the Northwest i-assa^'e. Hnt he hrou^^ht hack confirn,ation 
of the reports ahout copper. He .' had seen two northern Indians, who 
told l.Mu of a rich copper mine somewhere in that country, upon the 
shore, near the surface of the earth; and they could direct the sloop so 
near as to lay her side to it and he soon loaded. They had hroujjht 
some pieces of copper to Churchill that made it evident that there was a 
mn.c tiK.rcah,.uts. They had sketched out the country with charcoal 
before they left Churchill, and so far as they went, it a.need very well " 
Nothin,,^ was heard of Kni,,Hu or his comrades until the overl.nd 
explorn,,. expedition of Samuel Hearne, tnuler the auspices of ,he I Ind 
son W.y Company, in .769, just lifty years after they ha.l set out 
Ilearne oleaned the following account of them from the Esquimaux o*' 
Marble Island: 

" When the vessels arrived at this place, it was very late in the fdl 
(of .719), an<l in ..retting them into the harbor, ,he largest received 
much ,lamage; but on being fairly i„, the English began to build a 
house, then- number at ti.u time seeming to be about fifty. As soon as 
the ,ce pennitted in ,1. fV.llowing summer ( .7,0), the Escpmnaux paid 
then, another visit. In- which time the, of (he English was verv 
^vatly rclnced, and those that we,e living seenu-d very unhealthy. 
Acconhng to the account given by the Esquimaux, ,hey were ' 
n.s,ly en,pIoye<l, but about what they could not easily describe; proli 
b ly n. lengthening the long boat, fbr at a little <listance fVon, the house 
there was now (.769) lying a quantity of oak chips, winch most 
assuredly had been made by carp- ,;,''.,«. 



"A Hickness ami famitie occasioned such havoc nmonj? the EnjrliHh 
that by the settmjr in „r the second winter, 1730, some of the Esqui- 
maux took up their abode on the opposite side of the harbor to that on 
which the EnKdish had buiU their houses, , ul fie<iuently supplied them 
with such provisions as they had, which chielly consisted of whale's 
bhd)ber, and seal's flesli anil train oil. When the sprinj,' advanced, the 
Esquimaux went to the continent; and on their visitinjr Marble Island 
again, in the summer of 1721, they found only five of the En<,'lisli alive, 
and those were in such distress for provisions that they ca^jerly ate the 
seal's flesh, and whale's blul)ber (piite raw as they purchased it from 
the natives. This disordered them so much that three of them died in 
a few A:iy<,; and the other two, thou<,'h s(. very weak, made a shift to 
bury them. Those two survived many days after the rest, and fre- 
quently went to the top of an adjacent rock, and earnestly looked to the 
south and east, as if in expectation of some vessels comin;^' to their 
relief. After continuinjj there a consiilerable time to«rcther, and nothin*,' 
appearin«r in sij^ht, they sat down close tojjrcther and wept bitterly. At 
lenjjth one of the two died, and the other's strength was so far exhausted 
that he fell down and died also, in attempting to dig a grave for his 
companion. The skulls and other large bones of these two men are 
now (1769) lying above ground, close to the house. The longest liver 
was, according to the Esquimaux' account, always employed in working 
iron into implements for them; probably he was the armorer or smith." 




]i- -I 



The solution of the question that iiad so Ion- pressed on the minds 
Of the natives of Western Europe would have been of the utmost im- 
portance to Russia, if that state had been in a condition to enga-e in the 
commerce of the East. But the Northeast Passage was too big a ques- 
tion, and its discovery too great an enterprise for the feeble Russia of 
three centuries ago. She did not even feel an interest in maritime ex- 
peditions until the advent of Chancellor, in 1554, showed her a way to 
obtam West European goods without having to receive them through 
her rivals and enemies, the Poles. Even as late as the begi.ming of the 
seventeenth century nothing was known of the Arctic regions of^Siberia 
east of the Yenisei River. The country beyond had doubtless been 
often traversed by companies of Russians analagous to what the French 
in Canada had named forest couriers or wood rangers, that is, private ad- 
venturers in search of furs and game. But such information as these 
were able toglea.) remained scattered, and had never been collected so as 
to be made available to the public, or serve the interests of geography or 

It was in 1646 that the first Russian voyage of exploration in the 

Arctic was n.ade, and that was simply a coasting voyage, eastward from 

Kolyma, by private adventurers. They found a clear channel between 

the land and the ice, which was firmly grounded on the shelving, coast 

leavmg room for their small vessel to ply along under sail. After sailing 

two days they anchored in a bay and became acc,uainted with a native 

tnbcthe Tchuktchis (Chookchecs), a branch of the Esquimaux race 

Neither party understood the language of the other; but they be-an to 

120 " 



traffic after the manner described by Herodotus in relation to the barba- 
reus tribes of Africa. The Russians displayed their wares upon the 
strand, and withdrew ; the Tchuktchis took what they wanted, leaving 
sea-horse teeth, carved and whole, in exchange. These the Russians 
gathered up and returned home. 

In 1648 seven vessels left the Kolyma, under the command of Semoen 
Deshniev, a Cossack, to discover the river Anadir. Four of the seven 
vessels were soon lost, but one or more of the others went throusrh what 
is now Behring's Strait, or more probably were hauled across the pro- 
montory, for they reached the mouth of the Anadir, in the gulf of the 
same name, south of Behring Strait, on the Asiatic side. Deshniev's 
narrative begins with the great cape of the Tchuktchis, which is sup- 
posed to be Cape East in Behring Strait. « It is situated, " says Desh- 
niev, « between the north and northeast, and turns circularly to-vard the 
river Anadir. Over against the cape are two islands, upon which were 
seen some men of the Tchuktchi nation, who had holes pierced in their 
lips, through which were stuck pieces of the teeth of the sea-horse "— 
evidently American Esquimaux. Two of the three remaining vessels 
were either lost in making the voyage or lefl behind before getting to the 
strait, for Deshniev arrived with only one, and this was wrecked a little 
south of the river's mouth. The crew of his vessel consisted of twenty- 
five men, and they now proceeded to return overland. They wandered 
ten weeks through a woodless and uninhabited country, until they came 
to a river on the banks of which they encountered a small tribe called 
Anauli, whom they, notwithstanding their own desolate condition, did 
not hesitate to exterminate— a piece of wanton cruelty which very de- 
servedly added to their own distress. This discovery led to considerable 
traffic with the barbarous tribes north of Kamchatka, which, however 
was mostly carried on through the interior. 

In 1696 these Russian or Cossack adventurers penetrated south to the 
Kamchatka River, plundering the native villages under the pretext of col- 
lecting tribute; and in 1697 Vladimir Atlassov, a Cossack officer, un- 
dertook the conquest of Kamchatka. He traveled overland from 
Irkoutsk to the Anadir, but states from hearsay or observation that be- 




tween the Kolyma and Ana.lir there are two eapes, the west of, probal>ly what is eallecl Cape North, coul.l never l,e douhh-.l l,y 
any vessel, beeause of the quantity of ice that lines its shores at all seasons 
of the year. The Kamchadales were easily eonquerecl, and before ,706 
the more warlike Tehuktehis shared the same fate. The former are cle- 
-nbnl as smaller than the latter, with small faees hut ^reat beards. 
Ihey hved .mder.nound in winter, and in cabins raised from the <.rotmd 
on post., n, summer. These cabins were reache.l l,v la.l.lers. ^Thev 
lnn-.ed their n.eats in the earth, wrappe<l in leaves, until it was quite 
putnd. For cooking it, they use.l earthen or wooden pots, heatin<r the 
water by throwing into it stones which thev had ma.le red-hot " Their 
cookery smelt so strong," says Atlassor, » that a Russian could not sup- 
port the odor of it, " 

The next Russian navigator to the Arctics was Taras Staduchin, 
who eft the Kolyma a few years later, to explore the (ireat Cape of the 
IchuktchKs, which, however, he was unable to reach by water. Aban- 
< onn.g his vessel, he crossed the Isthnu.s at its narrowest point, leavin-. 
•he land to the north and east, as f^.r as Behring Strait, tn.expIorecL activity was now uKiinly directed in those northeastern re-nons 
to overhaul military expeditions for the more complete subjugation of 
the rude tribes in that section of Siberia. 

In 171 1 a Russian embassy was sent to the Tehuktehis to demand 
hostages, which were refused, and it was not tmtil ,7,8 that they for- 
mally made their submission at the Russian fort, which ha<l been erected 
at the mouth of the Anadir. The chief of the embassy of 17, ,, I>eter 
S.n Topov, a Cossack, gave a description of the people, their American 
neighbors and the country, of which the following is an abstract- 

The Tchuktchi « Nos" or Cape, is destitute of trees. On the shores 
near the Nos were fotmd sea-horse teeth in great ntn),bers. The 
Tchuktchi, in their solenn, engagements, invoked the sun to guarantee 
their performances. Some among them had flocks of tamc^reindeer 
which obliged them often to change their place of residence; but those' 

wlio had no reindeer inhabited the 

banks where the sea-horses were wont t( 

eoasts on both sides of the N 

OS, near 
eomc, on which with fish 



they mostly subsisted. They had habitations hollowed in the earth. 
Opposite to the Nos, they said, an island mi<rht be seen at a great dis- 
tancc, whieh they called the Great Country, and which unquestionably 
meant America. The inhabitants of that land pierced holes throu<rh 
then- cheeks, in which they inserted large ornaments made of pieces cut 
from the teeth of the sea-horse. These people had a diflerent language 
from the Tchuktchi, with whom they had been at war from time im- 
memorial. They used bows and arrows, as do the Tchuktchi. Popov 
saw ten men of that country, with their cheeks jiierced as described, who 
were prisoners with the Tchuktchi. In summer they could reach that 
land in one day in their boats or canoes, which are made of wh.-lebone, 
covered with sealskins; in winter also in one day, with good reindeer, 
and no obstruction or r.ccident to their sledges or teams. At the Cape 
were to be seen no wild land animals but wolves and red foxes; but on 
the other land, that is, in America, there were many more, as sables, 
martens, bears, otters,* and many kinds of foxes; and the inhabitants had 
large herds of tame deer. Popov computed both classes of the Tchuktchi 
at over 2,000 adult males, and the Americans from what he learned, at 
about 6,000. The Tchuktchi reckoned the journey from the Cape to 
Anadir at ten weeks with laden leindeer, provided no storm of wind or 
snow should arise. They mentioned also a smaller island about hj-.lfway 
between the Cape and the Great Country— probably St. Lawrence or 
Clark Island— from which the Great Country might be seen on a clear 









It is clear that the Russians were in a fair way to reach America by 
sea or land, as the case might prove to be, in the neighborhood of what 
soon became known as Behring Strait. Just before his death in 1725, 
the greatest of the Russian monarchs, Peter the Great, occupied himself 
with the details of an Arctic voyage of discovery, the chief object of 
which was to ascertain definitely whether or not America and Asia were 
divided by water at the extreme north. His instructions were these: 

1. That one or two ships should be built at Kamchatka, or elsewhere 
on the Eastern Ocean. 

2. That when constructed and fitted out they should proceed north- 
ward and ascertain if there was a waterway between the continents. 

3. To ascertain if there were in those jiarts any harbors or trading- 
posts belonging to Europeans. 

4. That another exioedition should proceed from Archangel to the 
Arctic Sea, and move eastward to meet, if practicable, the one movino- 
north from the coast of Kamchatka. 

5. To keep a record of what should be discovered, which was to be 
brought by the commander to St. Petersburg at the close! .pf the voyage. 

The expedition from Archangel proved unfruitful. Qfie of the two 
ships was soon hemmed in by the ice, and was unable to advance. The 
other started on the voyage but was lost among the Jlce, and was 
never heard ot. 




The Eastern expedition, which w.s n.-t re.-ulv mUil . 72S, w.-,s ,n.t 
""''^''- '"nnn.-u-.I ..f \'i„„ Hdiring, . !):,„. hv i.irth, l,u( for sonu. yc-rs 
■H the service ..f Russ.a, where he ha.i risen ,0 ,he rank of conHn...lore. 
A, Alexis Tchirikov, was imrn.tnl with ,W- n.nunan.l of one of 
the vessels. Three years were cons.nne.l in preparation. Mdnin-, with 
h.s oIlK-ers, crews an.l ship-hu,l,icrs, proceeded overland lo Okhotsk 
'"""' '"• ''^■•^'■•""•■'^>'l •" '».ild one of the vessels, i,, which to c ,nvey thJ 
Mien and snppli.s to Kamchatka, where he was to h.nld the other " 

(>■• July ,,, .7.S,every!hin^ hen,^ in rea.liness ,hev set sail iVom 
Kamchatka River. Ahout the ,th of Au,,n.s,, when in latitnde 6, 30' 
c.i^ht rch,d<tchis approached in one of thdr leather hoals, and sent 
(orwanl one of their nMnil,er, on sealskins filled with air, ,0 demand who 
they were, whither they were ^oinj,, an<l what they wanted. They 
ponUed ont to the Russians the island which these afterward calle.i the 
Isle of St. Lawrence, and which has since heen name.l Clark's Island 
Sat.sfying his cmestioners that his designs were pacific, Hehrin^ proceede.l 
on h.s voya,^e and reached 67' kS ' without obstruction, "whence he 
nghtly nd-erred that the continents were divided hv water, hecause no 
lan,l was visible to the north or east. He had sailed thron-h the strait 
which was afterward called after his name. lie ukuIc a second vova^^e 
in .7.9, m the same waters, hut without obtainin,^. anv additional inf.'n-- 
m.fon. He does not seem to have seen the coast of An.erica on either 

In .73r a vessel was .lispatched und r Krupishev from Kamchatka 

R.ver to co-operate with a land force for the subju-^ation of the Tchuk- 

tch.s. A ,.ale of wind forced the ship fron. the point of land where 

Behnn.s voyage had terminated; and bein^ driven east, Krupishev 

^-nnd an .sland, and afterward a country of ^reat extent. A uku, c nne 

aboanl fron, the shore in a canoe, whon> they understood ,0 sav that he 

bclom^ed to a great country abomulin,,. in wild animals and forests The 

Russians coasted it for two days, wben another storm comin-, on, they 

cl.rected their course hon.eward to Kamchatka. This vova<.e left no 

doubt of the discovery by Behrin^ of the strait <lividin. th^ ^ntinents. 

Hniiself and officers received many rjisiinctions 




several exijloring 







expeditions were projected. As before, the more important were two: 
The Western was from Arclian-el alonj^ the northern coast to the east- 
ward; hnt this an<i many successive attempts in tiie same direction failed, 
manily because the promontory and cape called Taimur, exten.linjr to 78" 
and encompassed by an immense ice barrier, constituted an insunn(,unt. 
able obstacle. The other, which was intrusted to Ik-hrino, was the 
continuance of his former enterprise, with the specific purpose of 
ascertaining the distance from Kamchatka to America in the same 

All preparations bein- duly made, IJehrinj? an.l his former Heuten- 
ant, Tchirikov, set sail in the St. Peter and St. Paul from Avatcha Bay 
in Kamchatka, June 4, 174,. Sixteen days later the St. Paul, under 
Captain Tchirikov, was separated from the Commodore's vessel in a 
gale, and a fo- arisinor soon after, they entirely lost sight of each other 
for the whole season. July the 15th Tchirikov found himself near the 
mamlandon the American side, in latitude 55 O 36'. He cast anchor 
and sent out the long boat with orders to make a landinj. where they 
could on the rock-bound shore. Several days having elapsed without 
then- return, he grew alarmed and sent his other boat in search. But 
the same fate doubtless awaited both-probably destruction by the na- 
tives. Neither was ever heard from, and Tchirikov lost seventeen men 
and both his boats. Some Americans made from the shore in their 
canoes some days later an<l siu-veyed the ship from a distance; but they 
did not dare approach her. Had they been kindly disposed thev proba- 
bly would not have held aloof. It is almost certain that they had killr-J 
or taken captive the seventeen Russians. Tchirikov now held a council 
of his remaining officers, and it was deemed advisable to return. The 
St. Paul was headed for Kamchatka, where she arrived in safety early in 
October. Here the thoughtful Tchirikov made preparations for the 
reception of Behring and his crew, should disaster overtake them. 

Meanwhile Behring's ship had fallen in with the continent in lati- 
tude 58 o 38', on the iSth of July. The prospect grand, but 
gloomy. Ilijrh mountain ranges, ndge beyond ridcrc, covered with 
snow, stretched away to the utmost limit of vision. Towerin- over all 



15,000 feet hijrh, rose the lofty peak which George William Steller, the 
German naturalist and physican of the expedition, named Mo.u.t St 
Ehas, by which it is still known. On the .9th they anchored in a safe 
bay near the small island of Kaiak, in what is called Behrinj; Bay, ahot.t 
latitude 59O ^5'. The capes on either hand they named St. Elias and 

July 20 a boat was sent ashore for fresh water, and Steller with 
d.fticulty obtained permission to accompany the crew with his Cossack 
attendant. On landing, Steller struck boldly into the interior, an.l at the 
distance of a mile he discovered the hollowed trunk <,f a tree in which 
the natives had but a few hours before cooked some meat with r.,1 hot 
•stones, after the manner of the Kamchadales, whence he inferre.i that 
they were probably of the san.e stock, an.i that the two continents 
nccessardy approacii each other to the north, as the frail canoes of the 
natives were not fit to traverse a wi.le expanse of water. At the dis- 
tance of another mile he found a cache or cellar, which he t„,covered 
and found full of smoked, and a few bundles <.f the inner l>ark of 
the larch, which in case of necessity serves as food throughout all Sibe- 
na. There were also some arrows, carefully s.noothcd and .V^ black 
which were superior to those of the Kamchadales. Steller now 
back his servant to obtain an extension of time and a small escort to con- 
tinue his exploration. In his absence he ascende.l a hill and saw smoke in the distance, which satisfied him that some natives could soon 
he lound. lint Hehring was inexorable for his return, and Steller couhl 
only obey, under penalty of being left behind. In the bitterness of his 
disappointment he was excusable for giving utterance to the sarcasm 
that the Russians traveled a great way at great expense to carry a little 
American water to Asia. Steller took away samples of what he had 
lound, leaving some knive.' 

On the 2 1 St, Behr 

inkcts and tobacco in exch 


cabin through illness, appeared on decl 

ing, who had hitherto almost constantly kept his 

and return as < 

nn.ess, appeared on <lcck, gave orders to weigh anchor, 
lirectly as might be to Kamchatka. They soon found that 

the coast trended southwest, and 


it was with the utmost difficulty that 

were able to extricate the ship fn,m the labyrinth of islands which 


s I 


line the peninsula ..f Alaska. Six weeks later, <,n the 3,1 „f September, 
they ha.I an a.lven'.nv with a few natives. Seeinj. nine of them f.shinc. 
on an ■slan.l-pn,»,ahly of the smaller ontlyinj. islands of the Aleutian 
Kinup-they ,M.,lertook to ope., communication with them. Hy si<rns 
each partv invile.l the other to approach; finally three Russians, ..ith the 
Kanak nncrpreter, rowed ashore, but the North-Siberian found himself 
amonj,r,st,,,n.irerstohis lan,tiuajre, and could render no assistance. The 
Americans, however, seemed t<, like their Asiatic brother, evidently rec- 
oj,Mn.n>jr i„ hi,, , „,,,,, ,,,,tionship than in his European companions. 
1 he leader of the abori,i,nnes was invi.e.i aboard the Russian boat, and as 
^. token of confi.IcMce complied. The hospitable Russians now handed 
h-.n a of ]„,..,Kly, the taste of which so appalled the unsophisticated 
.K.Uvc, that he exhibited the ^n-eatest alarm and an evident anxiety to be 
pi.t ashore anu,n.,. his fellows. This done in all haste; and the Rus- 
s.ans .Ireadinj,^ the spread of the ,,anic among his companions, rowed for 
the ship, leaving the Kariak among his new-found friends. He, how- 
ever, set up such a lamentation and made such piteous signs not to be 
abandoned, tliat the Russians concluded to have recourse to a stratagem 
for his recovery. They fired two shots in the air, which, reverberadn.r 
from the Inlls, so affected the imaginations of the astonished natives, that 
they ofTercd no hindrance to the departure of the interpreter, who, h.nsten- 
ing to tiie shore, was soon alioard the vessel. The next day the natives 
presented themselves in their canoes at the side of the vessel, bearin- the 
ohve branch of peace, that is, a rod ornamented with feathers, and hlart- 
ily cheered the departing strangers, who ha.l already weighed anchor, 
and were being rapidly borne away on the freshening breeze. 

r.nvard the close of September, they encountered one of those fierce 
storms, exceptional even in northern latitudes, lasting seventeen days 
and surpassing i,i violence anything their pilot had ever seen. He had 
been at sea, boy and man, for fifty years, and of all the storms he had 
w.tnesse,l,this was the worst; an.l very severe it proved to Rehring and 
h.s crew. They were <lr,ven south to about the latitude of the no.thern of what is now the United States, exclusive of Alaska. They dis 
cusse<i among themselves whether to seek refuge on the American coast 



or ».,.,„,,, ,„ „,„„, ,„ K,,„«h,,.k.n. The l„„„ c„„r,c w.„ .Icermmo ,. 

Mcanwh, c »„,„., ,,,„ ,,„„, , „^„„^, „,^ ,^^,,_ ^__^ ^^^^ ^^_^^^, ^ 

.he „e ,„ ,al, ,„„vi,i„„„ „„„ „|„„,,| ,., „,„ ^.^^^.^^,^.^, ^ 

wc... he,.. Ahn,,.. eve,.y ,,,., .hey l.,s. „„e ,„ „.. ,,,.„, ,„ „J,„ 

Ily ."...« „e,.e left i„ he.l.h ,„ „.,„„e the vessel. ,.ehH„, 

■ «IK n..„».e,„e„l „r ,he vessel. The I.ehns,,.,,, was ,„ liek 
"at -e ,e,,u,n,,l ,„ he su,,|,„,-,e,l ,„ his ,,„„; .,,,,1 ,vhe„ „„ |„„,a.r 
able ., s„.e,. he „as .-elieve.l ,,v „„e nea,!, as weak a, hhnsdr. 

en .,.e„ a. the ^e.y „r .„e „.,„„. The ,„en l„s. e ,,,e a„,l ,at .hen,! 

-Ive:., „„ .„,|cspai,.. The „i,h., ,rew l„„«e, l,„. ,he „.,„e i„„„i„e„. 
Wca,„e.he,r<lan,a.,-,,he ,,„„. helpless a,„l hopeles. I,eea..e the ere„ 

When ■e.ineste.l t ,hei,-,l„ty, .hey were seareely able t„ nn.lcnake i. 

""":; ..''-"'^ "-<' '"- l'-^"- They p,,,„„nnee.l I. in.posslhle il 

save ,he ,h,p ,„. .he^selves; ,n,.l severity „f ,|iseip,ine was of n„ avail, f.,,- 
.h .vpreferre, even .lea.h ,„ .he sffleri,,,. they e„.l„re,l. The „mce,-s 
of he sh„. wh„n, the necessities „r petpetna, „ve,si,ht ha,l kept l,.„y 

;".<■ achve escape, .lisease vere n,.w the „„ly hope „f s Ivation' 

rhey ,n.,e<l the ess .,espai,,n„ „f the crew to fnrnish snch assistance as 
they con , „„.,„„.» ,,„, ,„„ ,„. , „,, „, ^,^^. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ,,.,,,,^..,,y.., 
F.nally „„ the fonrth of >J„vc„,l,er, in al,„„t la.itn.le 55", a, ei.^ht 

o clock „. the ntornin,, h ,ove ,h,, l,„t at a consi.lera.,.: .list,,; 

lor they conl.1 only see the »„„„.e,a,l n.o.n.tains. They stecre,! ,„r th-' 

,nhosp,tal,le shore all .lay, an.l at night hel.l back to avoW bein, wreckcl' 

).. he tnorni,,,. of the llfth, a .rea. wave threw the ship over a reef an,l' 

lamlcl her, ,lisahle<l, in s „th water, after they ha.l lost two anchors in 

a .c;n,ptn,, to .save her front r,.„„i„,, „„ .„„ ,„,,, „^^ 

.hen.. h,r.l anchor, a„.l. he sha..ere,l ship ro.le at ease in the sheltered 

of VV '■™ ""'""7' "'"' "■^■'■'- ■"'"< ■''•l'--.-™t ashore nn.ler the c„n„„an,l 

Wasall, on whon, ,|,c .lirec.ion of .he ship an.l crew ha.l .lcvolve.1, 

•■" tchtn,, h..con,i,„. entirely .lisable.l. They fenn.l the cnn.ry barren 

an,l eovercl w,tb snow; bn. had the goo<l fortnne to discover a stream 



of .xcc-llc.U Hous., hut, or sl,dtc-r of any kimi, coul.l not he 
fouM.I, c-xc-cpt san.l hol.s,..vcr which ihc-y .sp,Ta.l s,„nc- sails to make them 
I'-'l'.tMl.le lor the sick. ()„ the eij,H,th sume were InwU-.l, an.l ..„ ,he 
■ H-M .lay Mc.hrin^r ,vas lake,, ashore a„.I ,,n,vi,ie.l lor with special care 
'.. ..Me of ihe excavatc.l san.l holes. Six .lays later all were provide.! for 
o" lan.i as well as circumstances would permit. The interior of the Ian,! 
swarme.1 with hh.e an.l white foxes, which were so hold as to convince the 
Uussians that they had fallen on an nninhahited rejrion. Sea otters were 
also seen, which proved they were not .,n the cast of Ka.ucha.ka, from these animals had disappeare.l. Killinjr some of these they found 
the flesh tonsil and unpalatahle, l.n. Steller, the physician, ,n-ed its con- 
sn,npti.,n, however tn.pleasant, as an anti.lote to the scurvy; and nearly 
all llic crew, except those who were sick on landinj,s were saved 
disease l,y his persistence. M )n all sides." says Steller, .lescrihino the 
experiences after landin-, u „othin- was t.. he seen hnt misery. Before 
thc.lea.l conl.l he ...nie.l, they were man-led l,y the f..xes, who even 
vcnt.ncl to approach the helpless invalids who were lyin^ without cover 
on the heach. Some of these wretched sufTerers complained hitterly of 
the col.l, others of hun-er and thirst-for many had their -urns so 
swollen an.l ulcerated with the scurvy as to he unahle t., cat. 

"On November the 13th, I went out huntin- for the Ihst time with 
Mcssiem-s Plenisner and J5et.^a-; we killed four sea otters, an.l .li.l „ot 
return before ni.L,rht. We ate their Hesh thankfully, and praved to (iod 
that he mi-lu co.itinue to provide us with this excellent food.' The costly 
skins, on the other han.l, were of no value in our eyes; the onlv objects we now esteemed were knives, needles, thread, ropes,' etc., on 
which before we ha.l not bestowed a thought. We all saw that rank, 
science, and other s.,cial distinctions were of no avail, and coul.l n..t in' 
any way contribute to our preservation; we therefore resolved, before 
wc were fbrced to do so by necessity, to set to work at once. \V^> in- 
troducc.l amono- us five a comm.mity of <roods, an.l re-nlated our house- 
keeping in such a manner as not to l,e in want betbre the winter was 
over. Our three Cossacks were oblicred to obey orders, when we had 
decided upon something in common; but we began t.. treat them with 



grcatcT poliu-uoHs, calIin},Mln-.n hv ll 
floon found IV-tiT M 

H'ir iiiiiiu-s ;iii(| snriia 

formerly I'ftruclia | IV.tcrkin|. 

ixiiiKivitch siTvt'd 

nu's, ami we 
tis with iiK.iv alacrity ihau 




vmhcr the- I ,th till- whole sh 

ce parties. Tlu. ,„,^. |,;„i , 

<> CO 

^liip; thesccondhmi.^rht wood; the thini 
"<l niyself, remained at home— the f 

ips company was ronned into 

iivey the sick and provisions fioin tl 

, coiisistinu- of ;, i;i,nc s.iilor 




as cook 

ormer busy makin.-- a s| 

U our 

parly was the first t 

•'•<:^,'e, while 

also iH-rforiiud ilu- diKv ..f I 
"Mlil tlu-v had so I 

)rin'nii-r war 

<) or^raiii/c a hoiisdioM, I 
in soup to some of our sick 

•arracks hiincr this d 

H- recovered as to he al.le to help ihunscl 



!iy ready to receive 'the sici 



sported under roof; hut I 

Iv, inaiiv ( 

.f (1 

le ^'roiiiid 

'or want of room, iIh-v I 

lem Were 

otiier, and iiothin<r 

, covered with ra-s aiul clothes. N 

ly cvervwh 

ere on 


was heard hut I 

o one could assist the 

(hnjj so wix-tched 

:imcntati()iis and curses— -tl 

:i Ni;,'ht, as to mal, 


c even the sli 

lie whole 
<>n;^M;st la-art lose 

'On Xovemher 15th all the sic! 

one o 

f tl 

H-m named IJaris Sand into our I 

k were at len-th landed. We took 

covered within thre 

e months. The foil 

liiit, and hy (iod's help h 

as the mcsscii^a-rs we liad M-iit out 1 
were on a desert island, witi 

owin^r d;,ys added t 

I' re- 

o oiir misers 

"■'H'-ht tis the intelliircnce that 


, witliout any communical 

vVe were also in constant fear that tl 
sliil) ""1 I" sea, and alon- with ,t all our prov 

'"11 wiih Kamchatk 


le stormy weather mi"lit d 

ri\e our 

ever leturniiio- ( 

isior.s, ;^nd ev 

crv ho 

o our homes. 

vessel tor several d 

"•onietinies it was ini 

I pi' of 

:i\s to'jfethe 


)lc to <.et I,, t 


r, so 


or twelve men, who had hitherto been al.l 

boisterous was the sui' 

^'; and about 

"• Want, nakedness, 1 

c to wor 



our daily companion-. 

, Irost, ram, illness, impat 

ience, and despair, were 

AmoiiL!- the 

was a dead whale t 

provisions on which they ha.l to rel 


irowii on the coast of the island 

}' 111 emer'^-eucics 

1 t,'rim jocularity thev called th 

9th -of Deccmhe 

cir maLraziiie, 

r, exactiv four 

111 a storm. This 
J5ehrin<r died ,,i, the 

almost he said that 1 

weeks after bein^- landed. It 


the 1 

le was buried alive. In ij 




c sandpit in which he was 

liadually piled up around hii 

11 until he was 

i I 



more than lialf covcm-chI, lie would not allow it to he romovcd, hut kept 
tifatluTiuL;- it u|), uiuicr the fonvictiou that it helped to keep him warm 
and prolon,!^- life. When he died it heeame necessary to uiieartii him 
hel. le he eonld hi' deeenlly hu^' 'd. lie was respectl'ully interred on the 
island and in sioht of the sea, which were thencelorth to hear his name. 
lie was only in his sixty-second year, and mij^iil have survived the shi|)- 
wreck had hi- not heen enteehled hy disease arising- from exjiosure and 
till' want ol" fresh proxisions. He had heen thirtv-six years in the Rus- 
sian navy, which he entc'red in 1703. In 1 707 he had heen made lieu- 
tiaian!, and in i7if) captain. His last expedition failed of satisfactory le- 
suhs, no donht throunh his lon<4 continued illness. Beyond his piime man 
lacks that \ital powci- wliich enahles him to withstand tlie hardships of 
such adventures. Three weeks later the St. Peter was wrecked in si^rlu 
ol the survivors. Her cahle <j^ave way in a violent storm, and she was 
driven on the rocks. There was no lou'^er anv ho|)e of usin;^- hei' on the 
voyage to Kamchatka in tlie s])rin<;-, and to add to their misfortune a con- 
siderahle ])ait of their provisions were spoiled hy the sea water. 

In March, 174^, tlu sea otters disappeared from those waters, Thev 
liad killed 900 of them and sa\e(l the skins. Of these ahoul 300 eventu- 
ally came into the possession oi' Steller, hy harter and through the i;ener- 
osily of tlie sick, who felt deeply indehted to him for his services so dis- 
interestedly renderi'd in their hour of need. Thirty of the crew died on 
thi' island; hut nearly all had heen sick hefore landini;-. l''ort\-live 
survived. Seals, sea lions and sea horses now took the place of sea otters 
on the coast of Uehring's Island, and their ilesh was much more palata- 
hle. A walrus w i.^hiiiL,'- Soo pounds was found sufficient tor a lort- 
ui;j;ht's consumption. The ilesli resemhles heef, and that of the yonnj^- is 
as tinder as veal. The health of the men now improsed rapidh', and 
their i^ieat concern was to s^row stroni^- enough tor the work of deliver- 
ance which they were to undertake in the summer. 

VVaxall now he^an to turn their attention to the task of '^ettint^ 
ready. This he did with connnendahle discretion, A virtual dcmocracv 
had sprunt;- fiom their necessities, and one had as -jjood riL;ht to iiis opin- 
ion as another. Their projects tor escape were of coin-se xarions, hut they 




were gradually induce., to concur in Waxall's ,,esi,.n of breaking up the 
oV\ sh.p and c-ons.-uctin. a new hut sn.aller one Horn her timhers, In^- 

The .nonth of April was in preparations; and on the 
s.xth of May they began to l,uild the new boat or ship. Hv the first of 
June the tin.hers were ready for the planks. She was fbrty bv thir- 
teen feet; had but one mast, and one deck. 

"On the ,4th, in the morning," says Steller, » we weighe.l 
anchor, and steered out of tl,e bay. The weather being beautiful, 
and the .-uul favorable, we were all in good spirits, and as wJ 
sade,l along the islan<l, we pointed out to each other the well- 
known mountains and valleys which we had frequently visited m 
quest ot game, or for the purpose of reconnoitering. TowanI evenin.. 
we ^vere opposite the furthest point of the island, and o„ the 
i5tH, nu> wind continuing favorable, we steered <lirect towanl the 
-y ot Avatcha. About midnight, however, we perceived to our .^reat 
cLsmay, that the vessel began to fill with water from an unknown leak n> consecp.ence of the crowded au.l overloaded state of the vessel' 
;t was extremely diificult to find out. At length, after the lighten' 
>ng of the sh.p, the carpenter succeeded in slopping the leak, and thus 
we were once more saved from imminent danger." 

On (he .5th they sighted the longed-for Kamchatka, entered the ^-.y 
"( Avatcha on the 36th, and anchored in the harbor of Petropanlovsky 
- the .7ti, where they fbund that provision had been kiudlv UKule L 
then- anfe.pated wants through the forethought of Capt. Tchi'rikov 

Russian expeditions to Arctic seas now fell into the of merclruUs 
-Hi a.lventurers; and were prosecuted f^on, Archangel as whalin.. voy- 
ages, and in the east, fron. Petropaulovsky and Okhotsk, as ventm-es in 
the lur-trade, in svhich they built up a profitable con.n.eree with China 
and Japan. 








STRir.MKNTS I)|.;STI!()^• I I) 



-AirtTIl- \-OYA(;i.; oi.- 


del pi 

In the sprin- of i 754 Capt. Charles S 


lia, ill Pennsvlvania, t^ 

jft th 

> search for the Nortl 

e port of Phil; 

in command of the schooner A 

hwest Passaire. II 

e was 

Farewell in Ji 

r.Ljo; and (Irst encountered 

line. Leavinji;- the caster 

ice off Cai)e 

western ice in latitude sS 

■n ice he i\<^n]n fell in with tl 

it, hut could not; it th 
ward he met two Danish 
up Davis' Strait, which had 1 

5^% and cruised to the northward to 6 ^ c 
len extended to the eastward. R 




eturnin<r south- 

vessels hoim.l to Ball River an;l Disco Island 

K'en ni the ice fourteen davs off C 




1 had then stood to the westward. Th 
e ice was fast to the shore all above Hudson's S 

ipe I"a re- 

forty leajjfues out, and that there had not 1 

ey assured Swaine that 
trait to the distance of 

ast, these twenty-four years that thev had 1 

>een such a severe winter as the 

)een eii,t,r:i,n^ed in that trade. 

1 hey were then nine weeks from Copenha.^.en. The An^.o, (Indin-. she 
could not ,,.et around tiie ice, pressed through it au.l .-ol to the mouth of 
Hndson's Strait on the 26th of June. She reached Resolution IsPuul 
l.tit was forced hack by vast <,nantities of .hiving ice, an.l <,ot into clear 
sea onjuly ,st. Cru.sin,, alon^ the border of the ice, seeking an open- 
ni,Mo.,.et throu<,h it, she met on the 14th four vessels of Ih.dson B-,y 
endeavorm,^. to .^^et in, and continued with them till the ,yth, when they 
P=n-te,i in thick weather, in latitude 62 O 3,,'. The thick weather lasted 
t'll An.nist 7. The Hudson's Bay men before thev were separated 
tn.m the Arj^o computed the distance to the western coast ,.f Ihulson's 
Bay .It forty lea<ifues. 

The Artro ran down the ice from about 63 t<, 57 O 3,,'^ .,„^j 









aftc-r n-]H\-ik'(l ;ittc 


mpts to oiitcT the Straits relinquished the 

Ih' moiv as (he season C,,,- niai^in'j- disc 

em side oC tht' h 

(>\riv on the 


'.ly woidd he over l)efore ihev eould I 

Swaiiie now direeted his vessel to lit 

lopi' lo reach it. 

<■• coast of Lai 


eeliy lo iatitiidt" ^i |. O 


hi' lliorouniily expiori'd, nia 

certainin- all he could of the soil, proihue, and 

nadoi-, and I'xplored it 
c found no less than six Inlets, all of whieh 

kin^- an excelli-nt charl of 

he coast, an( 


thought it much like .\ 

I H'ople (> 

f 1. 



orwav, and satisi 

f<l linnsc 


\\a\' aiross it to \\m\ 

i' \Nas no waleV' 

son's |5av. It had I 

route could he lonnd, hut S\v 


heie was a hii^h mount 

teen K-njectured that sueh a 
line's careful sinviw settled thai point. He 

north to south, alxuit liftv 1 
foiuid a deserted w 

lad heen I mi It 

:iiii ran^e whieh tiavcrsed t 

ic land from 

ca-nes inland. In one ofthese harhois th, 

ooilen liouse with a 


'V ICn.t^Iishmen, as ajjpeared evid 


chimney which they jiuh'-ed 

left hehind. Afterward in another of tl 
a i)ark or snow so called from the L()w-( 
London. He informed them (hat the s 
175,:;, and had landed some Mor 
inteiidiuL;- (o remain there. Ihil t 

ent fiom sundry relies 
u- Inlets they met Captain (iofl' in 

xerman snau, or 

:nne vessel had I 

snout — from 
cen there in 

artfully coaxed awav hv the nat 
tance in their hoat, and 

avian brethren who had huilt the house. 
H- captain and six of his n 

ives under pretence of trail 

icn had heen 
Ic, to some dis- 



cr wailiu'-' tlieii' reti 

(lays ni \ani, the 1 

l)v the Morav 

emainder concluded to sail for lOn-land 

urn for sixteen 

lans, who were necessary to work the vessel and 

, accompanied 

coura_i;ed in their benevolent nndertal 
the natives. Part of (JofPs 1 

were dis- 


by the unexpected treachery of 

what he could of the fate of th 

)usiness on this voya-e, he said, was to I 


icse men 



me's M()o(l fortune, who seei 

a pleasant addition (( 

his si 

ns not to ha\e lost a m 

lips equipment, he discovered a line llshinu-bank al 

111 or any pari of 

miles od'shoie and stretching- 57 o to ^\^ . \' 
safety at Philadelphia about t 

'out twenty 

cssel and crew ariived 


le middle of 

111 I 77-' the b 

. vox'ember. 

/ / 


S'cntlemen of X'ir'dnia ti 

)ii.L!: l>>iii,i,'ciice was dispatched 1 


search for the Northwest P 

n- a company of piiv.ate 

iced in charge of C 

as^ a''e. 



iptain Wilder, who followed tl 

ic was 

uicceeded in enterin- Hudson's Bay, th 

ic route of Swainc, 
e season beiny more favora- 



l)lc'. Tin. I)ili<rcncc plied the l.roMd expanse of the -.-eat hay, es- 
pcrially t.. the north an.l west, ulml, were now the accreclite.l point's cf (or the Northwest Passa-^e. They were (Inallv driven haek l>y 
>'"• ircan.l retreated ll.ron.uh 1 In.lson's Strait to Davis'Strait, whieh they 
.•.sr..ndc.d to ,he latilnde of Diseo in UjO , ,', whence they ret,n,>e,l 
to Virginia. 


Samnel I learne had entered the ICn.^lish navy as a midshipman in 
Captain 1 lood's vessel, at the a-e of eieve.,. At the of the I'^reneh 
war in 1763, he took serviee .n,d..r the 1 Indson's P.av Company as 
•in.rlennaste,-, at Iw.r, Chnrehiil. I„ , ^r.S ]„. ,,vi„ee,I special ahilitv in 
ins exploration of the northern coast of llu.ison's iJay, and the improve- 
"Knt of the fisheries in thai ,,uarter. The same year the Indian story 
of copper nn-nes to the north, which had Inred Kni.^ht to destruction in 
.7'9, Mn<l which ha<l heen repeated toCaptain Scro<,rj.s in 1722, was put 
l-yondall (p.estion hy .some rich specin.ens of ore hronoht hv Indian 
".adersto Fort Churchill. Hearne was now sent out with a "twofold 
con.nnssion, to search for tlie Northwest Passao-e and the n.ines of cop- 
IHT. He left V.n Churchill Novemher 6, 1769, accompanied by two 
wh.le n,en and son.e hxlians. When he had proceeds about two 
Innxire.l miles his provisions beoan to fail, and the native guides deserted 
Inm, when he was obline.I to return. In the beginning of February, 
I77<', I'^'ing^ again ready to start, he resumed his jouruev, taking with 
l.iin no white men an.l only five Indians. He had found that the natives 
ridic.ded his two white companions because of their inabilitv to endure 
the hardships of the trip .as well as they could. Some white men have 
been known to pride themselves on similar qualifications. When they 
had gone about live hundrc.l miles they began to sulFer great distress 
iVon, exposure to the severity of the weather, and thc^ scarcity of 

Mtwas," says Ilearne, " either all feasting or all famine; some- 
tunes we ha.l too much; seldom just enough; freciuently too little; and 
«-''-" "one at all. It would bo only necessary to say that we have fasted, 







many times, two M-hoIc days ami ni^jhts; twice, upwanl c.f three clays 
and once,near seven clays, clurinj. which we tastc.l not a niouthCJ ofanv- 
thm^^ except a few cranherries, naler, scraps „f ..1,1 leather, an,! hurnt 
bones." Finally, in Angust, he arrived amon^r ,, t,ihe „f frien,liv In- 
clK.ns, in latitnde (.^' ,o' and longitu.le ,o"4o' west fron, J^.rt Churchill 
where i,e proposed to winter. One day a <cust of wi.ul upset his ,jua.l- 
r■^^n^. breaking it to pieces, and the hrave explorer pickcl up his efleCs 
and started hack to the English settlement, notwithstanding .i ,•-. ,.,iva- 
tion he ha,l .nulergone on the way out. Eqnippe.l one- „ l^,,t 

Churchill, he set out on the 7th of Decemher, accompanied ...non.. the 
rest by an intelligent Indian named Motannahi. Thev procecied this 
tmie m a less northerly direction, an,l in latitnde 6o». After ha^■in.^ tr-.v 
eled about 600 miles, they came to a lake; here thev built a cuJc ..„>.l 
pushed northward, by a chain of lakes an,l streams, tn.til, on the ,3,h of 
July, 177', they struck the Coppermine River, which he ,lescen,le,l.o 
>ts month in the Arctic Ocean, or rather in Coronation (n.if, one of its 
.nlets,in latitnde 68" 30'. Meanwhile, llearne's ban,l of In,iians had 
been n.creased by the accession of some tra- ,s of the forest, frien,lh to 
each other, but all hostile to the Ks,,ui,„anx. Seeing a sn.all encan,pn;ent 
of then- ,leteste,l enemies on the bank of the great river, ihcv attacked 
then,, on tl,e ,7th of July, u pj,,,- ,g all the Esquin,aux .jui^t in their 
tents," says I learne, » they rushed n.rth fi-om their ambnsca,le, an,l .ell 
on the ].oor, unsuspecting creatures, unperceivcl till clos. to ihe eaves of 
then- tents, when they soon began the massacre, while 1 stoo,I 
neuter in the rear." They spare.l neither age nor sex, an,l of the twen.v 
or n.ore nu.ates of ,he hut, but few escape,!. An ol,I won,au whon, 
tluy toun.l peacettdly fishing was,! bv having her eves ph.ckcl 
out before she receive,! iu.- .leath blow. A y.,ung girl s..u,ht the pro- 
lect,on of Ilearne, which he was powerless to give; an,l the n.iscrean.s 
soon attertheir horri,! work of slaughter, " sat down," savs Hearn,. u,,,, 
made a goo,l ,neal of t^-esh salmon," the fruits, perhaps, of the ol.l 
woman s uKlustry. The " Arctic Ocean," as ,lescribe,l bv Ilearne uas 
full of islan,ls and shoals, as f^n- as he could discern with a g.>o.! teles;:op;.. 
On the 30th of June, ,773, after an absence of o„e vear an,l s.-ven 



months lacking, one week, Hearne arrived in safety at Fort Churchill, of 
vvh,ch ho was ,nade Governor, in .775. Q,, its capture l,y a French 
-l-<<->, ""<le.- Pcrouse,in ,783, he returned to England, where he 
^ ten years later, in his forty-eighth year. His " Voyage to the Cop- 
permine River," was published in 1795. ^ 


Since the loss of Knight in .7.9, there had been by common con- 
sent a vn-tual abandonment of voyages of exploration in the Northwest 
At mtervals some slight revival of interest arose, but only to be damp- 
ened by repeated failures. In ,743 Captain Middleton discovered Wa- 
ge. "R.ver"„r Bay, opening westward from Rowe's Welcome md 
for a tm,e he n.ust have fancied he had made the great discovery, but it 
was soon found to be a land-locked inlet into an uninhabited wilderness 
A few years later, in ,746, Moore and Smith, after a fruitless search in 
the same direction, pronounced the quest of « a Northwest Passac^e as 
chnnerical as Don Quixote's projects." But now the success^ i^f 
Captam Cook and the growing power of England gave a fresh 
.mpetus to voyages of discovery on a scale commensurate with her 
greatness. It has not escaped the notice of our reader how insig- 
nificant and paltry were the outfits of the early English navigators. 
He has also doululess divined the reason. While under more arbitrary 
governments such enterprises were usually controlled bv the state and 
niaugurated with the eclat and fullness of equipment which are wont to 
characterize government ventures, in England they were almost entirely 
"1 the hands of private merchants. Occasionally the use of one of the 
King's ships was obtained, but even then the equipment was supplied by 
private persons. This was in accordance with the genius of free institu- 
tions and constitutional liberty; and the Englishman felt more pride in 
the growth of freedom than in big ships. The necessities of war had 
just brought the crown a navy worthy of the name, and the succeedino- 
epoch of peace left it at fhe disposal of the ministers for the furtherance 
of tile pursuits of science and commerce. The British government, full 
of anticipation of the glory to be achieved among the nations of the earth 



? J 

by the discovery of the Northwest Passage, the dream of her .ncrchants 
for nearly three eenturies, proceeded first to dispatch an expedition ,h<e 
north to nivestigate the possihilities of that ronte. 

On the 35th of May, ,773, Captain Constantine John Phipps, who 
wasra.sed.o the peera<,e as Lord Mul^^rave in 17S4, received formal 
.nstrncfons for a voyage to the North Pole, or as far toward it as possi- 
ble. He was to prosecute the voyage as nearly as ice and other ohsta- 
cles would permit, on a meridian. His observations were to h. .uch as 
■night prove useful to navigation, and promote science. Should he reach 
the Pole and find open sea beyond he was not to suffer himself to .n. on 
but was to get back to the Nare before winter. A discretionary clause was' 
added, empowering him to follow his best ju.lgment in such unforeseen 
cn-cim.stances as might arise. He was to command the Racei.orse, and 
to her ^vas joined the Carcass under Capt. Lutwidge, who was sub- 
ject to h.s orders, with the proviso that should evil befall the Racehorse 
he was to assume command of the Carcass. 

They got fairly under way on Jime 4, and anchored in a small bay 
between Magdalena and Hamburgher Bays, off Spitzbergen, on July 4 
On the 9th they were as high as 80^ 36', and were caught 'in the 
ice on tiie 31st. They forced their way southward through the ice 
reachmg Seven Islands' Bay, on the northwest coast of Spitzber<.en' 
Aug. 6, and the Nare on Sept. 34. In 1774 Captain Phipps published I 
dctadcd account .,f this Arctic expedition under the title of a "Journal 
o[ a Voyage Toward the North Pole." 


'it ' '' ■ 





CIIAl'TRR \vi. 

COOK'S ,.:vr,.:,„.,„s„ ,.„„ ,„sc.n-,,,„.„ ^„„,„„,,,,,, ,.,,„,„_, ,„^^^.,,^ 
.■.v„o„.n.-K.xn.v.,v„ „.„,,„ ,,,,„ ,,,,,„„_„„,;"; 
«.v-vK„ ,s,,..„_,„,„„,, ,,, ,„^„^^j;'^ 

z^rr """ "'"'"" °'-'"" «-"-.°.-'-m;„k..,. 


Phipp.' fi„h„. ,„,. „„,,„ ,,1 „„. exti„,„i,h tlu.h„po„, n„„i„„a 
>". f." n the A,I„,„.c ,„ ,„,. ,>,,ifi, i„ ,„^. , = 

Cap.,,,,, Cook ,™, ..vo„ fr«h ,,„„,,. ,„ „,„„,,„„„, „ " awanled .ho Cop.oy „,o„,., fo,- ,„ .,eccs» I„ p..e,, ^.H o 

o „s .„o„ .„„.,„, „, ,.„„„, „,.„„„„ ,„^ ^^„_.,^, ;^. ^„,„; ^^^^ '' 

CO,,,,,.., ,1. „„ „„„,,e.,„,„ „,,, ,„ p„^^^,j ,^ ^,^^ ^ 
co,,,,„e„ce „„ ».„,,,, „„ .ho „o,,„we.. coas. of A,.e,ic. i„ ,a,.„.,o 6 ' " 

-H„ .ho »„„„.,„„„„ ,„„„,„„„„ ^,„^,,^,._ ^_,^^^^^._^ ^,^^^^^ 

. A„c,o,,o„ co,„pa„,o„. of ,„« f„,,,,, ,„^„^,^_ ^,^^^„^ . ■ • 

a.s.,-ono„,oi a,i,l „a.,iialis.. 

J"l.v .3 ,776, Captai,, Cook loft I'ly,„o„.l,, EnRla,,.!, a„<l was 
.,™.K.., hy,. C,o,.ko l„ Tahio ,.,y, „..„• .ho Cape of g;o<, Ho^ 
» vvock,s I. was ,ho las. .lay of Novo„,l,o.. bcfo,. .hoy lof . .he 
Capo who„oe .hoy pn,ooo.lo.l oastwaM through tho I„.lia„ Oooa.,, pa.,- 
a.K' n.,oo E<lwa,,l-,s ,.la„.l Doco.nho,- ,3, a,..l .oaohi,,, Ko,.„!olo„ 
U,Klo,.tho.,.h. ,,0,0 Cook ,.oo.ifio.l .1,0 ,.«ako „, tho .liso^co,- 
Kors,,olo„ hy asoortai„i„s il .o ho an,,.,, „ot ., co„.i„o„., a.,.l cha,ao- 
tc,.zod .. a. ,ho ,,,la.,.l of licsok.tio... l.-„, „„.„, |,„,„|,,,| , ^,^,^^ 

144 ' 


Kcrjjuelcn flicy were s„ beset by io^ that it was necessary t.. fire signal 
{?uns to avoid jrettinp separate,! in the ,lark. They arrived at Adventure 
Hay on the south coast of Van Diemen's Lan.l, now Tasmania, on the 
36th of January, ,777, and in Queen Charlotte's Sound, New Zealand, on 
the of February. On the 35th they proceeded north war.l, reaching 
Manga.a and Atioo, two of the Cook Islands or Ilervey Archipelago, on 
the .9th of March. The season was now considere.l too far advanced 
to venture into unknown seas with the prospect of achieving anything 
nnportant, and Captain Cook deci.led on further exploration in the 
tropics, postponing his northwanl trip until the following yc-ar. They 
spent nearly three months in peaceable interco,n-se with the natives of 
the Tonga and Fecjee groups, to which Cook gave the collective name 
of Friendly Islands. On the .2th of August they arrived at Tahiti or 
Otaheite, one of the Society Islands, to the southeast of the Friendly 
Islands. On the Nth of December they again directed their to the 
northward from liolabola, the most northern of the Society group; arid 
on the iSth of January, 1778, they discovered the islands of the IlavJaiian 
Archipelago. Cook named these the Sandwich Islands, in honor of the 
first lord of the British admiralty, John Montague, Earl of Sandwich, the 
chief promoter of the voyage in which he was now engaged. 

After a stay of several weeks Cook now directed his" course for the 
mainland of America, reaching the New Albion of Drake, in latitufle 44'- 
33', on March 7. Coasting north, they arrived at Nootka Sound in lati- 
tude 49" 35 ' • The inhabitants were found clad in furs, which they offered 
for sale, and were civil to the strangers. They evinced an almost En-, 
lisii appreciation of the rights of property, expecting pay for everythin^g 
that was taken, even the wood and water necessary for the ships. They 
were acquainted with iron, but preferred brass, whence it came to pass 
that the sailors bartered all their buttons for furs. In latitude 59° the 
natives were found to resemble the Esquimaux of Hudson's Bay in Ian- 
guage as well as in physical appearance; and were not so graspin-in 
their dealings. In what has since been named Cook's Inlet they thought 
to have found a passage to the Northern Ocean, but found it penetra'^ed 
only about 200 miles. Cook then sailed westward, and on the 9th of 

COOK- SU/iVErs UAH^A/f. 
Aug. ,t ,„a,lc. Che c«,a„c n„r.lnvostcm „„i,„ , r A • 
i"^ Bavu ,1,0 „™„ <,f cpe ,vi„„ , ,■ W ""■'"• '" *""'^'' 

. On .Ho ,..„,. A,,,,,,, ,„ ,,„;,!: r;:";;'-; -' "-■ --'- 
' '-"".. for ,. »o J: :;;;:;;::t ,^'>«''^'- '"■^■' " ' 

'«laM,ls. On tho .6th „f N„vo,„l,o ''""'"" '"' ""■' «""""''^'' 

-•> o.. .ho 3o.h .ho ,a.«o ,-.,..,r:; : ;:: ::':;•■■" ':."''""^- --'o'- 

»l-n. sovon wooks i„ circu™,«vi,.„i„., , , , ""'"' ""'=" ^'""'' 

woro v,s,lod hy cn,wd, of „„,ivo, ri, T -'"""aOS • 779. ""U 

ofoiviHzod Enjrlisl, a,ul somi hnh ' i!'' ' ' "' ''"''"'■'' "'"' ^'i-'i."!. 

"-"« ooo„™, .„ r::::;:: :;:::::-'-'-■'«: 

"pin,on,s formo.l by ouch „,rlv „f h . '".orcourso; „„,| ,ho 
- weeks of „c.,„i.,„„:.'„,;""'^: '"" "'"'^ ^^' «--">'^'. 

failuro to pe„e.,.a.o .ho Nonhorn f Vo "■"'' '"-'"^ '■^■" "»' 'h" 

hy .ho ,n.ovory „f .„o»o ::;: ""rvrrT ""■" ^'"""^■"""'"' ^^ 

"we owed our having i. |n our powo,- .o vi 1 th' s"'";""?""'" "^' '"• 

f=..;.can.h„n,hou..H::.— ;:;:::r:.'^^^^^^^^^^^ 

'"""".y of P".k for soa ,.„:, F ;* "T ""'" """"''"' "' """'" " 

-chor„„.ho ,.ho£ .o,.en,bo... iiu. ^.I ^ ' "™""' ™'' '^'"'^'^-^ 
10 ' '' ^^°"" ^"-"se soon after, which 



Ml! tin Eli OF COOK. 

scrioiisly sprim^r the- mainmast of the Resolution, and Ihcy re-entered the 
harhor for neeessary repairs. In the short interval that had elapsed, the 
better disposeil of the native population, with most of their lea<!ers or 
chiefs, had withdrawn into the interior. The erews now eame in con- 
tact witii the more thievish and nnprincipled of the Ilawaiians, and (piar- 
rels became almost incessant. A serious feud arose throujrh the theft ot 
a p;iir of tonj^s from the fori,a- of the ship's smith by an nnprincipled na- 
tive. The En<?lish sent in pursuit of the thief were rou<jhly handled by 
a mob, and on the heels of this redoubled ()utra<,'e followed the theft of 
one of the ship's boats. Captain Co»)k hereupon determined to seize the 
kin«,s Tcrceoboo, and hold him as a hostage for the good behavior of his 
people, and the return of the stolen property. 

On the 14th of February, 1779, he landed with a body of armed ma- 
rines to carry out this resolution. The king ofTend no resistance, but with 
his two sons peacefully accompanied the English to the shore, when the 
excited natives gathered in crowds and prevented the embarkation. An 
accident precipitated the impending conflict. One of the armed English- 
men at the other end of the bay fired a gun to stop a native canoe that 
was about to cpiit the shore. Unfortunately, through misdirection of aim 
or oscillation of the canoe, the shot that was intended to pass overhead, 
killed a chief named Kareeinoo. The natives, taking this for a gage 
of battle, prepared for war, brandished their knives, and put on their war 
mats. Captain Cook restrained his men, and they held back their (ire 
till it was too late. Threatened by a native. Cook himself fired his mus- 
ket loaded with small shot, which only rendered his assailant more furi- 
ous. The marines and the crew now fired on the mob, but these were 
so closely packed at the water's edge that they crowded each other on 
toward their assailants, and in the melee four of the English were 
killed. The jam became so great that firearms were of but little use, 
and C ^ok was at the mercy of his enemies. He was seen to make an 
effort to reach the boat, with one of the natives in close pursuit, who, 
dealing him a stunning blow on the head with a club, precipitately re- 
treated. Cook fell on one knee and dropped his musket, and as he was 
rising, another native stabbed him ia tlic back of the neck vvith a da"-'—- 




He then fdl int.) tin. vvitcr .t-l,,.., .1 

-"- "^-wi,„:,:t:;:;;;':;— "i::;: -■'■.-" 

assail.uil, was „, ,|,-„<,. I .'i ""■ "'""" "' l"« 

Uu, ,... ,,, „ :;," ' ;■ ^■'"^- - -"■-' -■' P.u„..„ncl<e„, 

«". i.i» ...„ . . : : ■ , "^' :'"''''"'■ "-'''■ "•■"■ ■■- 

"""""■■I "- ^l",j;,.|c. Tlu.y ,lK,, h.,„lc.,l l,i, ,1 • " "'■ '"■ 

vicl will, ™d, ,„|K.,- in ;„,r ,■ '■"""""' ^"'""•^- ""'I 

vi«i,„. '"""-■""^' ""■— y wuu„.l, „„„„ .„,i, ,,„,„ 

inittcd tothedcenvvith fh . ^ " ""rul. 1 hey were com- 

-"--. o;r:;;;: :r'-^:r^^^^ -^^^ - --- 

tous of the welfare of his, nen In.,,,' V "" ^^""^"^ ^•''^■'■ 

Copley .e., Joh.^r:; ^ ^^ S" ^^'^ ^'^^ 
phasi^e.l his merit in that particular: ^' ''"" "^■ 

" What i,K,uiry can be so useful as that which has for ,> . • , 

savin^Mhe lives of men? And where sh-,11 7 ^ •"'' "^'^ 

than that before us Pro 1 ' "'' ""^' '"•"■^' ^"^••"^^■^'^f"' 

.u ocroic us. [Cook's account of his mcthorl for . 
health of his men.! Here u'e no v.- . P'-cservn,^. the 

J '^^'^^ aic no vani boastuijrs of the em.-,;,-; 
Srcn.ous and delusive theories of the docnn-ttisfl^ut V "^""V"'' '"" 
a'Hl an uncontested rehtion of H ''"-'"'^''^*' ^''' =» '^"" and artless, 
Cm. r 1 • , """''"' ^>' ^^'^''-''^' ""^1^"'- divine f .vor 

Capt Cook, a con.pany of : .8 men, performed a voyage of th ee v 

ancc.,hteen days throughout all the climates tVom 5 '^ ^h rCtT 
:-^^; '^'ftude, with the loss of only on. man by sickness woul , 

'"qiure of the most conversant with the bill J "^'' 

- ».na„ „ .,.,„„„, „f .,,,.,, „,„. _ ^ ' Ij^'j h ve ever f„.,„., 

a-recable, then must on,. • , P'-'ce ot time . How <,neat and 


* i 



to health, than a common tour in Europe." And it may be added that 
with all the modern appliances of preserved meats, carefully prepared 
pemmicaii, canned fruits, lime-juice and sundry other anti-scorbutics no 
navlj^ator has succeeded in leavinu^ a better record. He not only cared 
for his men, but he also knew how to elicit their confidence and esteem. 
He was kindly and considerate, but also decided and eneriretic, and knew 
how to rule as well as conciliate. He probably erred in attempt- 
in<r to enforce the ri<j^iil rules of stern tliscipline a<^ainst the savaj^es of 
Hawaii, and paid the penalty with his life. Iloldinj^ races of infantile 
simplicity mixed with adult cunniny; to the responsibilities of civilized 
men was an error of the times, which has not even yet been (^uite out- 
jj^rown. And tlie fame of Cook cannot be dimmed by an error of judg- 
ment. Such criticism wcndil rob humanity of all its heroes. 

Captain Clerke now assumed command of the expedition, intrusting 
his ship, the Discovery, to the immediate command of Lieutenant Gore. 
They proceeded to the Northern Ocean, touching at Petropaulovsky, in 
Avatcha ]3ay, on the coast of Kamchatka, where they were received by 
the Russians with marked hospitality. Passing thence through Behring's 
Strait, they reached latitude 70' 33', where they encountered the ice some 
twenty miles lower than on the previous occasion. They relinquished 
all further attempt in that direction, and set sail (uv the homeward voy- 
age. When they again reached Kamchatka, Captain Clerke died, and 
was b\iried on shore. The command of the expeilition then devolved 
upon Captain Gore, witii Lieutenant King in charge of the second 
vessel. They airived at Macao, at the moutli of the Canton River, in 
China, December third, when they learned of tlie war between 
England and lier American colonies, aided by the French; and at the 
same time of the generous order of the latter government that the vessels 
of Cook's expedition should be treated as neutrals by the cruisers of 

In Canton tlie English seamen enjoyed an episode that formed an 
agreeable contrast lo their late experience. They found an unexpected 
market for the furs for \/hich tiiey had bartered knives, trinkets, and 
even tiieir brass buttons two vcars before on ilie norlhwesi coast of 


alo f„, $Soo; a,>,l „ ,e„ pri,,,.. «Ui,„, „„;„, ,,^„ ^,^„„ ,_,__, ,^^^ , , 
well prescrvcl, wore sol.l f,„. $,30 each. The whole amount „f ,he 
value ,„ speeie a,„l s„„.|,,, ,hat vva, g„, f,„. ,he f,,,-., i„ h„,h »hip, I am 
com, en. ,li., „„. rail „h„. of .C30CO .erUn,, a„„ i. wa« gene-'i; ^^ 

Ta ^" ■■'' '"""' ' °' '"^ ""'"""■' - ' ""^'■"■^»y .-t^.l 

•Ik Ame,-,ean» „e,c »poile,l a„,l won, o,„, o,- ha.l been .ivc„ away o,- 
■>*e,w,se ,l.p„se<l of h, Kameha.Ka. When, in a,,i„n .0 ,hc»e faos 
.. .» ,en,emhe,e,, that the f,n» were a. n,.,t colleete,! without on,- havinJ 
any ,dea of thei,- ,..,1 valne; that the ..-cate,- pa,t ha.l l.een wo„, hy th^e 
In<ha„» £,„m who,,, we ha.l pinehased then,; that they we,e afterward 
pre»erve.l with little ea,e, a„,l f,-e<,„e„tly „,,e<l for he.l-clothfs and other 
pn.-poseH ; and that probably we ha.l not received the fnll value for them in 
Cl„na; the advantages that ,nish, he ,lerive,l f,„,„ a vova^e ,0 that pa,t 
of the A,„er,can c„a„, undertaken with eomn,e,-clal views, appea,-e.l ,0 
,™ of a .lej;,-ee .,f i„,p.,rt.,„ee sulHeient ,„ eall f.,r the attenti.,,, „f „,e 

A few of the scamon were so .lecply imprcssc.l with the same con- 
v.ct,oa that they <,esertecl the ships and were an.o.,,tht. ,1,-st English.nen 
to en-a-e in the Pacific fur trade. 

Leavin. Canton with replenishe.l purses they (Inally arrive,] in salbty 
at the Nore on the fourth of Octoi.r, ,780, after an absence of fo,,!- 
years, two n.onths and .wentv-three ,Iays. Five n.en ha.l died on the 
Resoh.t,on three of whon, were sicUly before leavin, England; the 
Discovery hail not lost a man. 

i I 



:i 1 

I It 

•11'^ I 



.)>{., inanxs skafaiuxc; i.ifk-vova.;k to sitiv v,«;kn skas— 


In 1775 Joseph Frobishcr, cnoraored in the fur trade, reached the 
Mississippi or Churchill River, in the interior, throu.^di the rei^non north- 
west of Lake Superior, and made a second successful trip the ensuin- 
year. His brother, in 1777, reached Lac de hi Croix, now Lacrosse 
Lake, at the hea.l waters of the Churchill; and in 177S, a Mr. Pond 
following- in their footsteps, and proceeding farther north, had discovered 
Lake Atliahasca. 

From Fort Cliippcwyan at the west etui of Lake Athabasca, Alex- 
ander Macke.izie set out o . the third of June, i 789, attended l,y a party of 
Canadians and some Indians, to discover another -reat river to the no'rth- 
west, of which he had heard from the natives. One of .he Indians had 
been in the service of Hearne eight or ten years before. Having found 
the river, he proceeded to descend it to its mouth. On tlv> 12th of fuly 
they entered what they took to be a lake, from the shallowness of the 
water, though they saw no land ahead. "At a I'.w leagues from the 
mouth of the river, my people," says Mackenzie, "could not, at this time, 
refrain from expressions of real concern that they were obliged to return' 
without reaching the sea." But noticing a rise of eighteen inches in the 
water, they conclude<l they had reached the ocean, as it could (miy be as- 
cribed to tlie tide. This opinion was confirmed by the appearance of 



sevoral whales sportms on tllo irn H 
^ ' H', and named the i , , ^^'^"'■^'""' 'h'= latitude ,„ be 

The ,,•:; has h :j, ";; °" ""'"' ^'^ ^"" -"O^" Whale Island. 
." be in latitude 6S " l' !, ^ T;' '";" ''» ™«" '' — ^-nnined 
fcction of his in,t,.„,„en°, ' ' , *" "*""' "^"'"'"^"•""^ ">= ™P- 

™-"... With th;::c: ; "" ' '-■' =™'""'^- "'>"■•-'■ 

a...I rivers with which tl,e mS '"'""'' '"'"'"" =''"'" <>' '■■''"••» 

l>a..ys territory east of lelil'^ ""'"'''' *° ""*""'' "^'^ ''■<'- 
"-lined, and theletl q j "'^ "'"""' '""^ '" »»'" '" "••- '-n 
™. .b^ A^eriea,: for ^^ ^T* T'T' '"f "''' «™ '^^ "^ 'and 
.^iver, crossed the RoC, Mo^i^nd ,::::, T's-"" '"' "'^ 
'" '793. rcaehing the P icific Or ■ "-'"'"'' *= ^"mp'on River 

I^lands, Where he roll trd,°:;" '"' T'"" "' "' '''•"''^' "^ ^ales 
A/r 1 . ^ '^^'^^ "'^ "'i'"'^ on the face of a rock uai 

Macken.e, n-o. Canada by land, the 3.d of Jul/ ^ L^'^"'"^'" 

returned by the same route, arriving at Fort CU ^ "" ^'' 

basca, on the 24th of August. ^^'Ppewyan on Lake Atha- 


Besides the voyages previously mentioncd^f the Nnr 
the close of the tenth cent,,,-,. .\, Norsemen toward 

rv • .u , '^^"tuiy, and those under the ausnices of ru,- .• 

J V. ni the ear V nartnf fl-.« o . , *- •"'■"'piccs ot Christian 

"vP'^" or the seventeenth— there worn ., c 

--osti- coi^irr^:^::: -;--;-- -es 
-a few friends, iodei^!:;; :c:'trr ■":' :"' "■^' ""• 

with a cash capital of $3,000; and .,„ .nn ■ "' '"""'""^ 

.1-0 missionary f„„d, to whic w r d *' o" "T"';' *^°" '■'■'•■" 

Who. however, died nine years late .KliTe. '«!:"" m''"^ '^•• 

•■"■rived o„ the western const nfr , , ''• " ^''^ '-' '""I 

n- ' 




;jt: : .L 

the to find any trace of the old colonists, not only withdrew its 
paltry endowment, hut ordered the colony to he hroken up. 

In 1733, through the zeal of the celehrated Count Zinzcndorf, Kin- 
Christian VI. was induced to countermand the order for the extinc" 
tion of the Godthaal, Colony. Not confining himself to this act of jus- 
ticc, he endowed the mission with an a.muity of $2,000, and intrusted it 
to the care of three Moravian hrcthren, memhers of the religious com- 
munity founded hy Zinzcndorf. With his mission thus strengthened 
und its permanence assured, Egcde returned to Denmark in 1735" where 
he died in 175S, at the age of seventy-two. He had heen ahle to find 
ruins of churches and other huildings here and there along the coast, hut 
no trace of survivors of the old Norse settlements, nor any tradition 
among tlie Esquimaux that they had ever existed. Fifty years after his 
return an expedition was sent out in 17S6, under command of Capt. 
Luwenorn, to search for them on the cast coast. I3ut neither he, .lor the 
Scoresbys, in their many voyages to those coasts from 1 791 to iSj2, nor 
Clavering in 1823, were ever ahle to discover any traces of European 
settlements in Greenland. The explorations of the Scoreshys and Clav- 
crings were, however, too far to the north, hut there yet remained to be 
examined the southeastern coast, north of Cape Farewell. This was 
undertaken in 1S38, under the auspices of King Frederick VI. who 
commissioned Capt. Graah to make a careful inspection of that coast. 
Proceeding from the most southern point, in 1829, he made frecjuent 
landings as high as 65 " iS'. It was deemed useless to prosecute the 
searcli farther, as it was believed no colony cotdd have existed farther 
north. The result of his careful investigations was tiie conclusion that no 
Norse settlements had ever been founded on that coast. Not a trace of 
church or other building, not tlie faintest traditio.i among the natives, not 
a word in their language, not a tool or implement in their hands, could 
be found to furnish the slightest suspicion that the country had ever had 
any European inhabitants. It was inferred that the "east bygd" (or 
hight) of the old chroniclers was therefore not the east coast of Green- 
land, but only tl-j most eastern portion of that pa.t which was known to 
Ihem. Th- " east l)yg<l " was probalily identical with the extensive dis- 


^^^i "y^u, with Fiskernaes, to the northwest. 

Capt. William Scoreshy, the elder mwl,. i,- « . 
II- •^' t-"!^', m.icle Ills hrst vova"-e to (Jronn 

, , c. . "- ^"'^^°^'i'-''-''''»'-^lie<la.shi<rhas8i^ I3'in Green 

■an.. Sea a h^hc t„a„ had be™ .eaehed by any preced „^ 

..a.o, wbere he saw .a great ope„„„,,„,.,ea of waL." ,ei„. t, ed 

no h, .hu. los.„s a„ exceptional opportunity perhaps of reaehin,, the 

wha or , he steered west throngh tl,e ice to the coast of Greenland 
wh,e be reached so,ne .inutes north of ;o». Mere be eon,.::^ 

s^ ed :r • ''""°"' '°"'^' -'-'-»->"«. not exploration, h^ 

-led bacL a,a,„ ,„to the open sea to secnre a cargo. In one of hi, 

w bng v^tnres he is said to have taken the large number of tbirty-six 

one of b,s later voyages. He made some improvement, in the detail, of 
whahng; an „ credited with the invention of the f„,n „f ^^„^^ 

Hrr; '"f ™""" '"■'■«" " --Vnest," used as a lookout station 

He ,bcd m 1S29, i„ bis seventieth year. 

Capt. \Villiam Scoresby, the youn;;cr so,, of tl,e preceding, was born 
■n .790, and began a seafaring life when in bis olev.utl, ye^-. ,u i 
seventeent be was first mate to his father in tlK- fautous voya.. o 
06 to wh.eb we have already referred, before be was <„nte nv: ty 
one, be was ,n command o£ the whaler Resolution, In one of bi, voy. 
age, to Sp,..bergen seas, he landed near Cape Mitre, an.l ascended a 

:""'" ^"»° '■"=' "'""• A' ^ --.". point of this laborious ascent th 

.«lgevv:.s,o narrow and the side, so precipitou, that be coultl advance 
With safctv on V bv ,tr addlinir If .,.,,1 .■ , auvance 

anJI,.,,, 'r, >" ^'/•"■'"•"'"S't and working forward with hi, hands 
anJ legs. I, cost bun several hours of hard to reach the suntmit 
■ "•■^- "^^" ■' *'«'^- '■"'- -P would have precipitate, , ,o "is 




1 ■ 

■ . K 



death in the abyss honoath. IJut he was delighted with the result of his 

" The prospect," says ho, "was .no.t extensive and errand. A (Ine 
sheltered bay was seen to the east of ns; an arm of the se^ on the north- 
east; and fhc sea, whose -lassy surface was unrnlHed by a bree/e 
formcMl an immense expanse on the west. The icebergs, rearing their 
proud crests almost to the tops of tiie mountains between which they 
were lodged, and defying the power of the solar beams, were scattered in 
vanous directions about the sea-coast an.l in the adjoining bays. Beds 
of snow an.I ice, filling extensive hollows, and giving an enam'eled coat 
to adjounng valleys-one of which, commencing at the Ibot of the motui- 
tarn where we stood, extended in a continued line toward the soutii as 
far as the eye could reach; mountain rising above mountain, until by dis- 
tance they dwindled into insignificance; the whole contrasted by a cloud 
less canopy of deepest azmv, and lightened bv the rays of a bl-,/in<r 
sun, and the effect aided by a feeling of danger-seated as we were on 
the pninacle of a rock, almost surnnuuled by tremendous precipices-ail 
united to constitute a picture singularly sublime. 

" Our .lescent we found ivall, a very hazardous, and in some in- 
stances, a pamful undertaking. Every movement was a work of deliber- 
at.nn. Havmg by much care and some anxiety made good our descent 
to the top of the secmdary hills, we took our way down one of the steep- 
est banks, and slid forward with great facility in a sitting posture 
Toward the foot of the hill, an expanse of snow stretched across the line 
of descent. This being loose and soft, we entered upon it without fe,,- 
but on reaching tlie middle of it we came to a surface of solid ice per' 
haps a hundred yards across, over which we launched with astoni'siiin<. 
velocity, ],ut happily escaped without injury. The men whom we lefl 
below viewed this latter movement with astonishment and fear. " 

In his further explorations along the east he found many skulls and 
iarge bones ofwhales,narwals, sea-horses, seals and foxes. Two Rus 
sian lodges, giving tokens of recent habitation by quantities of fresh chips 
a.ul other tokens lying around, and the ruins of an older one, were fomid 
upon a shingly ridge adjoining the sea. Amid the boulders which Ivul 

B/GirrEENT,, vorAon o,.- scom.sjir. ,„ 

i" lhc|,r„c<..„„f„g,,, rnllcl ,!„„„ „,„,„ i|,„ ,,,„ 

IhillicT l,y icchcr.r, .,,1,1 i,-,. ,1 ■ conveyed 

tl-i,- „c.,.s .„„,'; ; ",'" ""■"" """""■■"• ™-'-* ha.i built 

.c,:,^^^^^^^ , r^^^^ "-f ■'='-'<'^<' »i"' --. c„„n„e 

w., a specie, „r . ^ ' ""'T' '""^ *•'■'"»• T''^' -'^ --' «- 

n»he,.,„e„ ,.. .„e „.„uU, of U,e E,„e an, H ', ^ ,' T; "'^'^f " ">■ 

mehstanili,,,, its „„,„,,| ,„ , ' ""'l>"l 't* way „„rt|,, „„i. 

t ts wou,„i, ,„ ,|,e spot where ,t u-as foun.l. I, „,„ ., |,u„,, 
"^ "•«l< '■' 'aU. the ..i, a„<. ,,„„„,e,. al.oan, tite ship whieh ,r„ , , ff Z 

.;;.-.™™,ai,..p.a,,ets. wi.,:i:::;::j::.t,:--- 

cl>a,. he .^„p, „h,ch they fo„„„ great .liffleulty i„ overtaking. 

Al,c,- Se,„esl,y l,a,| „„„,,. seventeen to Arrtie . , 

liHl-d. in ,S.o, .A., Aeeount of the A,.etic Re il T, ' " ""'- 
-..y .0 the rather seant stoe,< of ,e„er„^ •::,;::,,.„ i'.:::;; ^ 

:: ::::t:;: 'T" r"""""™ '- "-^ "-'"-■»""- ■"'"■--: 

.'".I natural h,M„,-y of n„,.,|,e,-n|„„,|,,„„| [niS-h,. , 7„,h voyage, arriving o„ the coast of Gree I.n7i„ "'• 

.Sco,.eshy.„ Sou,..,, ,vhere his father ha.i hee„ s„,nc ^i ,:f '''^' '" 

-eyco,,r:r;,;::::::— 3^^^^^^^^^^ 


^4u, o.- ;u,y he ,a„<,c,. on I .::;z:::-z:r^'- ^-, •- 

nanu,l Cape Lis.c, in honor of the fantous Loin LX' 

--.'■-p-'>c,<so„ Lister. He Cunhe., to it. s„,„,:r:':,::;,;t 

"'"' KS^ir/AfAUX CAMP. 

florn of .hi, coast, which l,o .Iccrihcl in hi, account „f .ho v„y„,,c a,„l its 
res„l.,,, puhlishcd i„ ,823 a. aiinhuii-h. 

A little farther „n-„t what ho „amo,l Cape .Swai„,o„, in |,„„„r 
o. ho ,„t„,«u„ho,l natural!,., William Swai„,on_ho .le,co„,le,l 
'■■ 'Ik. shore. Hero ho fou.ul a recently .lesertcl camp of .ho 


Esquimau. Charrc, .Iriftwoo ashes lay „„ the hearths of 

. e several huts. N , lau.l anin.als were seou, hut a numher of auks ami other sea-fowls animated the waters. Mo.n itoo, 
.>u«orfl,o„ hees,an,l other „.„., , i„.cct, |low ahout am : 


crass on .ho hillsKle,, i„ ,hl, ihe solitary su™™„r ,„„,„h of Grc.„l„„„ 
^:Z. '" """ "^■'■'^ ' "" '"""• ^"^^ '^"•'"-- '"■- ''»- 
cxyve,,. sever., specal p„„e.,io„ a,.,i„,t the coW ha,I to he <levi,e,l 
y he s,,„,,,e,,,, -Necessity prove,, to he. he tnother ofinvcti " 
iKreas ,se„here,a,„„„,-,heehil.henof,nen. A tunnel lifteen fe t 
. .^ and opentn. to the south, was found leading to eaeh hut. This i 
. . .^hdy ....sed ahove .he ,eve, of .he ,„„„d, hein, so ,„. .ha. even 
he s„n,te.l l..s<|unnaux are compelle.l t., crawl through it on their 

^■;' » -I rcct. Its h„t.„,„ is usually a li.tle lower than ^he floo o 
"'." w,„ch,. leads, and is fnr.her depressed abou. .he, so . 
hoc. dcr and eavier outer air is Kep.fron, ,he hu., ins.ead of Howl 

< hron«h on the same level. E.xperience had .a„,h. these Z^. 

.ensof a.,t„de7.c what nren in happier and with the adv . 

.«es of schools and colleges, and the accun.da.ed wisdo. o, Z. 

«^red ,n books, recognise as a fundamental principle in the sciene:":f 

Rc-.ur„i„,, .o his ship,, Scoresby proceeded still northward, an,l on the 
-t<lay landed at what he nan,ed Cape Hope, in honor of Tho™, 
Hope, a chs.n,,Mnshed writer of the perioKl. „ere he found son.e n,o e 
"aces of Esqu,maux_boncs of the hare, and reindeer horns. The skull 
" a dog was raised on a small mound, it being a fancy „f „,u »!,„„,„ pe„. 
pie that the dog, who everywhere follows the footstep, of „,an i, the 
eave„.ord„,ne.l gui.le of deceased children to .he land of souls. ' Th 
heat was now so great that ,„any of .he plan.s had shed .heir seeds, and 
so,nc were already shriveletl an.l dead. Scoresby now proceeded h n,e- 
uar,l, an,l .h,s was his last voy.age to Arctic seas. his geographical explorations, he paid sonte attention to J.,, 

Mayen sland, about ntidway between Iceland an.l Spitsbergen. This 

- I-...1 ahnos. perpetually envelopcl in „,is,, and its chief points of in- 

erest were the lieerenberg Mountain at its northern extremity, risin.. to 

the hcght o. 6,S7o feet, and .he volcano Esk. I.s .Ireary soli.ude w^dd 

seUlon, he d,».„rl.d were it no. for .he herds of seal and walrus which 

la'ciuciit Us icc-l)omu| .shor 



ars and sca-fovvls 

urc its only iuhabi- 


tailts; and ill 

r.Asr DArs oj.- scoiii^sBr. 



larnctcriseic fcaturos ,.f ie, landscape are l 
Klaceis which sweep ,low„ hs ,i,les to Ihe's edge 

•m b „f AiCe cxpl„ra.i„n, a„,l ihc hnpossihili.y ,.f rcachi,,. L V,.i 
1 ad he,.,,, ,„ he accepted hy the general pnhlic L a fact iC.,^^.! 
. eav„.d .„ prove that there .„s „„ .„: ,^^^,:: .^ l^ ^^ ;- 
ch,,,ned , lat a voyage to the Pole ,Ii,, not necessarily involve ,.;„. ,li 

culty or danger. He pointcl out that the chief ohstaCe was tl e ai.e 
o of , „„., „,„ „p^„ ^^.^ ,^„„ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ . 

« was only necessary to be ready ,o use, alternately, h„„„ ,„„, „„,,Jf 
Th, s.,K,,e, ,on attracted attention, and has since been acted upon "i" 

,;;t:i:r ""^ ""-'''"'' '■■"^"•■■^p.-'withou. suchZh;: 

Scorcsl.y afterwanl became a clergyman in the Church of En,.hnd 

'zz t: '"T "• °- " "''' """ ''■ °- '" ■^3. :.. the ;!::!' 

cution of h,s .esearchcs ,n terrestrial magnetism in relation to ,iavigatio„ 
he ,nade a voyage to the United State, in ,8,7, and to Australia in ,85 
He d,ed a Torquay, in En^lan.l, in ,357. That portion of the no t 

H i 





"OVv the iriad xvatcr-s of the dark blue sea, 
Our t/ioui^fhts as bomidless and our souls as free,' 
J^ar as the breeze can bear the billozv's foam, 
Survey our empire, and behold our homer 

— HYltON. 

'^ Go forth ami prosper, then, cmprisin^r l,a„d, 
May He who i„ the hollow of His hand 
The ocean holds, and rules the whirlwind's sweep, 
Assua^re its wrath and guide thcc on the deep^ 

— ANON. 


nUCHAN IN nOKOTIfKA avi, ■rui.-K,-,. ^ 


1a.'""' '"' -'-— H UNHKU COMMA.Sn OK 
OSS A.n .AUKV-HNCOU..HK KS....... _ ..„,,,,,,„^ ^,.„ 

;;::,::;^ - ^^-^'^ — -- — - -oss o.... a 

''< nc h> the nnt,.sh ..overnmc-nt tovvani the solution of th. problem i„ 
which the ministry were so much interested in ,77, The A 

War of Inciependencc, .77c_8, .nd the r f' "'"' 

,^ o , 'yZS-^S^'inU the Contmental or French W-ir 

.7V3-.8.5,c., .he, „•„,.,.,„„.„„ „,, .,„.,^..,„ ,„ ,,„j,;;;'' 

.e.,.., cxpon,.io„,-„.he Arc.ic, c- e„ovvh„e. .Soon a .c- ^^Z 
h.mly c,tab,.„e„ by .„„ Troa.y of Vienna, in .8,5, cncon,,.. ir 
n>A,„na.,on wl,ich ha<l heon, mcanwhi,e„aeherc,l .hro,„h „ 1 
.-n o.,u. whale., .he n,inis., ,.»„,„„, .he eonsi.lera.i;, of .I^ , 
.c:.l a„<l .c, voyages ,„,.le,. .he a„spicc,s of .he cown ' 

I" .b.S .wo Aretic expeili.ions were Ht.e,l on. .0 seek a pa,sa.,e be 
ween .he A, n„ie anU .he Paeifie-.I.e one by .be nonh an ." . I," 

.he o.her by .he nonhwes. .ou.e-eaeb eo.nprisin, .wo vessels. 

Cap an, Davul I!uel,an was p,„ i„ co„,„,„„„ of .he n„r.he,„ e.p«li. 

' ' ■';'"'' ^^-^ -"= "- Dorothea an,, Tre,,., .he h^.te,- ,.n„:,' 

n'e,ha e co,n,„an„ of Lie,,.. John FranWin, „„w be.,e,- known „„ 
- I«e,- ,. c of .S,r John F,a„khn. Itnehan's ins.n,„s were .„ „, 

'":;■ ■'""" '"\ y^'--^ ■■' ■'""'>""« ■'- "or.ber„n,os. he , I o 

. ea„w.u-,l ,h,,.„,h .he A, Oeean, and reach .be Paeif.e .h,.o,..h 

.ci>n.,,s.S.,.a„s. This ,.„„.e is easy .0 on any ,00,, n,ap, ul 

"- d„even,en. has hi.her.., ,lefle„ ,he bes. naviga.o,,. U ,l,e J„i„n 

enu. only be b,.o,„h. un.ler .be e.p.a.or for a ,e„e,,,.i„„, „„, .lifliX 

wo„l„ e removed; b,.. .he iee, .ho i.npencabie, ,o„, acc„,„.„a,i„, i e^ 

} n 

a ri ,' i i 







is there supreme, and likely to be so henceforward, unless some potent 
cosmical revohition should chaii<,'e its relative position. 

On the 30th of July both ships were caught in a storm to the north- 
west of Spitzbcrgen, and the Dorothea was so much injured by contact 
with the ice that it was thought advisable to return to England, and her 
consort accompanied her. This failure, though free from serious disaster, 
had a most discouraging effect upon the public mind. 


Meanwhile, the other expedition had set sail on the iSth of April. 
It consisted of two ships, the Isabella an<l Alexander, under command of 
Captain, afterward Sii John Ross, with Lieut. William ICdward Parry in 
charge of the Alexander. Ross' instructions were to make for Davis' 
Straits and Halhirs l}a),aiid, if possible, to penetrate into the Arctic 

lii .1 










Ocean by that route, after which he was to reach the Pacific by way of 
I3ehring's wStraits. 

Reaching the west coast of Greenland they encountered much ice, 
and v/cre told by a Danish official that the winter had been exceptionally 
severe. Beyond Disco Island Ross was enabled to make some correc- 
tions in the observations previously made, finding, among others, an error 
of 5" of longitude in the location of Waygat Island as it apjDcared on 
the charts of the llritisli admiralty. lie determined with greater exact- 
ness the northwest coast from Melville Bay to Smith's Sound. Haviu"- 
passed Upernavik in yz'^.p', the most remote of all the Danish settle- 
ments on this coast, they were not a little surprised when .they encoun- 
tered some Esquimaux three degrees farther on, in 75''' 54'. They had 
some difficulty in striking an acquaintance with these isolated and coy 
representatives of humanity. 

Their astonishment was very great on finding that this people did 
not even know that there were other denizens of the earth besides 
them.selyes. They were as ignorant of the Danish settlements 200 
miles away as of the Danish and other nations beyond the Atlantic. 
Their idea of the English navigators seemeil to be that they were super- 
natural beings, inh.-ibitants of another world. One of them, with much 
reverence and solemnity, addressed the moving and apparently livin<r 
shiji, asking, " Who are you? Whence come you? Is it from the sun 
or moon?" They had no canoes, and seemed to have no conception of 
the nature of the ship. It was not to them as to others of the same 
race, a big canoe, but something entirely beyond the reach of their intel- 
lects to grasp. And yet, though behind many of the aboriginal tribes in 
this respect, they were aheail of mosi in their knowledge of the use 
of iron, which tends to show that the ages of tlie archtGoln<rists 
are to be understood as stages of progress in the development of human- 
ity, but by no means synchronous nor successive over the whole earth. 
They had rude knives, the manufacture of which they explained in this 
way: They had found a huge mass of it — which the interpreter, per- 
haps, erroneously translated a mountain, but which was probably a 
meteoric body— and bad chipped oft' the pieces which they had ham' 


ClilAfSON CLIFFS. jgg 

mered with stones into the shape in which they saw them. Ross na.ncd 
them the Arctic Highlanders. 

Proceeding farther up the coast, they entered the phenomenon of red 
snow, which the great Swiss naturalist, Saussnre, had observed in the 
Alps at least thirty years before, but which was none the less stran-e to 
<nn- explorers. When melted, it presented the appearance of 
port wme. For eight miles along the Greenland shore of Hafhn's P,ay 
tlu^ cliffs were covered v ith this peculiar snow, and in some ,)laces to the 
depth of twelve feet. In ,819, some months after their return to T.:n<.- 
land, the coloring matter of ihe red snow was subjected to careful analy- 
sis by Robert Brown and Francis Bauer, who, however, .lifTered slightly 
n. opm.on. Brown pronounced it a one-cell plant of the sea-weed order- 
Bauer named it the snow-uredo, a species of fungus. Afterward Baron 
Wrangell, the Russian explorer, declared it to be a lichen. Later still Agardh, the Swedish naturalist, and Dr. Robert Kaye Greville' 
a famous British botanist of Edinburgh, have given the weight of their 
recogmzcd authority in support of the opinion of Brown.' These have 
been followed by several other scientists, and the minute plant is now 
scientifically known as ihc palmclla nivalis, a little snow-palm, <nven'it 
by Sn- William Hooker. The motions of this microscopic object in the 
earher stages of its existence have led some eminent naturalists to re-ard 
tlie coloring matter in red snow as animalcula,, not plants. Audit is 
not un,x)ssible that such may have been observed; but the essential char- 
acter of the object is vegetable. In its mature state it consists of brilliant 
globules hke fine garnets, seated on, but not immersed, in a gelatinous 
mass. Saussure had rightly conjectured thafthe red colo,- was owin- to 
the presence of son.e vegetable substance, but wrong in supposing I to 
be the pollen of a j^lant. 

Captain Ross was an experienced naval commander, having been in 
active service in the Continental War, but he was somewhat opinionated 
in this h.s first Arctic voyage, and inclined to follow tiie old school. He 
deeded by his personal opinions questions of geograj.hy which required 
to be ascertained, not prejudged, and to which a little actual investica- 
tion would have furnished a diflerent answer. He sailed by Wolsten- 


!R. ,:; I W. 




holm, Whale and Smith Sounds without (Icisninj. to examine them, 
arh,trarilydecla>, ; them to be bays, the heads of which he thou<dit 
were v.s.ble in the distance. In.t a worse mistake of the same kind was 
st.ll to be made l^y the otherwise blameless Captain Ross. Passin- to 
the west side of J5affin's Bay, the sea was fouml clear of ice, and the land 
free from snow, except on the distant motnitain ra.iscs. The tempera- 
ture rose, and tlie chance was favorable for achievin- some -reat result. 
On the 29th of Au.^.u.t the ships entere.l Lancaster Sound, so named by 
J;.-dlin in honor of a distinguished En-lish navi-ntor in other seas, but 
who had always shown ,i,n-eat interest in the- disco^•c■ry of the Northwest 
Passage, and had made a collection <,f documents tendin- t., prove its 

Into this spacious sound, nearly fifty miles wide at its eastern 
entrance, now passed the ships of Captain Ross, but they had advanced 
only thirty miles when, to the wonder and disappointment of officers and 
men, he ordered the vessels to t,n-n back. Deceive<l by refraction or 
some atmospheric illusion, he thou-ht lu- had seen a mo.mtain ran..-e at 
a distance of about twenty-five mnes ahea<l, which he inferred was the 
head of the bay, and which he even name<l Croker's Mountains, in 
honor of John Wilson Croker, then at the heij^ht of his fame. It is'but 
justice to the memory of Ross to remind the reader that t hou,i.h tiie body of 
water in question, as well as the more northern ones kncnvn as Jones' 
and Smith's Sounds, had been discovered and named by Jiaffin, it had not 
been yet ascertained that they were sounds. It was, however, a ques- 
tion that had been discussed, and opinions were divided. Some of Ross' 
own officers believed that this water in which they were was a channel 
communicating with a lar-er body or sea to the west, if not with the 
Arctic Ocean itself; and his error consisted in not makin- the test when 
circumstances were favorable. 

Passing down JJaffin's Bay alon- its southern coast, of which 
but little was known, he failed to explore it; and reachin- Cum- 
berland Sound he exhibited the same fatal indifference? The 
aggravation of the unconscious offense lay in the fict tiiat the season 
was an exceptionally favorable one for making a thorough examination 






of that coast. For, notwithstanding what he had heen told by the Danish 

}* - i' 




A„CT,C C,„C,.._„KSBT ,. T„. ,CK -_ „,,^c„ POSSKSSmN „AV_ 

Amonj, those who incline,! ,„ ,hc opinion tha. L.,nea».o,- Sound 

IT ;"'"n" '"' '""'' '° "" "--'' """ '-•'^""» ™,„„nn,ieate., „i 
the Arc.,c Oeean, was I.icntenant Pairy, secon,, in coninian,, .o K„„ 

He ha,l entered ,l,e navy in ,803, while ye. a lad, having heen horn 
Dec. 19 1750. tie devote,! his ,, .re time on boar,! .0 selr.e,lnea. 
..on, and e.,pee,ally ,„ the mastering of the nau.ieal an,! .astronomical sci- 
ence of h,s ,!ay. He receive,! hi, conimi-slon of lientcnan, in iSio, and 
was given command of a vessel ,0 the Arctic regions for the .lonhle pnr- 
pose o afl-or,h„g protection to British whalers, a„,l perfecting the a,Li. 
Kahy harts o those In 18,3 lie was reealle,! and sent .0 Join the 
British fleet then hloek.ading the ports of the United States, and after tlie 
war eontinned attached .0 the North American sqnailron till iS,,. 
While w,.h Ross in ,8,8, he was impressed with tlie great depth and 
hig emperatnreof the w.ater in Lancaster .Soun,!, and was disLisHe,! 
with the conclnsion arrived at !,y his chief. Though mo<Iest in the ex 
pi-ession of his dissent, it reached the ears of the ministry, an,! to him" 
was now lutrns.e,! an expedition to go over .he .same ground. Tho„„h 
he general pnbhc ha.l a!,out given ,ip all hope of a Northwcs. P,ass.a:e 
being ever found, the leaders of thought, aiul the authorities, as well I 
Parry an,! some other of Ro,ss- officers, were not dispo,se,! ,0 give up 
the search until Lancaster .Sound, a. least, had been properly e;iore,L 
1 he new expedition, like so many other,, of the recent ones, eon- 

sisted o, two ships the Hecla of 375, the Griper of ,80 tons burden. 

Both were victualed for two years , amply provided with stores of 

knids, including canned meats and extra elotWng for the men 




Though .ho n,a!n ohjec, „f ,he voyage was ,„ search for .he Nchwc. 
!' had l,eo„ co„si,„e.l ,„ ,ho , lee, A ,'" '""""" "'"" 

o. u. eoa. o, No„h ;:: .r:::::;ri;::^ 

"n.o„ jack, and deposit at the ^^^ a Ibi^-slail, luMsltho 

foot a record of what they had 
iichieved, and their future inten- 
sions, in a simihu- sealed bottle. 

Parry's expedition left London 
May 5, iS,5, but did not clear 
the Orkney Islands until the 20th. 
On th^ 30th they took soundings 
for the alleged " Sunken Land of 
Huss," on the direct route to 
Greenland, but failed to find any 
evidence of its existence. On 
the 15th of Jiuic they sighted 
Cape Farewell, but at the dis- 
tance of perhaps 120 miles. On 
the xSth they encountered the 

"■•St .ce strean. of fioating ice, and saw several icebergs." The.- 
-.cod several kinds of sea .,wls and in greater nu-^^^ers ' 
ual, and found the water 3" lower in temperature, and of a dir tn,ge. On the 34th the ice was seen extending clear 
he western hor.on; and on the 35th they were towed slovly alon! 
by the. boats through the ice-floe. An easterly wind now c Ls d 
he ,ce aroun the. so that they were forced to desist from their row^l 
and the vessels remained ice-locked until the 3,th, making such pro^rJ: 
as the ice made, and no more. " 

They saw a whale and a bear, the latter of which they killed, but the 





Xxvm^A .nul the .lead disappcaml beneath the ice. On the 30th, after 
eight hot,rs ,>f incessant lahor, they were enabled to work the ships into 
clear water to the cast. They skirted these ice-packs for three days 
looking in vain for an opening to the west side of Davis' Strait; an.l i,i 
constant danger of being driven into the ice by the cast wind. On the 
3<1 of July they entered within the Arctic Circle off the northern penin- 
sula of Cumberlan.l, having passed not less than fifty icebergs during 
the <lay. Towanl mi.lnight a chain of icebergs appeared to the north", 
and tiie wind dying down, the ships were in imminent danger of 
into close quarters with them, being carried forward by a southerly swell^ 
and unable to cliange their direction in the calm. By putting out their 
boats they succeeded in towing back the Ilecla, which was ahead, into 
open water, and out of the way of the icebergs on the morning of the 
4tb, and at noon were in the middle of Davis' Straits, with the ice to 
the westward. A day or two later they killed a walrus, and saved its 
blubber for lamp-oil. On the tenth they killed a bear and succeeded in 
getting it aboard. On the ryth they took the ice, that is they sailed into 
it, in order to keep as close to the westward as possible, the commander 
being still bent on not going too far from that side of the strait. They 
succeeded in getting twelve miles, when, on the iSth, they encountered 
a body of ice right across their bows. This they attempted to bore, or 
push through, but the wind not being favorable, they stuck fast after 
having penetrated it about 300 feet. 

For 'C-^vi, hours they labored, hither and thither, backward and 
forward, before they could succeed in crossing this ice-belt of only 
300 yards' wi<lth. The fog by which they had been long beset 
having lifted on the 21st, they descried on the distant coast of 
Greenland, the headland just south of Upcrnavik, and which Davis 
had named Sanderson's Hope, in 15S7. The commander aga.n grow- 
ing uneasy at the distance he was compelled to keep from'' the 
western shore of BaHin's Bay, determined to make another effort 
to push through the ice to the west. The struggle so bravely 
entered on, lasted seven days, and after prodigies of endurance and 
long-continued exertions, sometimes lasting without intermission for 

i^rSAPPEARANCE OF Clinh'R,^^<' «,., 


eleven Ik«„s .-,t a stretch, l,y backin.r ,,,,1 . • 

t'- ice-pad., and oti..- devic ^v Tl ""' '"'""^^ 

^•^a.- wa... on U.e western s.^.^'h . " ^ , ^"^"^ ^"- 

ei..hty,.iles of almost continuous ice ,1, f , "' '"' '''^''""^^'' 

sea u-as deep-^thcy were unahle ,.. n-ach Iv.tton, 'H 

n.H-ms; the U.„pe,-atu,-o of tin- watc.- J '/' ''"""•^'" 

-••^•-y soon can. insight or la,;;. ^^ '^^ '"^'-' ^^ "^^-^ "'.'-, 

On the last day of July,, 8.,, the co.nn.ander and a few of hi 
went ashore in Possession Ho, i "'"* '"'-"" 

osstssion Bay, where on the prdvious ^car Cant T? . 

had raised a fla<r-SLafr Tl-,;. <i r , -^ '-ipt. Koss 

^^'tan, ,( the land was a wood-bearin.. one as Iv.d 1 

f-ivor-.h^ . A ., possinic. J he wnid lieconi n<>- 

^ound. .s more easy to m,a<,ine than describe," savs Parry u,He al 

most hreathless anxiety which was now visible in ev" 

while IS the 1„. ■ . ^'-'>' countenance, 

.n, . The ,„ase hea„» wore cow.lcc, ,,, .,,„ „«,„, ,„„ „;„ , „ . ,, 
l"-wlK..o .„on,„„„; ,,.„, a,. „„c<.,K.c.™„,, o^rvc, if any coul.l I : 

:; '""'^T' "" ™^" - --i». w„,„a Have ,.e„ a „,. J , 

c.«c.,„c,. .,.„, >v„leh .he vanou. ,.ep„„, f„,„ ,„, ,,.,„^, „^,^^ ,^ j ' 

-vo ; A howeve, „.heno favon.We .„ „„ ,„„, .„„, , „„,,^,;, 

I.ofo,en.«h„hey had passed ehe pohu re«hed .he previous y a.- and 

wide and,. , " , ^ " ' "'"^ «"> '■*»'>nrf "b„„t r„r.v miles 

".dc, and as deep as a. the e„.,.„„ee. The wa.e,- had .he eol,,," „f ,he 

an „, a ereepUhle sweU r,-,„n .he son.h and eas.. Thev s ,„.: 

".„ "f C„.Ue,., Mountains which .heneCbrth disappean-d' f,,an -eo- 





li' ' 



graphical nomenclature. They l.e<,'an to inia-ine fliey had aheady 
reached the open polar sea, an. 1 ,, ,,p the very eve cf solvui},' the 
(louhle ])r<)l)leni of flndinjr the N..rthwest Passaj-e and tlie Pole. They 
were soon undeceived, (or thonjrh the fancied in-nmlpius had disappeared, 
they encountered a \iry real ohstacle in an I -e-puck. To the south (hey 
ol)serve<l an openin- thirl\ miles wide, whicli lUey entered in (he hope 
of still pushin- westwanl. In, however, they were .lisappointed, 
lindiiio themselves in whal Parrv named Prince Ke<ren( Fnlet, which, 
with its wide continuation, the (Julf of Moothia, stretched away to the 
south, some 450 miles. In .lescendin^^ the inlet the ships' compasses 
lost their wonted enertjy, and they witnessed for the first time "the cu- 
rious phenomenon of the <lirective power of the necHe hecominn so 
>veak as to he completely overcome hy the attraction of the ship; so 
that the iieetlle inij^Hit now he properly said to i>oint t(. the north pole of 
the ship." 

They sailed through the inlet to where it widened into the gulf already 
mentioned, and Ihiding the northwest corner, which was the direction 
tliey sought to take. Mocked hy an impenetrahle ice '.mrier, they re- 
traced their course. On the 13th they discovered on the east shore of 
the iidet a harhor one mile wide and three deep, which they named 
Port Howcn. The narwals were here found in <rieat luimho'-;, and also 
dovckies and ducks. They landed on what Parry descrihes as the most 
harrcn spot he had ever seen, Being here detained two days hy the ice, 
they made some slight exploration of the harren coast, and deposited on 
a little hillock a record-hottle, which they coveretl witii a pile of schis- 
tose limestone. Of this there was an ahundance, but there was neither 
soil nor vegetation to be found. On the 17th they reached the head- 
land at the northeastern point of the junction of Prince Regent Inlet 
with Lancaster vSound, to which Parry gave the name of Cape York. 
At nine o'clock in the evening of the 1 8th, after beating around f rseveral 
hours among ice-tioes, they reached clear water near the north shore of 
Lancaster Sound. In a few days they found the channel so clear of ice 
that it jvas impossible to believe it to be the same part of the sea, which 
but a day or two before had been completely covered with floes to the 

i; ^1 



utmost extent of our view." Here they picked up a spar which a sea- 
man had dropped overhoard some two weeks hefore, indicatini,- the 
absence of current and tlu> extent of their dij^ression. 

Entering the continuation of Lancaster Sound, to which Parry gave 
the name of Harrow Strait, in honor „f Sir John Ba row, second lord 
of the admiralty, they passed IJeechey Island, Cape llotham and Cape 
Bowd.M . On the2id of 4ugi, t, in longitude 92^: 15', they saw an inlet 
about twenty-five miles in width, which opened to the nortli, and in 
which they could see neither land nor ice from the mastheati. 1" this 
Parry gave the name of Wellington Channel; and this break in the con- 
tinuity of the coast on that side had the effect of making him think that 
he "had actually entered the Polar Sea. Though two-thirds t.f the 
month of August had now elapsed, I had every reason to be .satisfied," 
he says, " with the progress we had hitherto made. I calculated upon 
the s.-a being navi-^^able for six weeks to come, and probably more, if the 
state of the i' Nvould permit us t., edge away to the southward in our 
progress westerly. Our prospects, indeed, were truly exhil ing; the 
ship, had sutn red no injury; w. had plenty of provLsions; crews in high 
health and spirits; a sea, if not opetj, at least navigable; and a zealous 
and luianimous determination, in both officers and men, to acoomplish by 
all possible means the grand object on which we had the happiness to be 

Still sailnig westward through H.-.rrow's Strait along the south coast of 
Cornwallis Island, they reached CJriffith, nov^ Bathurst Island. The 
former has since been ascertained to be a peninsula of the latter, ut they 
were supposed at this time to be distinct islands. Here they font traces 
of an F quimaux encampment, which Captain Sabine examined with 
care. He found six huts " on a level, sandy bank, at the side of a small 
ravine near the sea," and eon urtcd « of stones rudely placed in a cir- 
cular or elliptical form. They were ,m seven to ten feet in diameter; 
tht broad, flat sides of the stones standing vertically, and the whole 
structure, if such it may be called, being exactly similar to that of the 
summer huts of the Esquimaux which we had seen at Hare Island the 
preceding year, Attached to e^tch of them was a smaller drclc, generally 

Hi f 



AfE^r LOST. 

four ,.r five feet in .liameter, whicii had probably been the fireplace 
The small circles were place.l in.liderently as to their .lirection fron> the 
huts to which they belonj^ed; ami fro.n the moss and sand which covered 
some of the stones, particularly those which composed the floori..^. of the 
huts, the whole encampment appeared to have been deserted for "several 

The ma-netic observations made here, compared with those of I'rince 
Re-ent Inlet, already noted, " led to the conclusion," says Edward Sa-. 
bine, the mathematician of the expedition, "that we had in sailin- over the 
space included between the two meridians, crossed immediately to the 
northward of the magnetic pole, and had undoubtedly passed over o..e of 
those spots upon the globe where the needle would have been found to 
vary iSo% or, in other words, where its north pole would have pointed 
due south. This spot would, in all probability, at this time be somewhere 
not far from the meridian of loo? west of Greenwich." 

Contijiuin- their voyage to the westward, without divergin<r to the 
south in the wide expanse of Melville Sound, they skirted the colt of a 
yet larger island, which Parry named Melville Island. On the 4th of 
September they passed longitude i io<^ west, thus becoming entitled to 
the reward of ir5,ooo offered by order of council "to such of His 
Majesty's subjects as might succeed in penetrating thus far to the west 
w.thin the Arctic Circle." They named the neighboring headland' 
i:5ounty Cape, and continued their course to the westward. Checked by 
the .ce, they made several excursions on shore in search of game, and for 
purposes of exploration, from the Sth to the 13th. In one of these 
seven of the men got lost, .md afterward separated into two sections of 
three and four. The four returned in three days, being guided by a fla-.- 
staff which the commander had ordered raised for that purpose; and th^e 
other three after au absence of ni.iety-one hours. Relavs of search were sent out, ,lay after day; and all the wanderers' were finally 
brought safely to the ships. By the care and attention of their comrades 
and the medical staff, they soon recovered from their exhaustion. 

On the 30th a council of officers was held, who concurred with the 
commander in the opinion that, as the ice continued to close in upon them 



""'' '"'•■'■7"" '"" "'"^' "-»■-' "« ™.kin, „„y headway „, .„. wc„ i. 
was limu til seek fill wiiitei-ciiiii-f,.,-. t i . '"'- west, it 

CO,,™ .1,1,1 I q".irtfls. rw,i .lays late- thc-y ,ctra™l their 
cm„,c .„ ,1 hc,ai, „, ,„ake their way .lowly e„„war.l, .„ M.i,,,,., Ca,K. 
hey ,,„„ ,revi„„,„y „„„,„ .,^ ,^, . „^,^ ,,_^ , . j- t- - 

".I Onper „„„ they „„„ ,,,.,„,„„„, , ^., ,^^.,. „ ^^^^ 

.h,.o,i,h . ,e i,ew iee, the ave,,,,. ,hiek„e,s of which w,. ... 
1 ck „„ .s,i„„ay, Septcnhcr .6, .i,ey ha,l ivachd thdr m, orin , 

t, , :,."r' r'""'- "■":•"■ -'""^ ■ -■ ^- - -.,.„.:;; 

ica , they were now relatively safe. The .hi,,, „„„,„ „„,. 

ockul ha,hor ,„ fiv fath„,m of water ami a, a cahic', Icn-th fron, .he 
a., w, ... .he iee.„oe c„„kl ,„.. i,„„„,, ,„„„. .,„„ ^,^., „„; J^^^ 

::;:;,""'" -'-'-- »"- - "-•)• .cfu,. , „„, w.hich the.; 

H". hu,„a„ joy i» aK,.,y, „ „ ,„^,. ,.,„|,^„. ^^ ^,„ ,^, 
*»,.fo,... These ,„e„ were,,,, the eve of an Actio win. ,f 
,-„l,„ nine month. „„ratio„, a,„l ., „ three „f .he.e .hey we 

he,. We,e they .eek,,,,. ,0 fin.l ,.elief r,.o,n ,l,e hear...ici<e„i„. which 
.he .,.,.,,„„ wa, .„ we,, e,.,c.„:,te„ .,. pro„„ce.. More ,„.„„;„„ .„„ 

-seo, „av„„ c,.„„,ere.. .he .ea „„.l .he ice, a„.l assc-.e. ce a,ai„ 

h„„,a„ |„.ero,.a.ive of .„l„l„i„., a.l.erse ci,c„m.,a„ee., „„.ur;nv 
-vakeel .„„ ,|e„„, „f ex,„ta.i..„. S,.,,,. „,„„ ,.,,.,., j,,,., „,„, ^ 

Z"::;: '" ■' ■t'"""'"' "■'"'" " ■■"" '^"" "^ -"— -■' 'hi., oeca. 

'"'-h na.wav„,.,„r .he H,-.. .!,„„ i„ .hese ,.e,i..„s, which had 
l.ce„ „„l,er,o ciosidced heyoi,,, the N,„i.. .,f .„, „„„;,, ;„,,;„ 



TH:..s ..n ...STXMHS ok .. .hcT.C WI.XKK - HKA.TH UKOU.A- 

rK>xs_A.v AHcrrc nkwspapkk_an akctic thkatkk _nA,x.v 


No ti,„e was lost; the security of the ships and the preservation of 
the stores and provisions received prompt attention. The vessels were 
unn..ed, and partially dismasted; the lower yards were lashed fore and 
aft, to support the planks which were to constitute the outer shell of -m 
extemporized house on shipboard. Boats, spars, sails, ropes, and eve,y- 
thmg not hkely to be needed were stored away on shore, and the hou'e 
on each sh.p was covered with a cloth by way of roof. Parry next ..ave 
h.s attention to provi<Iing eveiy possible safe.n.ard against sickness. For- 
tunately the men had hitherto shown no symptoms of that scour.^e of 
seamen, the scurvy; an.l it was of the utmost importance to anticipate 
lb. a,^,roach by the use of all known preventives that were accessible. 
1 he first care was directed toward utilizing the heat from the -al ley- 
range and copper-boilers of the ships, and by some ingenious but simple 
contrivances this was made to warm the sleeping berths ,>f the men A 
large stone oven, cased with cast iron, used for baking their bread, was 
placed H. the n.ain hatchway, and the pipe carried fore and aft on the 
lower deck, tiie sm,>ke ascending through the forward hatchway With 
an ordmary lire and these appliances they were able to secure a' temper- 
atureotSyo Fahrenheit, at a distance of seventeen feet fn.n. the fire- 
place. Tl.e steam from the coppers was intercepted on a curtain of 
dreadnaught reaching to within eighteen inches of the deck, which suf- 
fered the heat to pass beyon.l, while the steam Nvas con.lensed into water 
on the hanging cloth. Provision was made for the distribution of suffi, 




cien. food but .educed one-third f,„„, the stated allowanee The dnil. 
mt,o„ of h.e,-„icea„d „„,a,. .ni.ed to.ethe.and with a p ;pe^ , „ 
of water, was .Irank- in presence of „, „fli,,„. , ■ ' ^ 

, .His precautionary re.ui.l.ion of th! r,:,: ; ; "^L 7:^ "'? 
.cal staff e.a„,i„ed the „,e„ for s,.ptonrs of scurvy ""' 

Parttes were sent out to hunt, who at firs, fo.nal an abundance of 
grouse and rein.lecr, but before .he close of October these Iv 
-. ^.n M,.,vi„e I.and; but and tb.e: .:^::r " :r 
I .s f.-esh n,, when obtainable, was served instead of the c ! 

■•'>»..S.o n,sure its consumption ; for, although otlen less palatal lei: 
.n...o wholesome. To promote contentnre ,t amon./ h t ! " 

;;: :,;';,:-r"^ •■■■ " •>■ -^ -' - .-.r -., wa: iz:::;^ 

Recogn,.n,g the value of hygienic cheerfulness and la„:htcr .h 

7",'" '"■■• '" «-'■' -ith his principal olflccrs, now proi 2 

"' '"eatrieal representations, at intervals of abou twow e J X'"' 

;"m,senK.„t,," says Parry, . I „,adly undertook a part" s ^f T 

•"■^ .1-- an e.a„,ple „f cheerfulness, by .ivin- direct 
--■ythins .l:at conld contribute to it „ .; ^ " 'T'^' '" 

^' sfll f.uthe, t.. promote ,<,nK„I \nuunv a,n<,n<.- <.m,-sHv . 

:::::::':;:';::"''^'T'"-'""-^"'^" --•""'--- 

I nppoitcd li, onumal .■.nuributions from ll, y. , , 

'"■-I"PS! and I can safciv sav Iha, d, , " "' "'" 

i-ppvwic,-,,.rc„, IZ^^'" ''';';'' '"•"'"""■"•" - 

-'•'ivcr,in,,l,e,,indfr,; , ' "f "- "ho furnished ,l,c„„ 

"'."■...:>■ iiscif hcs,„ : :''^'''-'"''^'^-'"^ 


■^^ . 

Il 1 1 




i > I ) 

milf I 

Meanwhile Capt. Salnne had erected an ohservatory about 

to the west „f the ships, and a house fur the instruments 

700 yards 

made with 

, I , , . .^-iiLo, nmuu Willi a 

double sheetn.ff of planks. The intervening space being packed with 
moss, this house cot.ld l,e kep: comfortably warm in the worst weather 
by a single stove. They had expected to make important observations 
on the 4th of November., the last day of the sun's appearance above 
thehonzon; but the weather was too foggy, and they were unable to 
calculate the amount of refraction as anticipated. On the 5th they pre- 
sented to an a.lmiring and enthusiastic audience their first play, " \ Miss 
ni Her Teens," which was loudly applauded. Besides afFordin<. the antici 
pated amusement to the n.en, it was found that putting the play on the 
boards, as well as running the machinery and properties afterward, 
afforded pleasant and exhilarating occupation to a number of them 
which, perhaps, was not the least beneficial result of the original design,' 
The commander wisely "dreaded the want of employment as one of tl.J 
worst evils that was likely to befall them." 

In pursuance of this idea the men were .s.. busily engajjed that they 
complained of not finding tin.e to mend their clothes, whereupon the 
commander set apart one afternoon in each week for that purpose " The 
officers and quartermasters were divided into four watches, which were 
regularly kept as at sea, while the remainder of the ship's company 
were allowed to enjoy their night's rest undisturbed. The hands were 
turned up at a quarter before six, and both decks were well rubbed with 
stones and warm sand before eight o'clock, at xvhich time, as usual at 
sea, both officers and men went to In-eakH^st. Three-quarters of an hotu- 
being allowe<l after breakfast for the men to prepare themselves for nn.s- 
ter, we then beat to divisions punctually at a quarter-past nine, when 
every person on board attended on the quarter-deck, and a strict inspec- 
tion ... the men took place as to tlieir personal cleanliness, and the- good 
condition as well as warmth of their clothing." 

While the commander examined the Mvver ,leck and visited the, those he had left, occupied themselVes with a walk or run 
abotit the vessel; and on his return were dismissed for a trip 
ashore until noon. These stated walks afforded no amusement 


and but little interest TN . "^ 

iiiicrest. ihe dreary samenp^ ■ «f h 

«^lent and unehan^nng landscane fh . '""""' ^^e 

I-ve otherwise tl.n ;ono ^ ' ^ f ^'f '^ ^^ ^w, eould not 

-^^ -1 -i -nopin,, i. recnr;en ^L r::! T '^"^ "^'" 
exccufon afforded the .^ratification of a d t , ^:^''^^'^ 

frequent occasion," says Pnrrv u • ^ Performed. « We had 

objects when viewed over an unvaried s^, iTf '" '""° "''' '"' 

common for „, to direct o„r , ""*■ " ""» "ot u„. 

Of stone at a d«ta. o^ Z^:Z7" '''X ''' """ '''" " '^'^^ "'- 
-e ,> in ,.„r .md. on:' :!:.!:: 2^ ;::: '- -' -'^' '" tl,o case wl,en ascending ,l,e brow o, 7 I -^ ™ore particu- 

the ^leception became less on ace „ . / i ' ""' ' ^" """ •"^" 

experienced its effects," ' ''"'"'^"^7 vviti, vvhid, we 

The afternoons were <lcvotcd h„ ,r,„ 
or ^»kets used in fnrlin. sal r , """""' "'° "'"'"'' -* ,^,„„„ed for ^cCuns , H" "' l'^"'''' ^' ^^'^ '"^^ "-- 

- -n .„^d .l:i rrtX:.:::.^ '-^ --• 

u«,l n,„e o'c(.«k, when .l,ey went to be,i i' """"' «"""'' 

•Ice. ever, baif^. ,„ J„^, „„ J:';, ';;■";" ^i-' "- l-wer 
fl- l.real< „„t, a lr<,le >v., cu, twice a d ,v ,' ' *■' '■""'^' *"•""" 

Stn,<,ays,,ivine servic w,. re^ r v , ' '"' "^™- ^'^'^'-WP- «" 

-"• These religions e»,._: I , : „:. "-']. '"^i" ^ ^' -™..n 

"" "-^- '"■■""" "i..^ and condt,; ar' c' ^ Z^^'r' """'^ 
'nu.,, the spirits and sustaining ., e 1 . . T"' """"■'■ "■ 
men in dilHcnlt situations " "' '"''"^ ''">"'■•» "! 

^-'S:!:n::;:~::--";>^^'."- -.. ..ted that 

with conttWt, but ,,,.„ ,„ ,,,,1 „.l ' '■''-'""^"■»"«"me,l walk 

•Voreveuontb,, shortest ia;".?,;:'"- f'^"^ "'^^^^^ '."u. 
■lepHved „, this ,wih.,hf L ,■' ^ ' ""'" ""•■' '*'"'> 

"•"-■■ '■".■a.ho,..;,:.';;; :::;ir;;;: '■■'-■■-•"'"• ■•■»■'-■- 

.•".-.age direct, toward the ..nb^n^rrrrr:::: 





1 i 


iiiLflit ill this coMiiL'ctioii is l!;il)le to convey a wrong impression. The 
rc'llicUuii of lijj;-iil from the snow and the moonhi^hl were snfKcient even 
in the lliickc^i \ve;ithci' to dispel liie leehii;^ of L?!<Joni that aecoinpanies 
a dark iiiu;!)! in tein[)L;iate zones. They ohsurved Christmas on hoard 
with as near an approach as possil)k' to tlie customs of their conntry, 
and the play wrij^dits and actors prepared and performed a Christmas 
piece, expressly adapted to the audience and the circnmstances. Dnrinc^ 
January the tiieriiionieter ram^'-ed from 30'-' to .|.o'-' l)eh)w zero, and occa- 
sional!) sank to 30'"', so that in L^oin::^ asliore tlie chan^j^e of temperatnre 
was sonu'times ijo , lint hy nsiuLC tlie necessary precautions no injury 
was recei\i'd, and tliey kept ui) tlieir daily ramhles. 

At lem^tli the ■i^nnner of tiie llecla was taken down with scurvy, 
contracted thi-ounh th.e moisture deposited 1>\' the steam on his 
jiedclothes, notwithstandiuL;- all the care that had been taken to 
<4uard against this evil. J>y the free nse of the reco<i;nized remedies, 
especially the fresh mustard and cresses, which the commander 
with liis usnal f )rethonij^ht had procured, the t^unner was restored 
to health. A few others were sli<j^htly afTectcd, and more easily 
cured. It was found that the men became easily frost-bitten in 
their feet, and with his customary spirit of investigation the comman- 
der sought out the cause and the remedy. It was found that the hard 
thick leathiM- of which their b-uots were made cramped their feet and 
I)re\enle(l the circulation, tlius inducing frost liites of the joints. '* l>eing 
very desirous," says Parry, " of avoiding these accidents, which, from 
the Increased sluggishness with which tlie sores healed, were more and 
more likely to alFect the general health ol' the patients by long conline- 
nienl, I (lii'ected a pair of can\'as boots, lined with blanketing or some 
other woolen siulf, to be made for each man, using rawhide as soles; this 
completely answered the desired purpose, as scarcely an\- I'rost bites in 
the leei alterward occurred, e\ce])t undei' circumstances of ver\ severe 

.\l noon on I'eii. \i\ the sun was setai lift\'-one fi'ct aboxt' ||n' hoi'i- 
/on fi'oni the maintop of tin- llecla for the lirst time since \o\. 11; 
and at the s.mie houi on the ylh its full orb was lii'st \isible al)o\c tlic 






»'1 : 


horizon, with a mock-sun 32*^ to the cast. The daylight was sufficient 
from eight to four o'clock for outside work, and they hegan the task of 
preparation for their departure. They collected stones for iiallast, of 
whicli the Ilecla would require seventy tons, licsides twenty of additional 
water to replace the wei<,Hit of provisions and stores consiuned durin;^ 
their stay. February jjroved the coldest month, the mercury descendinj^ 
to 55^' below zero on the night of the. i.|th. But even then no inconven- 
ience was suffered from exposure to the open aii in ralm weather. If, 
however, there was occasion to face even a light wind, severe pains in the 
face and head were sure to ensue. On the i6th a mock sun appeared on 
each si.le of tlie sun, visible for half an hour. On the 34th the house 
which had lieen built on shore for astronomical instruments, was iliscov- 
ercd to be on Hre. 'The men from lioth snips hastened to the rescue, and 
by tearing off the roof and throwing snow on the burning interior, they 
extinguished the flames without injin-y to the more valuable instruments. 
Tlie thermometer was at 44*^ below zero, and tiiey were at work three- 
quarters of an hour. " The men's faces presented a singular spectacle; 
almost every nose and cheek was frost-liitten, and became (juile white in 
five minutes after being exposed to tiie weather; so that the medical 
men, with some others appointed to assist them, were obliged to go 
constantly round while the men were working at the fire, and to rub 
with snow the parts affected in order to restore animation. Capt. 
Sabine's servant, in his anxiety to save the dipping needle from the 
observatory, ran out without his gloves; his fingers, in consequence, .vere 
so completely frozen that on his hands being plunged into a basin of cold 
water, the surface was immediately covered with a cake of ice from the 
intensity of the cold thus communicated to it; but animation conld not 
be restored in this instance, and it was founil necessary to resort to ampu- 
tation." This hero of duty and victim of imprudence was John Smitli. 
He lost parts of four fingers on one hand and three on the otiier. 

.Sunday, the 5th of March, was the first day to which they could at- 
tach the idea of spring, and they noticed with peculiar gratification the 
thawing of a little snow on the stern of the Ilecla, which lav due south, 
this being the first time such a thing had occurred for moi-e than five 



months. On the 8th, "it will scarcely be credited," say's Parry, "that we 
removed about loo buckets full of ice, each containing from five to six 
gallons, being the accumulation which had taken place in an interval of 
less than four weeks; and this immense quantity was the produce of the 
men's breath and of the steam of their victuals during meals, that from the 
coppers were being cfTcctually carried on deck by the screen which I have 
before mentioned." JJut though March "came in as a lamb," before the 
middle of April the weather again grew very cold. The i6th, however, 
was mild and pleasant, and is worthy of mention as being the date of 
their last theatrical performance, consisting of two farces— "The Citizen" 
and "The Mayor of Garratt"— with an original epilogue by one of the 
ship's poets. A week later they tested the newly formed ice in Winter 
Harbor. The depth of water was only twenty-five and a half feet, and 
the ice was found to be six and a half feet thick. This had been pro- 
duced in six months, and allowing for six weeks more to the close of the 
season it was thouglit fair to estimate the rate of formation as seven feet 
and a half for the whole winter. Toward the close of April the weather 
again grew mild and genial, but on the first of May under the influence 
of a strong gale from the north, it suddenly became as cold as before. 

"The Winter Chronicle and North Georgia Gazette" appeared 
daily, Sundays excepted, from the first of November, 1S19, to the 30th 
of March, 1S20. It reported the different excursions, hunting expedi- 
tions, explorations, discoveries, accidents, and adventures. It contained 
criticisms of the latest theatrical performance and annc.tuncements of the 
next one. Stories, original and otherwise, correspondence and poetry, 
were not wanting; antl altogether it must be regarded as one of the most 
successful ventures in journalism ever attempted. It was eagerly 
perused by the whole community; such as could not read had it read to 
them ; and there was not a single resident of Winter Harbor who did 
not take the Gazette. The following letter, which appeared in the first 
number, graphically describes the interest awakened, and therefore is 
given ill full: 

" Mr. Editor: — Your proposition to establish a journal has been re- 
ceived by us with the greatest satisfaction. 1 am convinced that, under 


A lie TIC TlilD UL A TIONS. 


your d.rcctiou, it will be a <,rcnt source of amusement, and ^o a lone, 
way to lighten otw hundred days of .larkness. The interest I take in 
the matter myself, has led me to study the effect of your announcement 
on my .on.rades, and I can testify-to use reporters' lan<n.a.e-that the 
thmg has produced an immense sensation. The day after your pros- 
pectus appeared, there was an unusual and unprecedented demand for 
.nk amou,. us, and our .green tablecloth was deluged with snippings and 
paru,gs of quill-pens, to the injury of one of our servants, who ^ot a 
piece driven right under his nail. I know for a fact that Sergeant Mar- 
tni had no less than nine penknives to sharpen. It was quite a novel 
^'^ to see all the writing-desks brought out, which had not made their 
: ppe.-ance tor a couple of months; an<l judging by the reams of paper 
v.. hie, ,nore than one visic must have been ma<le to the depths of the 

"I must not forget to tell you, that I believe attempts will be naade to 

s hp your box sun<lry articles which are not altogether ori<nnal as 

they have been publishe.l already. I can declare that no later than last 

n.ght, I saw an author bending over his desk, holding a volume of the 

'Spectator' open with one hand, and thawing the frozen ink in his pen 

. at the hunp, with the other. I need not warn you to be on your .n.anl 

^^ such tricks, f;,r it would never do f;,r us to have articles '. our 

VVnUer Chronicle' which our great-grandfathers read over their break- 

f-'ist tables a century ago." 

"Arctic Tribulations_To go out in the n.orning for a walk, and the 
n.on.ent you put your foot outside the ship, fbul yourself In.nersed in 
the cook's water-hole. 

"Togo out hunting, and nUIin with a splendid reindeer, take 
and hnd your gun has gone off with a flash in the pan, owing to damp' 
powder. ' 

"To set out on a n.arch with a good snpply of soft new bread in 
your pocket, and discover when you want to eat, that it has fro.en so 
hanl you would break your teeth if you attempte.l to bite it th,ou..h 

" To rush from the table when it is reported that a wolf is i,. si.;i,t" 
and on coming back to find the cat has eaten your dinner " " ' 


« T(. he returnino: quietly home from a walk, absorbed in profitable 
meditation, and suddenly find yourself in the embrace of a bear." 

On the r)th of May, with the thermometer at only 8r^^ above ^cro, 
they bo-an to cut the ice from about the ships, the men as usual bein-^ 
carefully looked after, an.l supplied with special cpupments to protect 
them a.^.ainst the weather. On the I3th, the first ptarmi-^^m appeared, 
a.ul on the 13th, the northward tracks of reindeer and musk-oxen were 
notice.1. On the ,5th, two or three Hocks of ptarmi-ans were seen, and 
thence on "a brace or two were almost daily secured for the sick, for 
whose use they were exclusively reserve<l." They had vv(,rked twelve 
days in cuttin- the ice from around the llecia wiien she disen-a-ed her- 
self, like a thin- of life burstin- its liirhter bonds after tlie ciiief"i)bstruc. 
tions had been removed. Seven days later they had a shower of rain 
which created as much surprise as if they had never seen one, every one 
hurryin- on deck to revel in the almost forgotten sensation. Witj-i the 
cutting of ice to liberate the ships; the hauling, the breaking, weighing, 
and stowing of stone to ballast them; the making and repairing of sails 
and cordage; and the various labors of carpenters, coopers, caulkers, and 
armorers, the vessels and the shore now presented an a.iimated appear- 
ance; and the general health was promoted by the abundance of work the change in temperature. On the last day of May, the commander 
took a survey of the landscape from an adjoining hill, but it was not very 
encouraging. "The sea still prese.ited the same unbroken and co.itinu- 
ous siu-face of solid and impenetrable ice, and this ice couhl not be less 
than from six to seven feet in thickness, as we knew it to be about the 
ships. When to this circumstance was added the consideration that 
scarcely the slightest symptoms of thawing had yet appeared, and that 
in three weeks from this period the sun would again begin t<. decline to 
the southward, it must be confessed that the sanguine and enthusi- 
astic among us had some reason to be staggered in the expectations they 
liad formed of the complete accomplishment of our enterp -ise." 

On the firstday of June, leaving orders to Lieuts. Liddon and Heechey 
to prosecute the work of preparation, the commander, acconinanicd by 
Captain Sabine, Messrs. Fisher, Nias, Reid and seven others, proceeded 



to explore Melville Island tovvanl the north. Their provisions an,l s..p. wei-l e,l Soo poumls,ancl were borne on a cart made for (h. ptnpose 
and drawn hy the ukmi. In a.ldition to this j^eneral ecjuipnu nt each .nan' 
earned a knapsack cntainin- clothin.i,^ an.I blankets, and wei-hin- abo„t 
seventeen Ilavin- reached the northern coast of the IshMul on 
the e,,i,rhth, they erected a cairn, twelve fe-.>t wide and as manv hi-h in 
which was deposited a tin cylinder containing an acconnt of the trip and 
a few |.:nj,.lish coins. On the 9th they crossed a small nn,nin^r stream 
the (n-st they had seen. Fonr days later they discovere.l in the north- 
west of the .sland the rcniains of six Esqnimaux huts, u Thev consisted 
of n.dc cn-cles, abont six feet in .liameter, constrncted irrc-ularly of 
stones of all s,.es and shapes, and raised to the hci-ht of two feet from 
the ,n-onnd. They were paved with lar,.e slabs of white schistose sand- 
stone, which is here abundant. The ,noss had spread over this Hoor, and 
appeared to be the ,nowth of three or four years. In each of the huts on 
one sule was a sn.all separate compartment formin,,. a recess, projectin.^ 
outwanl, which had probably been their store-room; and at a few fee'J 
fron. one of tiie huts was a smaller circle of stones, which ha,l composed 
tl^c hre-place, the marks of (Ire beins still perceptible upon them." Du- 
uv^ the trip, which occupied fourteen days, they had been able to 
kdl some ,,^ame, thus securin,,^ a healthful and pleasant chanj^e from the 
preserved meats which fonned their re^a.lar fare. Their onlv ndshap 
was tile breakmn; down of their cart in descendinj,. the side of a ravine on 
the loth, after which they carried the remainder of their provisions and 
supphes on their b.cks, the officers being burdened with about tlftv 
pounds each, and the men, as more robust, takin^, some twentv pcnn.ds 


On h,s return to the ships Parry found the preparations had pro- 
gressed fhvorably in his absence; an<l what was equally gratifying, that 
the md.genous sorrel plant was so far advanced as to be fit for eatin.. 
The n..n were sent out for an hour or two every afternoon to collect the 
leaves of th.s plant, which was found growing all around in ..reat abtnul 
ance, and of which they consumed a great quantity as a preventive of the 
scurvy. On the 30th of June their only chronic patient, William Scott 


(lic'l; and on Siimlay, tl 
olemnity an<l respi rt. 
hifjhcst point marki 
the month af July w 
could })c said to be at 

held thi'in t-aptiv luitil the 30th of July, w 
move out of the 

'' '»f July, Ik' was buried on land with <^reat 

the T 7th the thermometer reached 60"-', the 

1111,' their entire stav in Winter Harbor; and 

I'olannl to be the only one in the year which 

1 I -mfortablc ii that 'im" \nd yet the ice 

le body be^Mu to 








•^ llilli 



u mil 1.6 


m^ r%^' 




WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 873-4503 











k '^ 

B ?l 

criApTf<:R xvr. 


A, Icnstl, .l,.y „e,,. ,,,,,„;„„,, ,,, „,^, ,„„^^^,,.,, ,_^^^^._,^^_.^^^ ^_^ ^^^^_ 
t.. pass ..,.,. .l,c s.n.ies .,„, ,,„„„ ,|,c .,r,„., ,„ ,„,„,,„ ,„,„„. „^.„, „ 
.mme„,e q„„„t,.ie, „f „,,„;„, ice u,,,, .„„ ,,„,„^,„.,, „f ,,^, ^,,,,„,_^,, , 

..hclt. At , o'clock ,„ tl,o „f.on„,o„ „f .,,. „. „f ,^ ,<,^„ 

. ey we,ghe< anchor, „„., „„„. hopefully o„ to contend „„ thai 
OKI cnen,y, the fl„,„i„, ;„.. The channel was f„,„„, open to Within 
...Ic or two, „„,, at intervals ,,o,.ewhat mofe. In a few instance, 
the ,cc had been driven so fa,- south as to leave a sIk,,. stretch of 
open water five ,„iles wl.le, winch was the nttnost l.readth they had 
foun at any tn.e on that coast. With the wind fron, dK- west- 
war.,, and the ice-floe ever and anon driven nrore or less across 
th.s channel, then- a.lvance could not he rapid. On the ., the 
w,ndvee„„, to the south, a heavy floe was driven clear., the o,.,. 

.•.he.a.1 o the, which n.ade it necessary to stop short , seek a te., 

porary harhor. This they foun.l „. ,he shelter of ,e heavy shore ic 

wh,ch protect.! then, against the ntain hody of the lloatin, ice. »:,; 
he crews o, both ships went ashore t„ collect sorrel, which was found 
o be too old to be of „,„ch value. They heard the ,rowlin<. of a sol 
tary hear bein, only the secon.l that they had any knowled^e^f , t 
regions during a stay ofover ten month, 

w,de was ,lr,veu .owar,l the.n by the win „,, ,„,,,„, 

1S8 ^ 



the shore ice. 

which was lodsred 

{lil\'K I\ 

f tlie ice 
est. ]?iit 
uinel left 
slow and 
St, 1S20, 
ith tiieir 
o within 
tretch of 
they jiad 
le west- 
i across 
2(1, the 
le coast 
V a te.n- 
lore ice, 
. Here 
IS found 
f a soli- 
in tliosc 

a half 
<ed by 

,^ , -»— oi'tsifle of the ships, and soon 

after n.oved ofl a<,ain. Later on, the' ice ahead also fell away fron, 
he sh,,re, leaving them a narrow channel varying in width iron, a 
-• ' .n.le to tw<, which they hastene.l to penetrate. The wind soon 
a-ied them, and thongh they coul.l see a greater expans. ot open water 
bcyon. , they were unable to reach it. On the 5th, the cahn still contin- 
"■"g, they landed, and ascende<l a hill which they ascertained to be 847 
teet above the sea level, when a ihvorable wind arising, they hurrie.l 
aboard and scudded to the west for two hours before an easterly bree.e 
Agam the floe loomed to the west of them, closing in toward the land 
and they had only time to seek refuge behind some grounded ice along- 
shore, .lore they were detained by the ice and adverse winds until the 
33CI. it was the n.ost westerly point they reached, and its situation was 
a-scertamed to be in latitude 74° 36' 25", and longitu.le ,,3° 46' 4.' ' 
In view of the dilHculties that beset them, and shortness of the season 
i- effort ,n those waters, the commander had already determined on the 
.6th, the full concurrence of his officers, that the wisest course left 
was to sail to the east before it was too late. It was proposed to cross 
the channel to the north coast of America, if an opening could be found 
.n the ice, m the hope that possibly in a more southern latitude ' they 
could yet procee<l farther to the west than they had reached. To the 
land he had discovered on the 8th of August, lying to the westward, but 
wh.h he coul<l not reach, he gave the name of Banks' Land, in honor 
of bn- Joseph Hanks, president for over forty years of the Royal Society 
an<l a great patron <,f travelers an.l explorers. From time to time men- 
t'on has ],een made of the active watchfulness of the con.mander in 
sectu-n.g the health of his men as well as the safety of his ships. He hul 
the gratification of now fin.ling his officers an.l men substantiallv in as 
Sood health as when they had left London more than flfteen months 
l^cfore. 1 bey had secured in the twelve months 3,766 pounds of fresh 
nieat-3 musk-oxen, 24 deer, 68 hares, 53 geese, 59 ducks and , ,4 ptar- 
ni.J^ans, and, as has been see-,, they gathered anti-scorbutic plants whenever 
practicable. Rut the stock oi" remedies and preventives of tiie scurvy had 
been scnously din,i„isiKd by a peculiar accident which bcfcU the.r 

«• S! 




stores (,r lime-juice. In the early part of the winter it was found that 
over tvvo-tliirds of the stoc.v had been lost by the hurstin- of the bottles, 
and the remainder had been rendered almost worthless by the frost. 
Where the juice had been frozen, only a small portion of concen- 
trated acid remaining in the center, and when thawed, the iuice was but 
little better than water. 

As to the ships, in the last refuge sought, the Hccla got one serious 
nip from an ice Hoe forty-two feet thick, and the Griper had her stern 
thrown up two or three feet by a cake of ice forced in beneath her by 
the outer floe; but they were substantially as effective as when they left 
home. It was therefore wisely decided not to jeopardize the measure of 
success already obtained, and especially the freedom from disaster, l,y 
remaining another winter on tliat dreary coast, with only the prospect of 
a few weeks of uncertain effort and inadequate results, after ten months 
of weary waiting. 

Sailing east, they encountered the same difficulties as on the previous 
season, in getting into winter quarters; but by careful handling they made 
some headway, and on the 3Sth were abreast of Cape Hearne, th,,- west- 
ern headland of the Bay of the Hecla and Griper. In five hours they 
reached the opposite headland of Cape Bounty, and tive hours later the 
channel was free of ice to the width of five miles from the lan<l. On tlie 
evening of the 29th they were within four or five miles of where they 
had been at the same hour twelve months before, going west; and could 
not help reflecting on the vicissitudes they had since experienced. Passing 
Prince Regent Inlet, which they had explored the previous year, and fimU 
i.ig no other entrance to a more southern latitude, the commander now 
definitely announced that they were bound for England, and placed the 
men on full rations. For eleven months they had been restricted to two- 
thirds of the regular allowance of the British navy, and had also been 
very sparing in the use of fuel, which contributed even .norc to their dis- 
comfort. Both restrictions were now removed. They had searched in 
vain through twenty-four degrees of longitude, from 1 14 to 90°, for an 
opening through the ice and land to a more southern latitude, an(i Parry 
now concluded to proceed homeward to report results, and, if duly 




authorized, to rcHt for another voyage. The mouth of Septemher, how- 
ever, they would devote on the way to a careful scrutiny of the western 
shore .,f Hallui's ,Jay, still in the hope of fiudhag an inlet that would lead 
in some future voyage, to a more practicahle westward route than that 
they had heeu exploring. 

They left Possession Bay on the ist of September, resuming the use 
of the mariner's compass, which had been discontinued about twelve 
months before on account of its inactivity and sluggishness in the more 
northern regions they had traveled. On the 3d they passed some of the 
lughest icebergs they had seen, being nearly two hundred feet above the 
surface of the water. The next day, having landed to make ob- 
servations, they saw over sixty of those huge icebergs in the distance; 
and from the masthead far more welcome objects, the masts and rigging' 
<^f the whalers. These proved to be British, and on the fifth they "poke 
another, whose captain gave them some news from England, the first 
they had received since their departure just sixteen months before. 

On the sixth, from the islands at the mouth of the River Clyde they 
were visited by four Esquimaux who approached the Hecla in their 
canoes without any sign of fear or hesitation. They expressed thei; 
astonishment at what they saw with loud cries, accompanies! by a sort 
of jumping pantomime which lasted about a minute. The ensuing day 
they Nvere visited on shore by the commander and some of his officers, and 
were found to have their tents on the mainland, about forty or fifty'feet 
from the beach. These were their summer quarters, and their huts for 
winter residence were found farther up toward the head of the cove in 
a sheltered spot. These were in part excavated out of the side of the 
clifF, tlie remainder of each inclosure being constructed of stones after 
tlie usual maimer. The tents are thus dcscrilvnl by Parry: '^ They are 
I'lincipally supported by a long pole of whalebone Iburtecn feet high, 
standing perpendicularly, with four or five feet of it projecting above UiJ 
skins which form the roof and sides. The length of the tent is seven- 
teen, and its breadth from seven to nine feet, the narrowest part being 
nc'Nl tlie ,l()or, and widening toward the inner part, where the hvx\, 
composed of a cpiantity of the small shrubby plant, the A,uiromcda 



;!:r: * 


rctragona [a species of heath plant], occupies about one-third of the 
whole apartment. The pole of the tent is fixed where the bed com- 
mences and the latter is kept separate by some pieces of bone laid across 
i.e tent from side to side. The door, which faces the southwest, is also 
formed of two pieces of bone, with the upper ends fastene.l together 
and the skins are made to overlap in that part of the tent, which is n-,uch 
lower than the inner end. The covering is fostened to the ground by 
curved pieces of bone, l,eing generally parts of the whale." These rude 
barbanans were found to be scrupulously honest, exhil,iting not the 
shghtest disposition to abstract anything surreptitiously, though opportu- 
n.t,es were furnished them to make the attempt. They exchanged their 
wares to the best advantage, holding back for higher ofTers, 1,ut always 
y.ekhng when they found they could not carry their customers farther 
What presents were made them were received with pleasure and thank- 
fulness; but they could not be induced to drink rum, however much di- 
luted. Detecting it instantly by its smell, they respectfully but unhesitat- 
mgly declined to taste it. 

The oldest of the four men was over sixty, and being somewhat 
bent by age did not measure quite five feet in, and the 
younger men from five feet four and a half to five feet six inches 
The women were four feet ten and foin- feet eleven inches. The faces of 
both were round and plump in the younger individuals; skin smooth; 
com. :x,on not very dark; teeth white; eyes small; nose broad, but not 
Hat to deformity; hair black, straight and glossy, and worn by the fe- 
males hanging loose over their sho.dders. The youngest of the -n-own 
females evinced much timidity and natural bashfulness, and from this 
fact and the absence of tattooing which marked the other women she 
was judged to be unmarried. The encampment consisted of eight adults 
-four men and four women_and some children. These, Parry says 
" were generally good looking, and the eldest boy, about twelve years of 
age, was a remarkably fine and even handsome lad." Their means of 
sulxsistence were judged from their appearance and other indications, to 
be ample, and there was no evidence of disease or suffering. " Upon the 
whole," says the enthusiastic Parry, « these people may be considered in 

1=:' 1 

1 ' 



7 )■■■ 



possession of every necessary of life, as well as of most of the com- 
forts and conveniences vvhicli can he enjoyed in so imlc a state of society." 
Leavin- their Esquimaux friends of the River Clyde, with whom in 
two days they had an intercourse on ship and shore of only seven hours, 
they made hut slow progress until the i3th, when a favorahle hreeze' 
siM-in-injr up from the southwest, they advanced toward the ice. They 
were again caught i.i the floes, hut got loose after the usual struggle. 
Four days later in a fog they made the ships fast to the floes and floa'ted 
with them; and on the iSth, to an iceherg, when they were repeatedly 
struck by the loose ice, hut suffered no serious damage, being strongly 
built. On the 24th they j^assed out of the Arctic Circle after havhig 
been within it almost fifteen months. All this time they were kcp't 
away from the western shore by the accumulation of ice on that side, and 
could seldom see, much less explore, the coast as they had proposed. 
Finally, on the 26th, finding all eflbrts at exploration in that quarter 
futile, the boats were hauled on deck, and all sail made for home. On 
the 2d of October the ships parted company in a gale; and on the i6th, 
the Ilccla lost her bowsprit, foremast and maintop-mast; ^nit the wreck 
was soon cleared away, and ]>y the iSth tliey had raised the necessary 
jury-masts. On the 29th they made Buchan Ness, on the northeast coast 
of Scotland, and on the 30th, the commander, accompanied by Captain 
Sabine, left Peterhead for London, where they arrived on the 3d of 
November, the Ilecla and Grii^cr reaching the Thames about two weeks 
later. Both ships and crew were but little the worse for their trip of 
eighteen months. This alone would have entitled the expedition to be 
regarded as a success, Init was far from being the only claim it had to 
consideration. Great additions had been made to geographical knowl- 
edge; Lancaster Sound had been' explored; Prince Regent Inlet, Bar- 
row's Strait, and a number of islands, ha<l Ik'cu discovered; important 
meteorological and magnetic phenomena liad been ()l)scrved; and the im- 
practicability of the route tlirough Lancaster Soimd for everyday commer- 
cial voyages, at least, was amply demonstrated. For, though Parry 
thought he had reached (he Arctic Ocean, and may be regarded as virtu- 
ally havmg done so, it was ob\ious that the passage could not be con- 


sidcre.1 a hij^lnvay for ocean traffic, which was after all, the basis of the 
lonff-continued search for the Northwest Passage. He had <,one far he- 
yond h.s predecessors, and, like Bylot and Baffin, with their humble 
equ.pment two hundred years before, had returned without serious injury 
o or crew; the death of the invalid Scott bein,. fairly attributable 
to consftutional weakness rather than to any neglect, exposure or disease 
nicident to the voyage. 

ciiApTicR xxri. 

EAK..V ,.„.„: ,„. KKANKLIN-W,.UN,„.:i, AT SK^^' CRLK ANS - STATK- 
^'H^T „K T„K (.njKCTS «,K I-KANKI.In's TirUKK VOVACnCS- 


It is .louhtful whether,!,, the history of En^rh,„,,, ,> p,-o,„i of he,- 
titles, a„(l of the po,iip a.ul ,n;,,^r„ifi,,„,, .^i^j,,^ .,^,,^,^. ^,,^,, ^^.^^,^,^ ^,^^^^ 
give, there can he foi,„cl a ,i,o,e ,emarkahle p,-oof of the possihility of 
r.s.n- aclvei'se chcumsta.ices thai, is seen in the life of the persona^^e 
whose aehieve,nc,its will oecupy the next few ehapteis. l?orn in eo,^. 
parative ohscurity, and l,c,^n„„i„„ ,if, ,•„ ,^,^ performance of its lunnhler 
(, he to a place in the affections of his count.ynien, of which 
any E.i-lishman ,ni-ht well have heen p,-oncl. He was horn at Spilshy 
L.ncolnshi,e,, ,jS6, a,ul was intended hy his father for the chu,ch' 
fo, whose duties he e„te,-ed, at an early aj^^e, upon a p,-eli,ni,iarv cou.-sc' 
ol study. While ve,y youn- however, he showed a decided taste for 
the sea; and his father, thinking that a voyaj^^e or two would cu,-e hhn of 
th.s nntowaid i,icli,.ation, decided to let him -o. His (Irst voya-e was 
on a vessel bou.ul to Lisbon. His return home fomuHiim so 
confirmed i,i his taste that he decided to follow the life of a sailor. 

At the age of fifteen, accordingly, he entered the Roval Navy, and 
sailed in iSoi, to Australia, with Capt. Flinders. From this point his 
life presents a constant succession of noble deeds and brilliant achieve- 
ments. He served with ccdit in the war with America, in ,8,2, and 
was wounded in the fatal attack upon New Orleans, in Januaiy, ,815. 
Having obtained the ,-ank of Lieutenant, he was appointJd c(„n,nander 
of the Trent in the A,ctic cxpeditio,!, which sailed under Capt. Buchan 


onyBCTS OF fkankun-s vorA<jEs. ,„ 

■■" .S.S. After .his l,e w„s sucnessivcly rai^..l ,„ ,,,0 rank „r,,, 

ecu., a ,„e„„.er ,.r ,„e Ro,a, S„cie„, an,, « , kni,.„.e„ in vi'v „; 

aluahle, ren,lere,l. He „as ,vvice n.arrie,!, ,he firs, ,i„,e ,„ Mi» 
Ucan„r I „r<len in ,S.,,,an,l ,he seeon,! .in,e ,„ Jane (iriflin, i„ „S.S, 

^„e havin, .lie., J,., a. „e was se„i„, «„ „ ,,„,„; 

■/victic voyage. 

Kranldin wa» ,he ,ea.,er .,r three „is.i„ee v„ya.e„ w,,ioh ha,, r.,r 

..onn ,. ,,,,, „r«, ,„„ v„ya,cs ha., f.,r ,heir, • „hieet .„ .ie.vr. 

n>.ne ,,e lar,u,.,e an.l ,„„,-i.u.,e „f .he n„r.he„. shore „, Nor,,, A.nerie., 
a... .he „.e„„in, o,' .ha. eoas. ,r„,„ ,„e nu.n.h .„■ .he Co„per,„ine ea„.' 
"';:'";' "':7 •■ -«'-"l '- .1- m,n,.h „f .he MaeKe„.ie. 

" , : ;"; '"'■ '"''-" ""^ """' -' f"'- "» P-pose „,■ .,ise.,vering a 
No,.hwe» l.assa,.e, which ha.l heen ,„pp„s,.|, ,„„ ,„„ ,„„„, ,„ ^,^,,« 

To „l,jee.s of .,re lirs, voyage „,„re „,„.„,,, „„„ ,„ .,,^„,„^ ,,,^ 
U.....,ie an,, ,„n„,.„,,e „r par.icular place, ,.n .he ArCic lace „f Nor.h 

.t ;:'"'• "'"' "'"'""'" "- •™"'"'- "'■ '"a, o„a„ ,r.,n, ,l,e n„„„h ..f 

h C„pp,,„„ne ,„ .he eas.ern of .he eon.inen.; ,en,l .he 

> ■> ^eo^raphy of ,hi, e„a,. I,y particularly nolinj; ,he l„ea.i„„ 

;:: """""^r ""■■:- '"■""- .--■ »....,:.„.».; 

. ->--uch ..l,.,erva„„„s „p.,„ ,„, ,„,„„, „„ ,.,,_ ^„„, ,„^, ^^_ .^^^^^, ; 

z Tr:;,:;"' ,'"■ "'""' ■■■■ "■"^■™'™'' ■'■"- "-'^'i- »..» ....e,. 

:;:'"-'' ""^- ■■''''■■■ "■'■''"^■' l>'"ve,l .he „is,l„n, ,„• .1.. choice. I(ef,„-e 

:,","""7;"";: '»"-"'"-"'vicea,„la,si.ance,.r.l,e,liree.o,,o,. 

""""' '"'- ^"■""•"'>' ■'^"- ••^'- - ^'-Ke,.ie, a previons explorer 

..vat sne,.es„ a,„l „,a„y o.hers who c„n„l ,,,,. „in, i,,,,,,,.,, ,1,,,„, 

■"'"'■,""" ■ "■'•■""'''"' ^"™- "■' ">'» --"" "-lar-ely n, 

, .... . e,,hanee,l ,, „. ,„„„„„ .,„^.,„„ ,,„.,,,„„,,„,„„„;„ 

-,e D,. R.e„n an,l M,. Hack, .he,„»elves ho.h navi.a.or, .,r ex- 

per,e„ee .,„ ah.h.y. To .hesc ,„er,s who, e,l hin. ,e 

tcrwar acknowie,,,..,, his „,,,;,,„.„.„ ,„, .„,,,. ,,,,„^„„ ^,^^ ^ ^ 

::.::"""" ■• "^'- '- - -- ~^ ■- -^ »•■ -any .^:; 




The whole party emliarkod at Gravcscnd, „n Sunday, the 3^1 of 
M.'.y, iS'y. The I'ri.ue .,f Wales, which was t.,> cunvev the oi.tflt 
belonKcl to the Hudson's Bay Company, and was accompanied I. two' 
others, the ICldystone and tiu. Wear. As the wind wa. untavorahlc. 
the vessels anchore.l a. Yarmouth for several days. At this point Lieut. 
Hack went on shore two or three n.iles from Yarmouth to attend to 
some matter of which his presence (here reminded him, intenoin.^ to he 
ready, l.y watcinnf; the signals, lo ,et,n-n as soon as the vessels were 
ready to leave. The wind, however, suddenly chan^a-d soon after his 
de,)arture, and the Captain, thinkinj,^ it necessary to avail himself of the 
present fortime, accordinj^ly weifrhe.i anchor, an.l Mr. I^ack was left on 
shore. A note was sent hy a returning sinp requestinjr Mr. Hack to 
take the coach across to Pentlan.l Frith; fron) thence to cross to the Parish 
of Stromncss on one of the Orkneys, and there rejoin the party. When 
the httle fleet reache.l Stromness several .lays were spent in waiting for 
Mr. Jiack, afFording, in the meantime, a <jood opportunity for testinr^ the 
.nstruments, and also of hiring more men, which Franklin foresaw wmdd 
be necessary to do. A notice to the effect that men were wanted ^vas 
ported up on the church door at Stromness, this hcin- certain to strik- 
the attention of every person in the parish. To Fra.iklin's surprise only 
four uK-n were foun.l in the whole parish who could be persuaded to 
accompany the expedition. Franklin's narrative says: 

"I was much amused with the extreme caution these men used before 
they would sign the agreement; they minutely scanned all our intentions 
vve.ghcl every circumstance, looked narrowly into our plan of route, and' 
stdl more circumspectly to the prospect of return. Such caution on the 
part ot the northern mariners forms a singular contrast with the ready 
a..d thoughtless manner in which an English seaman enters upon an'y 
enterprise howeve; hazardous, without inquiring or desirin.r t,; know 
where he is going, or what he is going to do." It was late in Jime before 
the fleet was really under way and had come out into the Atlantic. 

July seems to have been more favorable to their p;-o<.ress -.s 
the twenty.flfth of that month found them at the entrance of Haffin's 
Bay. Here a whaling vessel was met whose nu.ster gave thrillir.<. 

riiE riiisT iciiUEiid. 



Mils or tilt. thickiK-ss and <lanj,aTc.i.s diameter .,f tlu- icv onn.un. 
tcmi in Davis' Strait an.l llir .,|,|H-r Lay this year, and oCtlu. loss of sev- 
eral vessels in the ice. Moth passengers and crew now I.e-an K. ualch 
nervously for si;.ns of iteluM-s, often mistaking the for mountains 
of ice, in their feverish enriosity. [„ a short linu- it necessary to 
tack the ships in .n-der to avoi.i a lar-e mass; ;u,.l on the llfth of .\t,-,ist 


a hu-e iceher- was si-hted. Upon rearhin- it, several of the officers 
ni.uie an attempt to dimh up its side, hut were unsuccessful on account 
of its steepness and smootluiess. The liei-iit of this her- was ascertained 
to he ahout 150 feet. It will he readily seen that as iee is nearly as 
heavy as water, only a very small portion of the actual hulk of the ice is 







/I /-£'^A' /AT THE SHIP. 

seen above the water. Allowing one-eignth, as the portion of the hulk 
visible, and supposing the average height of this berg to be 135 feet, its 
whole vertical side must have been about .,000 feet, or nearly one-fifth 
of a mile. The peculiar character of the atmosphere in these regions, 
however, is said greatly to magnify all physical appearances, and deceive 
the observer in regard to the size of objects. 

About this time some interesting experiments were also made 
respecting the temperature of water at different depths. A bottle well- 
corked, was fastened to the sounding-line, and was let down 450 
fathoms. The register thermometer was also fastened to the line 
and was supposed to descend a distance of 650 fathoms. The change in 
temperature indicated by the thermometer during its descent was from 
46" to 40.5°, and -> stood at tlie latter point wi.en taken out of its tin 
case. The temperature of the water brought up in the bottle was 41° 
-being half a degree higher at 450 than at 650 fathoms; and 4° colder 
than the water at the surface which was 45°, while the air was 46°. 
TIvs experiment in showing the water to be colder at a great depth than 
at the surface, and to fall in temperature in proportion to the descent, 
was in accordance with observations of certain other voyagers of those 
seas, but is stated by Franklin to disagree with his own previous experi- 
ments, in whicii he had always found the water at the surface colder than 
that at great depth. 

On the 7th of August the ship Prince of Wales struck violently on 
a reef near the coast of Greenland. The rudder was displaced, and there 
being now no way of guiding the ship, it seemed certain to founder. 
Recourse to the tow-boats was thought of, but these world be- insigniH- 
cant among tho great masses of ice, and the thought was abandoned. 
Moreover, the shock had produced a rent in the ship's bottom, and the 
water poured in at u great rate. Another shock, experienced soon after, 
fortunately restored the rudder to its proper place, but its leak was still 
a great source of danger. To complete the distress of the now sinking 
ship, the -ale just past had separated her fr<,m her associates, and even 
in case of the last extremity, no aid could be expected of them. The 
pumps were worked all the time without any apparent diminution of the 

m ' 

BAKTERmo WITI, BSl^umAUX. jo, 

nay coI.„„e„ „..„„,, a„<l a» Franklin an„wa„l sai,l, .heh- cxa„,„. ,, 

.'7" '" ;'7 '= "- -«»• A. la., jn« a» .he s./ength a, 1; 

■1 scc,„e,l about .„nc, a .iu.licion. nso of „al.nn an.l ca, va, rcdu " , 
^a .„ ..„ ,;„„,, ,,.. , ^„„,^ „^ ^^^ , ^^___^^^_^ - 

ol Wale, wa, enabled ,„ .ejoin her corava.les in safety 

On the ,..b of An,... eho ,hi,» l„n.le., „n the ^oast of Greenland 
fo. the purpose ol tradinj, with the natives, or rather of .,11 • 
natives to .rade with then,, whieh by ,i„ ,,, ' I ' 

were anxious to ,lo The I^ • ^ ' '''"'"' ""■>■ 

accompanied the^ I tir „d ' t;::;':' "'^'" ": '"* -^"^^ -" 

"ot to exhibit too manv articles at once Tl • '' "'"'" 

were oil, sead,o.e tee., wHaie i::::i,:':r r:;;:"::';'"': 

*c..bed as amustnsr to see t],e exultation and to hen- ,1, , 
la-Shter of .he whole par.y, when a .rade u.s „ , ! , ^ """"^ through the cereutony. The w ' , I ""''"'' '"''""'■ 

«■„„„.„ ,„i . , "- '™">-" l'.-".wlit imitations .)f men 

""" •'" """"^"«- '^a.-ved careftdly out of sea-horse tee.h T e 
.l.-esses and the ll,.„res of ,|,e „nin,als were not hadlv ev , , 
seemed to he no atteun>t „ ,1„. 1 r ^ ^ cxeeuted, bnl there 

.i.e n....-es u-ere wiU u. .:...' ":;,";:■' "' ^ '— -" -' "'• 

,,,,,,,,,,,,„ I . , '>'-"•'■'>«, an ..^-ers, .o make which w 

""l-l'l-> l.a^■.■ .-eqtnred n.ore .lelieate ins.rnnu.u.s ,lnn, auv wln'eh thev 
})ossessc(l. - ^vlllL^ rney 

The men set most value on saws- A',,//r„ w- / / , 
""^^" distinguished then,, hei ::/,::"''" " """"' '^' 
'" "" '-•• An OI.I sword 'w..s .Pa ,e I , J E^:r '"^^"7' 

'""■:; r.>"^, -- ■-■- When the happy n,a: tJ^^T"" ""'' "'^' 

i ■•'Icin- leave <;!• their Mongolian friends fh,.,. i •, . 

« '"* ""-"'If', tne vessels sailed away for 


if I 



.11 ' 



\i i 



1'0/?K FACTOR r. 

Hudson's Ray, for it was by this route that the party were to arrive upo.i 
the field of their investigations. At this time the great British fur com- 
panies were flourishing, and i,i the height of their prosperity. Tradino-- 
posts had been estabhshed ail the way from Canada to the frozen lakes of 
the north, and it was along the line of these posts that the partv hope.l 
to lind assistance to further the prosecution of their voyage. The prin- 
cipal companies were the Northwestern Compa.iy and the Hudson Bay 
Company, the previous kindness of whose agents has already been men- 
tioned. The most considerable dejoot of British trade was Fort York, 
<»• York Factory, as it was then called, situated on the Hayes River 
about five miles from its mouth. Remnants of the old fort still remain 
as a dim reminder of that primitive industry. 

To this point, then, the Prince of Wales, having parted company 
from the otlier ships, took her course, where a schooner was to be fm-- 
nished to the expedition, and where Franklin hoped to obtain advice, in- 
structions, and a native interpreter. Having reached York Flats, where 
they were treated to the honor of a salute, the next step was to supply 
themselves for their northern tour. 

Failing to find any Esquimaux or Indian interpreters here, they were 
ol)liged to run tiie risk of having one sent to them, or of picking one up 
on the way. As no schooner was available, the best boat belonging to 
the Hudson ]3ay Company was fitted out for them, and duly supp"^lied 
with the necessaries which the combined experience of all told them 
the occasion would require. 

The reader would not thank us to give the minute details of this 
journey, nor is it possible, within the intended scope of the present vol- 
ume, thus to enlarge upon unimportant experiences. Only tiie leading 
fact,'-., therefore, and such of the salient features of ihe expc-dition as it i^ 
possible to give without the risk of being tedious, will be narrated. 

Hayes River was ascended to its source— the confluence of the Sham- 
matawa and Steel Rivers. The latter named stream and Hill River were 
next successively ascended. Owing to the rapidity of these streams it 
was necessary to walk upon the bank the most of the way, and haul the 
boat, with its load, up over the rushing current. At this rate their pro- 


Sress was only ten or twelve miles a clay, and even thus every man sank 
<lown exhausted at ni.<,rht. Mar.y thrilling episodes mi<,d.t he related of 
this slow and tedious journey. At one time, on the hank of Hill River, 
Franklin was superintending the tra.isportation of supplies ,wer some' 
rapuis, when a stratum of loose roek ^^ave way under his feet, an.l 
he lia<l the misfortune to step from the summit where he was standing 
into the river below two of the falls. His attempts to rej^ain the hank 
were for a long time unavailing, and it seemed as if the expedition were 
fated to he deprived of its gallant leader. The roeks within his reacli 
were worn so smooth by the action of the water that, although he 
.nyde .lesperate efforts to stay his downward course, it was impolible. 
Finally he grasped some willows, and was able t<. Inold on until some 
gentlemen came to his rescue in a boat. It was a very narrow escape, 
;\nd an experience which he did not care to repeat. 

We must not omit to mention briefly a small island noticed in one 
of these rivers, which is so strongly magnetic as to render a common 
compass entirely useless anywhere in the range of its influence. Havin- 
been previously informed of its existence, they watched their compasses 
carefully, and found that they were afll^cted at the distance of three 
hundred yards, both on the approach to and departure from the center of 
the inlet. On .lecreaslng the distance the instruments were rendered 
entirely powerless, and upon landing it was evident that the general 
.magnetic influence was entirely overpowered by the action of the'ore in 
the island. 



Swampy Lake, J;ick River— all the chain of rivers and lakelets up 
as far as Ft. Chipewyan, were slowly and with difficulty ascended. Some 
terrible hardships were experienced. It was necessary, for a considerable 
portion of the distance, to draj,^ the boats and canoes, and to carry by 
land this bulk of supplies over the « porta<jes," or places where the 
rapids were too extensive to permit of navigation. Those who took 
upon themselves the difficult task of supplying fresh provisions from the 
settlements, traveled thousands of miles back and forth, amid frightful 
dangers from threatening famine, from imfriendly natives, and from the 
unfamiliarity of the way. The miseries endured during the first journey 
of this kind are said to be so great that nothing could induce the sulFerer 
to undertake a second while under the inHuence of present pain. He 

feels his frame crushed by unaccountable pn re; he drags a galling 

and stubborn weight at iiis feet, an<I his track is marked with blood. 
The dazzling scene affords him no rest to his eye —no object to divert 
his attention from his own agonizing sensations. When he arises from 
sleep half his body seems deail, till quickened into feeling by the irritation 
of his sores. But, fortunately for him, no evil makes an impression so 
evanescent as pain. He soon forgets his suir-rings when once removed 
from them, and at each future journey their recurrence seems to be 
attended with diminished acuteness. 

The arrival at Ft. Chipewyan, however, was but the beginning of ad- 
ventures and hardships. The plan was now to journey northward to 



Ft. Providence on Great Slave Lake; to build a larj^e canoe, suitable 
ior traversinj, the northern rivers; to engage Indian guides, and if 
j)Oss,ble, Esquimaux interpreters; to proceed to the mouth of the Copper-, and from that point to address themselves to the particular service 
lor which the expedition was planned, viz., the exploring of the Ameri- 
can coast on the north, and the systematic arrangement of the knowl- 
edge thus gained. 

Their principal canoe, when completed, was thirty-four feet lon-^ four 
leet WKle in the middle, and about two feet deep. It was capable of 
carryu,g about a ton and a half, including the weight of the live or six 
MK-n necessary to man ,t. IJesides this there were other and smaller en 
noes, fitted for the more rapid and easy conveyance of the officers uul 
guides. The agents of both companies, in the meantime, did the party 
the greatest courtesy possible-furnishing them all the necessaries they 
could possibly spare, and showing a disposition to ai.l them in every 
way m their power. Particularly was the agent of the Northwestern 
Company useful to them in the matter of procuring guides fron. an.on-. 
the Ch.pewyan Indians. This was of necessity a n.atter requirinr. 
the utn.ost caution. U was necessary to take every possible n.easmC 
to gam the confidence of the Indians, not only for the sake of ...ttin.^ 
-t of them all the ai.l an.l infonnation possible, but also for th^e 
ol safety; for among the northern tribes of American Indians the 
departure from truth or supposed consistency is esteeme.l a positive 
l-vach of faith, and is never fbrgotten. On .the occasion of ^.^^^.. 
.uKles at this tin.e, the chief of the party interviewed advanced ^ith 
the utmost gravity and began his harangue, which Franklin understoo.l 
lia.l been several days in preparing. This chief proved to be a shrewd 
P-etrat,ng man, and left a favorable impression upon the minds of the' 
I.a.ty as to his intellectual qualities. He began by stating that he was 
.lad so powerful a chief from among the pale-faces had come amon. 
.hen, and assured him that the Indians loved those wh,)se purpo. •, wa'^s 
-> assist them. He said that when the party first arrived he was ..-eatiy 


•appointed; for he had heard ther 
man who possessed the power of rcstoi 

e was among them a mighty medi 
■ing to life tlie dead and de 

i t 



parted; and he had felt so c^reat delight in the jM'ospect of meeting 
witii his friends, that his sorrow in finding himself mistaken could n(rt 
be described. He was ready, however, to assist the new comers in 
whatever reasonable enterprise they might engage. He closed his 
speech by demanding to k.iow minutely the object of the adventurers, 
and their plans for the future. 

In his reply Franklin took pains to assure him that their purpose was 
nothing but good; that they saw the difficulty under which their red 
brethren labored, and that he hoped by becoming more familiar nn ith 
the coast a.ul the wilds of the north, to be able to relieve not only their 
embarrassments but those of all the inhabitants. He informed them that 
he came from the greatest chief in the world, who was also the sover- 
eign of the companies with whom they were in the habit of trading. He 
further warned them of the folly of making war with the Esquimaux 
and promised them, in case of faithful service, a reward of cloth, beads,' 
and useful implements of iron. 

The chief admitted that his tribe had made war upon the Esqui^ 
maux, but promised to desist; recommending, however, that their ad- 
vances toward them should be conducted with the utmost caution ; and 
signified at last their willingness to accompany the party and co-oper- 
ate with them in every particular. 

An agreement having thus been arrived at with the Indians, the 
expedition at once i^repared to set out. The Indians were sent out 
ahead, and were to encamp upon the Yellow Knife, a small stream 
whose ascent lay in their way; while the residue of the party were to 
pack the provisions and supplies. This process could not" be gone 
through with in thej^resence of the Indians, as they were in tlie habit of 
continually begging for everything they saw. The store consisted of 
two barrels of gunpowder, one hundred and forty pounds of ball and small 
shot, four fowling pieces, a few old irading guns, eight pistols, twenty- 
four Indian .laggers, some packages of knives, chisels, axes, nails, and 
fastenings for a boat, a few yards ,.f cloth, some l,lankets, needles, look- 
ing-glasses, and ]>cads; together with nine fishing-nets of diirerent sixes. 
The provisions included two casks ..f fiour, two hundred dried i 


l\ IL 


!rr!:,T7'™" "T "'^'•"' """••*" '"■•■" """ "— -' »<«*'« 

."Ul ..v., ca,.,,,.e,. o, .oa. The p„„y „„„ ,,„,„,,, „,- .,,„„,.„,„„. ^^.,. 

suns, iiicludiMj; the wives oC thiec of Ih,. (■ r ^ ^ " l»-i 

, ' '""-cot the Ciiiwdiaii voyaL'cr.1 who had 

CO,, c„«aged .. Ft. YoH. I. had heen decided hest .0 take .he, 
- they n,.,h. he ,.ef„l i„ ,he making of shoes a„<, Cothi,,., i„ ca,- 
iiig for the s,ck, and in many other way, 

.on. On the ... of August, ,S.o, the whole partv, inch.dn,,, the In- 
ns^ hegan the ascent of the Yellow Knife. The prospect of reachin- 
. Coppe™„,e hat season, and of exploring a portion of country hitlC 
.CO nntrod by wh.te men, was „ source of the .Meatest elation t 
pan., .nd the star, was made 1„ high spirits. The rh::: ; ' "J: 
whose course .t necessary for then, to traverse, snch tha fre-' 
.-"t portages, or transporting of the bo.a.s and Lading ahove the rapl s 
.y l.n.l, waK tl,e only method of procedure. Great care taken f'n 
-e o .„ne to replenish their stock of provisions so far .as posslh e, I 
lu l.,kcs, and hy means of the rifles of the hunters. In spite o this 
Iwever, the ..onrney, made longer hy the necessarily slow pro-ress r 

loo<l. They were at last reduced to such strait, that the Can a.lia,, 
:..or, absolutely refused to go farther, unless more foo v^ 1 T" 
™cd to then,. Frauldin took occasion here to warn t'hem h" i . "' 
:...yo. then, should .Icsert or refuse to accompany the L ^ it ,; ,: 

~ ;"'""^ -'- --- l'"-"ment to he inflicted upon th 'a 

: ave them ., . orough admonition uot to further hinder t L pro^re, 
K. party. Th,s discussion had the desired effect, and the reaft t 

'™ ■^^'^■•: '"""^" "f -I— -'.I ""thfulness. The hunters 

. ;■ .nean me, became more successful ; flsh more abtn.dant; and't 
;-> ..r .IK. party being rai,e.l by the prospect of plentv of food, so 
■iManee was co,opie,e,l in the n,ost cheerful m.anner possible 

''."^. "ow .lifficlty aro,e which eirectually thwarted the' purpose of 
I ^- iea er to approach .he seaboard this season. <,„ the ,,-,h ,',f Lj 
"" l-.v I- u,g advanced live hundred utiles Iron, Ft. Chipewrvau' 



8 J 'i 




w,„.c.r lK..gan .„ „„pear. The litelc pools „r „.,.,,. ,,^ .„, ,,v„ side were 

:::; tt '"r -«^-'""™ »'">-■' »'»-- <.f i-r„, „ee„ ..a-ei:;; 

. OS . These s.^i.s soon passe,! .way with the ,i,i,„, of the s„n ami 

ha, he an,l h,s hunters would .o „o further. He s„U, that it would he 
n- usee, saenfice of life to attempt to go so far north in the win.' 

wc the, l,eforehan,l; an.l that he was not iuelined to believe the winter 
" 1.C so near at han.l as the oltief apprehended. He also told hi™ that 
«ley should at leas, reaeh the river, in order to take ohservations as t. 
^ss.e,.lep.h a„.l the and t, «ity of ti„,her upon its hanks. 

1 .ha. ,. could be nruch more favorably wi.ncsscl fron, .he la.i. d„ o 
the Copper,„n,e. These re„,ark,, however, Ira.l no elfec. upon the chief 
who contiiuie( : " If .tftcr ill tlv,^ r , ., * 'i- cnici, 

ii iiici .III inac ; liavc s;ii(l vr^n .■■•,, it • • 

sac hce your l,fe and the ,iv.s .„■ y,.„, „,„, „„„^. „, , 

s.^.U,ow,th you; for it shall not be , .ha. „e ,ed you hith; an 

W you to pens,, alone. Hut if they ,o, I and .y friends will fron, 
■lay they depart ,.purn them as dead." Findin, .he chief s.ill averse o 
gomg on and feari„. „ rup.ure wi.h tlte ludi.ans, witich would be di,.as. 
™r,;»*en, in their ,rea. need of guidance, Franklin determine c. 
1. cant ly to encamp there for the winter. This arrangement completely 
»a.,sficd .he chief, wl,o now renewed his p,.„fe,ssio„s of loyal.y „ the 
expedition. ^ -^ "-"^ 

to ti^Co" ™""""'"" """ "" ""=°" " "•■'^ ''•=='"«' "' -"'I " party 
to the Coppermnte, to ascertain its distance and size. When .hi, plan 

was comm„„, : .he chief he re.adily concurred, and ofcrcl .o end 

so,ne of h,s hunters to procure food for .hem. Mr. Hack : M 

Hood who h.ave already been men.ioncl in .he natra.ive, were chosen .„' 

take charge of .he par.y. An Esquimaux having been in .he 

mean.n.e secured, he, wi.h one Indian as guide, and eight C nat , voy- 


^ -%• 






a^rcrs, ccmstitutcl their attendance; fitted ,.p with canoes, and furnished 
in tiK- most comfortahle manner possihle ,n,.lc-r the cireumstances, they 
set ont toward tiie last of Au-ust. Franklin's rejjard for l)is n)en, an.l his 
wisdom in phnniintr,are ah'ke seen in his instructions to the party. They 
were to proceed as far as the Coppermine, if the weather was not 
too tineatening, to emhark upon it and descend it for s<,me .hstance, the 
object bein- to j^ain more definite knowled-e of its rapidity an.l the 'best 
method of navi-atin- it. In no case, liowever, were they to <r„ so far as 
not to be able in a short time to return; and if the water proved as cold 
as 40" they were to return at once, as it was feared that the can(,es mi-ht 
be frozen in, thus compelling them to return a long distance on foot. " 

The portion of the party that remained immediately prepared to es- 
tablish permanent winter quarters at the spot where they were en- 
camped. Ih.ts wore made, which in achlition to the tents, were to serve 
as shelter. The flesh and skins of animals were gathered to serve as 
food and clothing which the Canadian women were busy in preparing; 
and the barren, deserted plain presented, this winter at least, the appca'^r- 
ance of a bustling, thriving village. Here, in the reach of hostile natives, 
and greeted nightly l,y the howling of wild beasts, in a latitude 20° 
north of where they were accustomed to spend the winter, these hardy 
men made ready to endure six months of the northern blast. This spot 
was fitly termed Ft. Enterprise. 

Shortly after the party above referred to had been dispatched, Frank- 
lin and Dr. Richardson decided to take a pedestrian trip to the nearest 
point of the Coppermine. They started off on this daring project accom- 
panied by three attendants, carrying camp kettles and provisions. Their 
guides led them from the top of one hill to the top of another in as <Ii- 
rect a course as the numerous lakes with which the country is inter- 
spersed, would permit. At noon of the first day a remarkable rock with 
precipitous sides was reached, named by the Indians Dog-rib Rock, from 
a ferocious tribe of Indians who inhabit the north and west. The lati- 
tude of this place was observed to be 64° 34'. They were now trav- 
eling through a country almost dcstitnte of vegetation or animal life. 
One of the guides killed a reindeer, and offered the rest of the party, as 


a ,^reat treat, the r, w ,na,n,w fro.n ,h. hind loj^s of the animal, of which 
='" •"" i'-n.nklin partook. IL, too, however, afterward conc,ucml his 
fastidious appetite and pronounced it delicious. 

The- small quantity of hedclothinjr hrou^Hu with them, induced most 
.)f llK- p:.rty to sleep without undressing. 01<1 Kes Karrah, the In.lian 
,^Mn,!e, followe.1 a dilFerent plan. He stripped himself to the skin, and 
Having toasted himself over the emhers of the fire for a short time crept 
...ider his ,leerskin and rags, previously spread out, and coiled himself up 
... a circular form, and was sound asleep almost instantly. So the journey 
t.. the Coppermine continued, the travelers sometimes lying, and somJ- 
t..nes sitting down to sleep at night, according to the accommodations 
wiuch the rough ground alFonled. The fall of snow was almost constant- 
^'.Hl, hin.lered and perplexed by this, and by sprained and swollen ankles' 
the httle band were well nigh exhausted when at last they arrived oncj 
in<,re at Ft. Enterprise. They had walked about 150 miles. 

Upon their arrival at the winter cjuarters thev found that the party 
headed by Hack and Hood, had ],receded them by several days. This 
party had reached the shores of Point Lake, through which the Copper- 
mine River flows, on the first of September. They proceeded along its 
sliores westward, round a mountainous promontory, and pcrceivin- the 
course of the lake to be northwest, they encamped near some pine^ and 
enjoyed their first good fire since they left. 

The principal object of their investigation, now, was *to discover 
whether any arm of the lake branched nearer the tort than that upon 
which they had fallen, to which the transport of their goods might be 
made llie following spring. Having satisfied themselves bv the appear- 
a.ue c,f the.mountains that furtiier examination on the west was need- 
k-ss, they then proceeded eastwanl until the 6th. Not finding any part of 
the lake nearer, they encamped to observe the eclipse which was to occur 
"" 'liat day, hut a violent snowstorm obscuring that phenomenon, they 
.■ctrace.1 their steps toward the fort, where they arrived the dav after 
the other party had set out. 

Thus closed the voyages of ,820, the expedition having traveled 
t.hcen hundred and twenty miles, since leaving Ft. York in Sept., i8iy. 


.lOIKMN' Id IMI'; 

< (MM* I : It mini; 

\isir lo riii.: 

t oi'i'i.K Moi \ r.\i\s 

IN I I HI'; Ol Dli. |[UII.\I{|)S()\- |,.\ 

l'"l..\l! ni l..\.\-- IT. riU.NACAlN III 

IHAIiKI.NC, ()\ i|||,; 

i; Hl;'HH\.--i|;| 

l•l:l{|^(.^ Ol' iiii: 
^.\\i; iiii; i'aimv 

tiiiiii.i; siFK 

I'AinS — |)|{. |{I(IIAI!1)S()\ |!| 

^'KS HIS M|.|.: I 


Ai;i!l\A!. Al IT. KNTKItntlSK 




111 llif Mimiiu'i- of iSj I till' parlv 

w.ik h wa^ ivarhi.l, without atridiMit or ad 

i.i::iiii set out lor tlif C'o|)|HTiniiu 

I);irt of fuiK'. 'I"lu' liiiu' I 


Mlllllll' of lloU', 

111 llic lali 


l;l<l now lOIlK' wIkii ||h'\- Wvk 

illilimnl of \\ic\y rluMislu'd projivt, and 

to ri'ali/r th(j 

n\rr and woiv on tlu-ir \va\ t 

tln'v sodii I'lnliaikc'd apori tlio 

|> tl.f Polar Ocfaii. I) 

«l'>\vu the e-opiHTininc tlu- Indians wcrt- invalual.k 

Ihi' party, hy their skill in 

nrini;' tlu' iotirnc" 

in i)roL'iiiinM- (ood fof 


ltm,L,^ For this sfr\ ice tl 

take notis on the Xorthwcstern C 

u-\- consented to 

an older i;a\in"- a 

l-o 1 

onipaiiy, payable at !• t. Chipewyai 

'(-•en (liawii tor a sin: 

III a 

iiiounl of elotliiii. 

midilional present. This inelh.ulor reiinhiirsin..- thei 

as ail 

lieeaiise those artielcs with which tl 


n was lesorti'd tc 
icy were aci-iistonied to he paid wei\ 

scanty, and it N,as desired to retain ihcni (or trade aHI 

1 the 


As t 

ic party desceni 

cd, the river irradiiallv hoc, 

Iwccn lofty hanks to ahout 

line contracted he- 



c hundred and t\vent\' \ard 

icciirient hccanie rapid in proportion to tl 

s in width, and 

Ahonl the middle of (nl\- they 

the iheine of 

le narrowness o(" tin. str 
arrived at some rapids which had 



discourse amontr the Ii 

whicli had 

ulians for several days jirevions, and 

I'ceii occlared hy them to he impassahle f 

or canoes. 


river .here was f 

oimd to descend for thrce-citiartcrs of 

narrow and crowded channel, 

;i niile in a deep hut 

which it had cut Ihrr :iv;'.i tj 

!«• foot of a hill 

ye or six huiHlred lect in height. I, is conlhv. ,,,,.,, perpen.licular 
dills, reseml)Iiii«,r artitlcial stone walls, \ar\ini 


■i' iicr^^ln Iroiii eij^htv to 


- *^ -.ffrj^Sfe 


"!'■ I'.K liAliliMiv's A!> 


±J'£LLIDCe . 

21 ;{ 





- h..".l™i fee, „„ „hi,|, „,, , „„„ „, „„^ ,^^„,, ^^^ __^,- ,,™. „„ „i.hi„ „„•« ,„,,„„, „„„„„,,.,„,,, ,,^,„„,,^. „.,_,_,^_, ^,^^ _^_ 
J.C ,ng ,.„e, ,„„„„„„ „,„, ,,.,^|,,^„.^^^,, .^^_^,^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^_^^ .^^^^_^ ^^^_^^^^^^l ^^^ 

-^ sheet .„ f,.,,,,. u i, prohaWe ,1.,. ,he I„,n,„,s i„ .valitv knew lit,,;. „,■ 

-e ..„p„ls; ,„,. ,„e c,.„„e, wl,e„ li,,,,.,,.., „,■ ,,„,, ,„„,;,„ ,.,,„ ,„.^^^ 
this ilclile without siistainiuK -"i.V injury. 

In the c„,i,,. „r the „e.ecnt-a visit wa, „,a,,o f, the Coppc,. M„,.„. 
t...ns. 1.. lK,e lulls the Coppe,- I„.,iai,,s, a,,,,, it was icp„,.,e.l, the Es. 
<1"."™« *.., -veie aceastoined to come an.l ..aich foi- this nt.tal, „f 

which, when found in a free stutc flu>v ,..„) i , • 

. ; "'^ ■''^■'t^' tliev could make vanous useful arti- 

clc. Bu the nnpracticability of navi<,atin<, this river hon. its source 
and the absence of nuUerial for makin. and operating a smelter, proved 

oFrankhnand his men that an, considerable mercantile speculiln i! 
this entcipnse w-as imjiossilile. 

As the Esquimaux country was approached, the oxpe,li,io„ a.lva„ce<l 
V, ,rea. caution, to prevent any serious collision of the rc.l n,c„ uith 
tlK . Monsohan nc^hhors. Constant watches were Uep, day and ni.h. 
and the olhccrs cheerfully took their turns with the res, in this .Inty " It' 
was on one „f these occasions that Dr. Richanlson, the surseon „, the 
party, „,ct „,,,„„ f„„„„„„^, ^.,„„,.^ ^^^^^^ __ ^_^^ 

he rst watch, he had seated hiniselr on a hill overha„,i„, the river; 
h.s thoughts wore po.sihly occupicl with ,ar distant scones, when he was 
aroused hy an indistinct noise hehind him, and, on lookin, round, saw 
'hat mnc white wolves had „rran,,ed themselves in the form of a crescent 
■"""'I him. and were ailvancin,- apparently with the intention of drivin., 
hm, into the river. lie had his ,,„„ ;„ his hand, h,it did not dare lire tin- 
fear o, alarmii,„ any Esquimaux who migh, he in the iiciKhhoihood, 
Upon h,, risn,,. Uiey halted, an.l ,vhen he advanccl toward them in a 
meniicin,. manner, they a, .mce made way for his passage down to the 

I Ia« ill, reached the month of the Coppermine, the journey of explor- 

o„ eastward, and the „„al return to the west sotith, wi/one 

muirokeu series of terrihle snirerings, hardships, and privations. 
O.. the .,st of July, with only fifteen days' provisions on hoard, , hey 


omharked upon the open sea, intending, if possible, to read. Repulse 
IJay, a distance of some six or seven hundred miles to the east. But they 
cneountered frightful storms. Their boats were badly shattered, and 
then- i.rov.sions, to whieh they had bc^en unable to add any amount 
were almost gone. The erew eomplained bitterly, and it would seem' 
that the elimax of discourar.-r-.ent had been reached when their best 
boat sank; the crew, and what scanty supplies they had, narrowly escap- 
"ig destruction. Accordingly, when they reached a place, now perti- 
nently called " Point Turnagain," it was decided to steer westward at 
once, to Arctic Sound, and by ascending Hood's River, to gain once 
more the interior. Thence they sought to reach Point Lake and Ft 
Lnterpnse, their previous winter quarters. The prospect was discoura... 
nig m the extreme, for winter seemed to be already setting in The 
Innuers found no -game, and their stock of pemmican was exceedin^^ly 
l.m.ted. In spite of the threatening weather, their dilapi<lated canoes 
.nd exhausted larder, they managed to push on till at last they entered 
Hood's River. 

The Canadians could not restrain their joy at having turned their 
backs on the sea, and they spent the first evening in talking over their 
past adventtn-es with much humor and no little exaggeration. They had 
cLsplayed great courage in encountering the dangers of the sea, ma<nd- 
hcd to then, by their novelty. The poor Frenchmen, no doubt, fotuKl a 
cbstressmg .lilFerence between the frozen plains of the North, and the 
vmeyanls of their "Sunny France," which some of them, perhaps 
remembered. . ^ ' ' 

After remodeling two canoes from the remains of the old ones, which 
liad been rendered almost useless, they proceeded on foot from near the 
mouth <,f Hood's River toward Point Lake, 150 miles distant, and as will 
1.C remembered, in the neighborhood of Ft. Enterprise. It is impossible 
f .Icscnbe iSe sufferings of the exhausted crew from this point. They 
liad scarcely set out when a bewikiering snowstorm arose which so em- 
barrasse<l their progress that they were oblige<l to encan,p for several 
days VVhenatlast the storm abate.I, and they attempte,' to advance, 
Iranklu, tainted fVon. hunger and sudden exposure. He soon revive.l 

n I 





IiowevcT, l)v tal 
l)v I he kindness 

their h.iel'; 
crahlv on. 

'"■'".U -'i ■'^mall .|iianlity of poiiahl 

ol 1 

H- men. .So, witli th 

<-■ soup, pressed upon liim 

s, and hnii)s totterin-- from si 

rir wet .^-arnients (Veezini;- tc 


H'er exhaustion, the\- went 


c men wlio carried th 

over, and at one of these ti 

e canoes were oCtei 

1 hlown 

ines the best 

canoe was 


is was soon nlili/ed 1 

ven ni ])ieces. 

>\' niakniLT a ii 

soiij) and arrow ro 

IV <>t It to cook the little renia 



ne only source of suhsiste 

tnpc-iic-roc/H\ a species of lid 
earth. This, alth 



neni \va> the 

len which urows ujion the rod 

vs or fio/en 

)ii,L;ii It 

ser\ed to 



and luiwholesonie. An incident 

in th 

L'ln, was dehilitalin- 

occurred at this time which sh 

even \\\ circumstanc 



c's as trying- as those which 

utmost .i^enerosity and disinterested 
officers stood si 

we ha\e descril 

)e(l, the 

iiverniLf aroun 

(1 a smal 


le i)anL;s of Inni-er, V 

nL-,s may he shown. One day, as tl 
lie, and suflerino- intensel\- fr 



meal which he had 

It, ,1 Canadian, produced 

saved (Vom his own al 

or them with a ]jiece of pe 
"with ^-reat thankfulne 
ness iillc 


:i small amount of 

owance, and presented each 


It was recei\e< 



ss, and such an instan 

ce of self-denial and kiiui- 

<l our eyes with tears. 
At len^-lh thev reached 

a iir 

width and i-apidit\- th:il 
streams whicli they had 1 

anch of the C 

o])pernnne, of su 

cli y-reat 

It could not 1 

le crossed as readily as tl 

le smallei- 

>een in 

ne nvMW, whose construct 

he hahit of lording- daily. A raft I 

lad to 

several da\s. 


ion, in their present weakened state 

, occupied 

was their 

(heir new t 

'lisappomlinent and dia-rin to lind tl 


i-ansport was useless; they could not 

Aiiotlu'r exhilntion of self- 

id It ai-r 

OSS the river. 

volunteered to make ll; 

sacrillce was then made. Dr. Richard 


him a line, I 

'\' wliidi the laft 

(-' attempt to swi 

m across the n\-er. 

i'arr\iii''- with 

coulil he (Irawn acros 

laimdied into the stream with tln> 1 

lie had -oi within a short 

iiie aroimd his wai^t ; Imi when 

lisiance of tlu' 



e iian 

nunihi'd with 

<, Ills .inns liec.imi 

loKi, and h 

e lost ilif 

jxiwer of mo\ in-- them. Still I 

U' per. 


when his 

••iii'l, liiniin- on his hack, ha.l nearl 

\ .i^anu'd the o|)posite shore, 

comrades on slior( 

line and 

ic-s, loo, iHvame powerless, ami to \W- lullnite al,-,rm of hi- 
lu'he-an to sink. They instantly haulcl upon IIk 

!<-■ came up(m the surface, ;m 

•I was t^radualh- 

iiMwn ashore ii 


^'^ a 



ail iilinost lifcl 


CSS st:iU 

fore :i "ood (Ire of willow 

Joiiiij^ rolled up in blankets, he was placed hc- 

s, and rortuiiately was just ahle lo speak 

enoii-h lo o-ive some sli.<,rht directions respectinjr tl 
■ecovered stien<,rth after a time, and in tl 



le manner of treatin"- 

to l.e leinoved to his lent. Il was then found that 

was deprived of t 

lie- evening- was ahle 
his whole left side 



eciiiio-, in conseciuence of sudden exposure to t 

e did not recover from this until the foil 



fell, upon seeini;- the skeleton shown by the d 


<><> ,i;reat 

caunol he told in words, 
he best explained 1 


ly the doctor when he sliijjped, 

s condition, as well as that of ll 

le icvst, may 

It may he \vortliy of 

ly an extract from his own journal; 

remark, that I should have had little h 


ni any tormer peri.)d of my life at ph.ngin- into water,_eyen below 38^ 

Fahrenheit; but at tl 

lis time I was reduced almost to a skelet 

the rest of the party, suITered from d 

on, and like 

(lisrei^ardcd in health and 

ej,n-ees of eold that would 

vifTor. Duriui,' the whole of our 

experienced that no (piantity of eloth: 
fasted; but on those occasic 

liave been 
inarch, we 

irni while we 

with full stomachs, we passed the ni.rht 

would keep us w 
)ns on wdiich we were enabled to ..■,, 1,, bed 

in a warm and comfortablt 


1-1 ' 


! : tlMMMlUI 

he liver was at last crossed, I 

in the case of every 01 



nit a ij;-reat depression of spirits existed 




and weal 

n, and IJack, were all la 


le vovanc/irs w 

ere somewhat more viLrorous, 1 

hope to eoine out of the wild 

>iit (hd not 
erness alive. Finaiiy, JM-anklin and ei-^ht 

men decided to j)ush on toward I't. I':nternrise. T 

iiree ol 


almost at once. Franklin su 

cceeded in reachiiii,^ the house, 

neither oci'u 

lese <lied 
l>ut found 

lianls nor jirovisions. In ei-hteen days I Jack and Dr. Rich- 

ardson came up. Hood had set out will 

one Indian. A short lime after 1 

he had been murdered. The three Canadi 

1 a party of three Canadiai 
lis body ^yas found with evidencL 

IS and 


As Michel, the Indi 

nis were never seen a"-. 


lan .<i,uide, remained stron 

thouL-ht he I 

and yi'/oroiis, it was 



'ad murdered the rest of the party and feasted 

s soon as this s 

ui)oii their 
spicion was eonlirnied lie was promptly shot 
l>y Dr. Richardson. A partrid.^.e, killed by ITepburn, was all the meat 
that the parly last arrivin- al the Fori had tasted for six weeks. Parts 



of their boots and clothiiu' hiid 1 


sotip made out of old Ijoi 

consumed diiiiufr the march, and 

c's and skin wa 

Help and siipjjlies at last arrived, I 

s considered a Inxni 


••■ifnrt.n.ate party had perished. The hanlsl 
ever, were now over. C'onimunicat 

•lit not until several m 

oie o 

r tl 


!iil)s of tile suivivors, 1 


oflhe f'ln- c 

ion could now he had wi'.h ti 

strained to the 

"mpanies, and the persons eniploved at the 

le posts 

p'eatest kindness j)ossil 

■se points were eon- 

condilion of tile unfortunat 

Ic when they saw the pitiai)lt 

c crew. The Canatlians were sent home 
•" '"He, heino- paid in orders upon the Hudson's Hav Company 
1 I.c ollieers of the party were ohli.^^ed to remain son>e tinu- at one oftii'e 
iorts hetore they were ahle to travel fhr. Their ibet and limhs were 
swollen, ,hj.estion and assimilation were impaired, and racking rheuma- was eommon fron. the severe an.I prolon^rcl exposure. Throu-di 
I'H- l^nulness of tiie company's a;^ents, their health was at last n-storc^l 
and they proceeded to ].:n<,dand, where they arrived safely in the sum- 
mer o( .,S3.-with the exception of the ,,^allant Hood, whose fate we 
have related al)ove. 

Thus terndnated Franklin's firs, voyage, hein^ as far as p<,ssil)le a 
laithlul execution of the plan, as i, has alrea.iy been communicate.l to 
the reader. 

An account of the next vovat^e of this j^allant explorer will he ^iven 
ill a lollowiiiL;' chapter. 




— kotzebue's voyage — unwelcome iiosittaeity— a unique 


Our last reference to Russian Arctic exploration was an account of 
the Hnal voyage of Bchrin- in 1741. But little was afterward done by 
the Russians in the way of organized effort in this direction, until the 
period at which we have now arrived. The whole of the Arctic coast of 
Russia, including Siberia, had, however, been discovered piecemeal by 
fur traders and adventurers. "These skins," says a Russian writer, 
"were the golden fleece of those days and of those regions, an<l tempted' 
not only Cossacks and fur-hiniters to brave the severest hardships, ])nt 
even induced jjersons of much higher rank to leave their families and 
abandon the conveniences of life, in order to plunge into the fearful and 
unknown wildernesses of Siberia in the licipe of enriching themselves bv 
this trade. It is to the credit of the national characc.-r, however, that 
their desire of gain never diove them t.. the atrocities of whicii the gohl- 
seeking coiujuerors of Mexico and Puru were guiltv." 

Thus gradually had been explo'-ed two-fifths of tlie whole Arctic 
coast, from the White Sea to Ik'hring's Strait. Piece by piece, too, 
had a great portion, if not all ;.f it, been surveyed by orders of tlie gov- 
ernment; and much valuable information in relation to the country and its 
various aboriginal tribes had been gleaned and collected through officials 
and private adventurers. At the very date of Pehring's voyage, the 
brothers Laptew were winning distinction as explorers in those regions. 
Lieuteruuit Charlton Laptew, in May, 1741, sailed down the Taimur 
River to its moiitli, which he ascertained to lie in latitude 75° 36'. He 



Ha.U-eca e„;^.a,,..d .si„cc 1730, i,, cxplorinj,. the coast west of th- Lcr, 
lK.nn. ],,ea appointed to succeed P.ontschischtschew, who had tried i..' 
va.n to do„„ie ,hc icy cape of Tain.,,- Peninsula, an.l had heen cnploye.l 
- .x,>h.nn;, those inhospitahle shores since .73^. Du^itn Laptew had 
l>een snndaHy en^a^ed ,a,-the,- to the east since ,736. Having douhled 
ll>c Sv.ato, X..SS of Sihena, he spent his (hst winter on the Indi-nrl^u 
Kuer, ahout ten decrees farther east, and in latitude 71". Proceeihn.^ 
•hence he exanune<l and surveyed the coast and the Bear Ishn.ds, winte," 
m-- on the Kolyma River. 

lie had heen preceded in those re.^nons l,y I'aulusky, in ,75, F,,, 
.uo successive seasons Laptew now lahored in vain to douhle Haranow 
Kocks,andreUn-ned at length to lakoutsk in ,743, after a sojourn of 
seven years on the shore of the Araic Ocean. In 175S Schalarosv, a 
■ ncrchant of lakout.k, sailed fron. the Yana River, in a vessel huilt at 
Ins own expense, an<l succeeded in douhling the ,Baranow Rocks, hut 
failed to n,ake Cape Schelagskoi. Ag.yn he tried and a^ain was driven 
hack from that icy goal of his amhition ; and the third time, in ,760 
h,s crew retuscl ,„ support hin.. In ,763 Sergeant Andrejew, a Cos- 
sack, who had heen on the 7 uligirka and the Bear Islands, reported 
that he ha.l discovered, thir. lilcs north of the mouth of the Krcstovoi 
... the estuary of the Kolyma, a group of inhahited islands, with the re- 
n>an.sof a fort, an.l traces of a brge population at some previous tin.e 
1.. .764 Schalarow started anew t.. solve his personal prohlem of ,loul,- 
ln,g Cape Schelagskoi, hut ,lid not return. "His unfortunate death (from 
starvation it is sai.l) is the more to he lamented," savs Wran-dl u,^ 
he sacrihccl his property and life to a disinterested aim, a,ul united intel- 
li.Ue.K-e and energy in a .eniarkahle degree." The same vear Admiral 
rsclntschagow failed in his effort to sail around the Spitzhergen .n'oup 
I.. .7^7 Leo.ujew, Lyssow, and Pushkarow surveyed the ccj near 
the Kolyma. 

Meanwhile, on the Kamchatka side, the fur-traders in quest of prod- 
ucts for their profita])le commerce with China and Japan, had .n-ulu- 
ally .hseovered the islands of the North Pacific; Norvodiskow, the 
Uest Aleufan, in ,745; Paikovv, the Fox, in 1759; Tojstvch, the cen- 





tral -roup called hy his name, in 1760; Glottow, Kadiak, in 1763; :m,l 
Kreinitzin, Aliaska Peninsula, in 176S. In 1770 a merchant named 
Lachcnv or Liakov, while gatherinff a cargo of fossil ivory ahout Svia- 
toi Noss, saw a herd of reindeer making for the Siherian coast from the 
north, and rightly judged they must have come from land. Proceeding 
in his sledge over the ice, guided by their tracks, he discovered at a 
distance of forty miles from the cape he had left, an island, and twelve 
miles farther a second, both wonderfully rich in mammoth teeth. Duly 
reporting to the government and securing from it the exclusive privilege 
to dig for mammoth bones in the islands he had found, Lachow Te- 
turned, in 1773, ''»<! li:"' the good fortune to discover the largest of the 
three which still bear his name. "The whole soil of the first of these 
islands," says Saunikow, "appears to consist of the-e remains." 


The great Empress of Russia, Catharine II., in her numerous projects 
for the promotion of commerce, with the comprehensive sagacity for 
which she was distinguished, could n(.t fiil to recognize the value of ex- 
ploration, especially within what she regarded as her empire. In fur- 
therance of her design, Joseph Billings, who had been with Cook in his 
last voyage, was induced to enter the Russian naval service, and in 1787 
was intrusted with an expedition for the examination of the north coast 
of Siberia from the Kolyma River to Behring's Straits. Captain Saryt- 
chew, a Russian, was phice.l in subordinate command of one of the two 
vessels constituting the expedition. They sailed down the Kolyma on 
the opening of navigation, and were much harassed by ice and overllow, 
which drove them sometimes into the inundated bottom-lands. Reach- 
ing the ocean they pushed to the east, getting, however, to only a few 
leagues beyond Baranow R.xks. The Russia.i captain volunteered to 
proceed further by boat, but P.illings deemed the project unfeasible be- 
cause of the ice, and returned to lakoutsk, leaving^ his vessels aground 
in the Kolyma. He was, however, intrusted with a second expedition 
to explore Uic islands of the-North Pacific, two vessels being built for 
that purpose at Okhotsk. In June, 1790, JJillings visited the Aleutian 


Islands,, whore he found the natives so cruelly treated by tiie Russian and 
Cossack fur-traders, that he felt compelled to .nake a.i ener-ctic re. 
monstrance to the home government. Despite his efforts and "those of 
tiie central authority, the local oppression continued without serious 
abatement, and there, as elsewhere, the aborigines have been almost to- 
tally extinguished by overwork and virtual slavery to the whites. From 
Ihi- iJay of Saint Lawrence, Billin-s proceeded overland on the 13th of 
Au-ust to explore and survey the Tchuktchi Peninsula. His efforts 
were weak and fruitless; his journeys short, and stoppa-es frequent; and 
he won no tavor with the natives. Jealous of the Russian surveyors' 
chains, which they considered typical of the chains of slavery, they did 
not hesitate to wrest them from their unwelcome visitors, whom they 
would not suffer to write any notes or observations as far as they could 
prevent, so that the exploration proved abortive. Sauer, the histori;in of 
the expedition, relates a few incidents: "We passed three villages, and 
halted at a fourth for the ni-ht. The huts were du- under tn-ound, 
covered with earth, of a square form, with a fireplace in the middle, 
■.xm\ four lar-e stones made the hearth. We were obli-cd to treat with 
them for water, and for fuel to boil our food, and to pay for it imme- 
diately. Ohservin- our good nature and want of power, they took a 
liking to the buttons on our coats, and cut them off without ceremony. 
The men were tall and stout, and the warrior had his legs and arms 
punctured. The women were well made, and above the middle size; 
healthy in their appearance; and by no means disagreeable in their per- 
sons; their dress was a doe's skin, with the hair on, and one garment 
covered their limbs and the whole body. They wore their hair parted, 
:iii<l in two plaits, one hanging over each shoulder, their arms and face 
iK'ing neatly punctured." Captain Billings was still in lakoutsk in 1 793, 
l)ut his explorations I)y land or sea did not add much t<. the volume of 
geographical information, and his chief merit lies in his humane effort to 
ameliorate the unhappy conditiorx of the oppressed natives in the Aleu- 
tian Islands. 

The group of islands known as the Archipelago of New Siberia, 
' -overed bv Sirawatskv In 1S06, and exnlored 



edenstrom in 





1.S09. They • almost due norlli from Vaiia Hay, east of the deUa of 
llie Lena, between hititude 73^' and 76% and lonjjitude 135' to 150". 
They are j,'enerally roeky, and are covered all the year round with snow, 
without busii or tree anywiiere. They are uninhabited, but with traces 
of former population, as well as of large trees and fossilized charcoal. 

Their chief importance now is due to the immense (piantities of fossil 
ivory, or bones of ihe mammotli, which are found embedded in the soil. 
According to lledenstrom's account, the tusks are smaller and li-hter, 
but at tile same time more numerous toward the north of the islands, 
and often wei-h only tliree ..r four poods— loS to 144 poiuuls— while on' 
tlie main land of Siberia, it is said, there have been found tusks which 
wei-:hed twelve poods, or 433 pounds avoirdupois! To this larj^er 
-rowtli must have belon-ed the mammoth discovered in 1799, '"by 
Schumachow, one ol the Tun-usian nomads, while searchin- f.,r f„ssii 
ivory near Lake Aucoul. In 1803 the ice iu which it had been enveloped 
havin- gradually melted away, this hu-e carcass fell on a sand bank, 
where its flcsli was so well preserved that ii afTorded acceptalile food for 
do-s and beasts for at least three seasons. In iSo.| the ori-inal .liscov- 
crer carried away llie tusks, which he sold f„r alxnit forty dollars. In 
iSor, Adams found it where it had fallen, in a mutilated condition, but 
not entirely divested of flesh. The skeleton was, however, complete, 
except one forele- and some joints „f the tail. About one-fourth of the' 
skin had disappeared, but the remainder recpiired the united efforts of ten 
men to remove it to the shore, a distance of only fifty yards. It was of 
a .lark -ray color, and was covered with a short, curly, reddish wool, 
besides some Ion- black hairs, resemblino- bristles, which varied in' 
len-th from one to ei-hteen inches. The animal was a male, and had a 
Ion- mane; and the whole body was eventually taken to St. Petcrsburjr 
to -race the imperial museum, while samples of its wool were sent to 
the principal museiuns throu-hout Emope. The tusks were repurchased 
by the -overnment, and replaced in tlieir ori-hial sockets. Its chief 
measurements are: From the loivhead to the- end of the mutilated tail, 
sixteen feet, fonr inches; hei-ht to the top of the .lorsal spines, nine feet,' 
iuurinehes; the len-th of the tnsks alon- tlie curvature, nine feet, six' 




ill ^ 

inches. Mosidt'H thi' remains of the Elcphas Pntmirctuus, as it is scien- 
tifically iiaine.1— (,r primo^^'cnial elephant, as it mi;,'ht he popnhnly called, 
had not the word mammoth taken its permanent place hi otn- literature' 
—the hones of the rhinoceros, hufTalo, horse, ox, and even sheep, have 
been fomid, all demonstrating that there was a time when the Arctic 
regions couhf have been easily explored had there only hcen men to do 
il. And when the men came— thou<,Hi, according to the native legend, 
" there were once more hearths of the Omoki on the shore of the Kolyma,' 
than there arc stars in the clear sky "—they were hardly the men to husy 
themselves overmuch with scientific researches, or to leave records to 
posterity. The Omoki have now disappeared from even the mainland, 
and the islands of New Siberia are alike untenantable by man or beast. 


To these surveys of the northern coast and islands of Siberia was 
added a genuine Arctic voyage of exploration in 1815. To the public 
spirit and /.eal for knowledge of Count Nicholas Romanzof, or Riov- 
mantsof, who had been made Secretary of State in 1S07, was Russia in- 
debted for this expedition. It consisted of one vessel of iSo tons, which 
was intrusted to Lieut. Otto Von Kotzcbue, son of the celebrated 
German dramatist of that name. He had accompanied Kiuscnstcrn in 
his voyage around the world, 1803-6. As his chief companions the 
scientific count had secured the poet -.m^X naturalist, Chamisso, and the 
physician and naturalist, Eschscholtz. Twenty-two men constituted the 
crew of their ship, the « Rurik," so named in honor of the first king 
of Russia, the famous \'araiigian chief or Norse Viking, who founded 
the first Russian dynasty 953 years before. They left Plymouth, Eng- 
land, in October, 1S15, and in March, 1S16, arrived ofi^ Waihu or 
Easter Island, about Soo leagues west .,f Chili— 27° 6' south, by 109" 
17' west— where they were prevented from landing by the natives, who 
were embittered by tlie injuries received a! the hands ..f foreign visitors. 
On the 17th of June they reached the Hay of Avatcha, and pushing 
norfi, laiidal on St. Lawrence Islaiul on the 27th. The inhabitants 


lia<l nc'vcT iKul nny intomnnsc wifli IC.uv.poans :m„I now rcccivr.l tlu. with -rc.-,t fricM.IIincss a,,,! trnwrlcnu- hospitality. 

"So lonjx as thi. nalMiahsts waiKJeml ah„„t „„ the hills," says Kot/t- 
I'lic,"! stai.l with ,ny aa,uaintaMccs, who, when they fo.nul that I was 
tlH- o.Miman.icM-, invitc.l mo i,.to their tents. Here a .Mrty skin was 
spread on the lloor, on whieh I ha.l to sit, an.l then tiu-y ean.c in, one af- 
t^'. lheotiK-r,emhraee.l me, rnhi,e.i their noses hard aj,^n-nst mine, an.! 
finished their earesses hy spittin- on their hamls, and then slriUin-^ n,e 
several times over the faee. Ah honj^h these proofs of friendship'^.ave 
mcvcry littie pleasure, I hore ail patiently; the only thin,. 1 did to 
l-^'hten tl,e,r earesses somewhat, was to distrihnte U.haeco leaves. These 
the natives received with j^reat pleasure, hut they wishe.l immediately to 
renew their proofs of frien.lship. Now I ),etook .nyself with speed to 
knives, scissors, and, and hy .listrihntinj., succeeded in avert- 
-i-U- :. nc-w attack. I>nl a still jrrcatcr calamitv awaited, when, In onler 
to reh-esh me l,o,Iily, they hrou.^du forwani a woo.ien tray with whale 
l.l.-hher. Nauseous as this food is to a ICuropean stomach, I hol.lly at- 
taeke<l the <!ish. This, alon- with new presnUs whieh I disl nn.ted im- 
pressed tlie seal on the friendly relations hetwccn us. After the meal 
our hosts made a. ran.^^cments for dancin,. and sin^nnjr, which was ac- 
companic<l on a little tamho,„-ine." Two days later, as they sailed away 
to the north, past the island, the n^Uives killed a .lo,. in vi'ew <.f then, 
pirliaps as a sacrilice to the departin- Europeans. 

I'assin,!,. throuf,.h Ik-hrin,,r\ Strait, they arrive<l on the ,st of Au.rust 
withn. a hroad hay or inlet, he-innin- at 66" 4,' 3,," ),,. ,6, ", ^' 
50", which they proceeded to explore with j,n-eat .eal, hopin.^ per- 
cliance to lin.l ih. lon,i,-soui,Hu communication with the Atlantic. '"^They 
sjKnt a fortni.c,rht in its survey, and thought at one time to find a passa.^e 
south ,0 Xor.on Soun.l. It prove.l, however, to he evervwhere stn-- 
••""•>'l-l ''V land, and was name<l Kot.ehue Sound, while a considerable 
.^I.Mul an,! hay discovered dnrin.^Mheir exploration were nanied respec 

Cv^lv diamisso and Eschscholt/, in honor of his companions, the natural- 
ists. The attention of these -entlemen was attracted to a rema.ka],ie_ 
^n.<l as fn- as known uniciue-island. h ha.l an elevati.Mi of about ico 



fee , „,„, „,„ ,,„„c„ „,a chalk cliO; InU „n closer observation proved 
.. i.e a „,a» of ice, on which had lx.e„ deposited i„ the eot.rsc of ages, a 

■■'^"■.""""^- '■'">■ ■-' "■'■-"■. ""ly - i-hes .hick, hat covered wih 

.,.„r,ant vegctatio.,. .The ice ,„ust have hcen several h„„dred tho„. 
-...I years old, says Nordenskioid, i„ descrihi,,;; this fi„d; ..foron its hc- 
m.- ..K. he, a lar,.c ,u„„„cr of h„„c, a„d .„sk, of the ,„ammo,h appeared, 
■•"." wh,ch we,„ay draw the eo„cl„sio„ that the ice stratun, was fonnc.1 
■I'"-...!,' the period i„ which the ,„a,n„,oth lived l,t these re^^ions " Its 
»cer,,„„c,l la.ittale vvas ,5fi" ,5' 36-, and it was thorough'lv re^ex-,,,, 
med by Dr. Collie, the s„rgco„ of lieeehey's e.peditlo,, 1„ tS,,, „„,, l,;,, 
later l)y the traveler Ball. 

Leaving Kot.ehue Sound on ti.e 15th of August, for the Asiatic side, 
they beheld the wide-spread Aretic Ocean, quite free fron. ice as far as 
tnc eye could reach, an.l n.ight perhaps have reached what is now 
known as Wrangell Land, had they pushed boldly to the north A 
contrary course was taken, an<l returning through Behring's Strait, they 
wnuered far to the south on one of the group of islands to which Chat^ 
ham Calvert, and Nautilus belong. In ^Si; Kot.ebue set out for the 
^"-th, hut being violently thrown against one of the ship's timbers in a 
sale, he lost his health and courage, and other difficulties not bein^, he returned to Europe without having again penetrated tl,: 

wo.ld, 1S33-6, wh,ch ,s foreign to our subject, and died in .846, i„ hi, 
fiftieth year. 

«.A-,.AT„K„ MK„..:,,_c„„n„.„ „.„„ „,„,„ ,.„„„,„„„__■ 

STAIIT lOli CAPE SCltlSI.AIJSKOI -A «, T.-,,,,, ,„.„,.„ 

TliADraO IIUANDY TO MATIVl-S—l «fi„„,.,. 

'-^ \ SIKJ.IilAN r-AIIt UNWHI COM!.- 


Two ,,„„„ ,,,,,„,„„ e.pc,«„„„„ „,. raehor „„c o.pedi.i™, ,•„ ,„„ 
•la M„„s, „.» ,,,,„„„,,, ,,,. „,, „„^,^„_ ,_,,^^^, _|^^ ^^^_ wo 

, wh., „„. „„„ .„ ,., , ,„„„„„,^ ^,„_, ,^^,^^ ^^^^^^^_^ ^^_^ ^ ^_^^^^^ ^ 

the „.,K.,. „ ca,pc„.c,.. Tl,.i,. i„»,„,cH„„,, i,,,,,,,,,^, ^ 

c, wc,.o :,. ,„„„»: .. r,.„,„ .„, ,„„,,„,,, l^ .,„ 

<l...on» „„„e„a,<e„ ,„ .„. P„,,,. Oce..,„, , .„„e.,, ,„, ;, ,, i,„p„,,„„' „ 

..I n„mo,„sc ,„a„t,ti„., „r „,,«,,,, „„ „„ ,„„,, ,„„„,_ ,, .^ ,^^_ j^^^^ ^^^ 
Scr^c-anl Amh-oiow .Irovo over .Ik- ice i„ ,ho ,,pn„„ „f ..g, „,„, 

-yn .n .So, ,S,„ a,„l ,S,,, „,,.„ ,„c f,,,-,,..,. .„„,.,,, „,, „„„. 
I»l-.l»,a,„l ,ho lau-r ,lK. I,aoh„„. ,.,„„,. a,„l Ncnv Sihoria. V, ,h^ 
^;,.,K.,» ... ,.e ,,K. „.„, p,.a.Uca, p,a„ r,„- .„. „.,,,„,,„ „, ,„ , ,^:. 

".™, ,., ,„o a.l,.i,.al,y wi,„ ,.,,p,,, ,„ „„ ,,„„,.,,,,, _,^;^. ^_^ ^ ; 

Accord,,,,,, „K. ,„,e divisio,, „r .ha, o.poditio,, ,» ,,irocee.l .„ p,.„,„.., ,■„ 

»le.l,.c, ,„ »„„oy eho coa.e oa«twar,l ,V,„n .ho „K„„h o,' .he K„lv,„a a, 

;"• - Cape Schola,.l<„i, a,,., .he„ce .0 p,„cce.l i„ a nonhcly' ,lirec- 

"V" "'■''"■ '" '^"'''"' "•'- ■■ -' "'habi.ecl co„„.ry exists i„ that 

qii.„-te,-, as assc,-.u<l l,y .he Tch„,i an.l o.he,-s." 

The n,s. clivisi,,,, was i„„.„s,e,l ,„,„c.„a,„ l.-enli„a„,| Von 





Wran<,'ell, with tlic Mati 

inschkin, the mate K 

seamen — one a ear 

o.smni, tvvo 

pcnter and the other 

gcon and naturalist, as suhordinates. T 


of I 

ieut. I'eler Feodoroviteh Anjou, wit 

a smith— and Dr. Kyher, 
lie second was placed in char<,'-e 

h the mate Ilirin and I)i-. !• 

rm, sini^-eon and naturalist 


, as subordinates. The results attained l.y Ihi 

second division were never fi 
dcntalh' liuint. I 

ormally published, as their papers were acci 

t IS, however, known that thev failed to d 

"iidiabiled country in a northerlv direct 

isco\er the 


i and others," wl 

ion, as alleifed by t 

!ie -rchul 

iich was the main ol 

expedition, and that tl 

)ject of both sections of ( 


ley surveyed tl»e New Sil 

remarkable Woo<! Hills of those island 
"They form a steep declivity twentx f: 

leria IslancU 



s are thus referred to by Anjou; 

ithonis hi"ii, extendin; 

versts (three miles) alon- the coast. In this I 

aluiut live 


•ank, which i 

s exiiosed ti 

e sea, beams or trunks of ti 

■ees are found, -enerally in a horizontal 



but with o-reat irre,L,nilarity, lifty or i 
nit ten inches in diameter. 

ircst beiii; 

nore of them to^-ether, the 




hard, is (v 

wood is not yer\- 

lahle, iias a bla 

civ color, and a 

the (Ire it does not 1 

ll;^rht „■ 



hen laid on 

)urn with a llame, liiit 

inous odoi-, 

limmers, and emits a res- 



ey had been similarly deseribed by I led 

enstrom in 

I, wh 

I' aods some particulai 

s not ^iven 



thirty fathom 


I ley are 

s lii^li, and consist <jf 

^.orizontal strata 

natiuii- with strata of I 

sandstone, alter 

'ituminous bea 

iui,'- these hills fossilized 

ins or trunks of trees. On 


charcoal is everywhere met \v 

cntly with ashes; but on cl 

ith, coyere<l ai)iiar- 

)ser examination this a 

])etrifaction, and 

sh is also found t 

i> l)e a 

hard that it can scarcely 1 

On the summit anoti 

)e scraped o(I with a 



ler curiosity is found, namely, a loi 
but fi 

!''■ row ( 

.f 1 

>i I'cams 

1)1111- the former, but flxc.l perpendicularly in the san.lstone. The 
ends, which project from se^ ,n to ten inches, are for the most part 
broken. The whole has the appearance of a ruinous dike." These cu- 
rious remains allord stron- presumptive evi.lence, that sometime in the 
vast -eolo-ical a-es (,f the past, those iv.^ions enjoyed a far more tem- 
perate climate than now. It is not impossible that another revolution of 
the -lobe is slowly Jiro-ressin-, whereby all parts ..f the earth's surface 
successively pass under the north pole of the heavens. 


The members of i he expedition left St. Petersburg on iho 4th of 
April, 1S30, and proceeded together as far as Moseo^v, where Anjou and 
Kosmm remained behind to procure the necessary instruments for both 
chv,s,ons. Wrangell and Matinschkin pushed on to Irkoutsk, n.akin<. 
the journey of 3483 English miles from St. Petersburg in fifty-six days^ 
In June they were rejoined by the other members of the expedition, an,i 
o.. the 7th of July Wrangell's party left the capital of Siberia. ()„ the 
nnath, having made a rapid land journey of 136 n.iles, they reached 


Kotschuga, on the Lena, which there becomes navigable. The next day 
they began the descent of the great river, and on the 4th of Au-^ust 
arrived at lakoutsk, having been twenty-five days making a distance of 
. \ 11 n.iles. This city is the great center of the interior trade of Eastern 
S.lH.r,a. About the middle of August Anjou's division reached la- 
koulsk, a..I Mati.ischkin went forward in advance of his chief to Nishni 
that is, Lower-Kolymsk, Wrangel! following on the .4th of Septem- 
l.n. His route now lay across country to the northeast, and measured 

r i 



over i,3oo miles, occii 

of operations, Lower Kolymsk— latitude 6S 
the 14th of November, h 

pyin.,^ fifty-one days. Wran-cll arrived at h 

lis base 

Pctersburjrin 234 days, of which 

, )-iavui<,r made a journev of 6 

nine at lakoutsk, besid 


32 ', lonjritude 160" 35'_on 
,300 miles from St. 

y-six were spent at Irkoiitsk and 

es mnioi 

horseback, Wran<rcll and his t 




e journey was made on 

wo companions headiii"- a 

pack-horses strun<r to-ether. the first and last only I 
tween that city and the Aldan River tlu- people were [ 

ca\alc.ide of te 


n;L,nn; beyond the Verchoiausk M 

liavniq- drivers. ]Je- 
dvuts of Tartar 

of Tartar ori< 

in. I 

ountains they met some T 


dilHculty in climliin; 

n crossin^j the mount, 


unsthey encountered about eciual 


snow in the rav 

•ecipices ami clearin- a passa-e throu-h the .1 

ines. On the ninth of October th 


ey crossed the Y 

, , , ".' ^■"■^■^Lu iiie 1 ana, 

and on ,he :5th, at the suation of Tabalo,, n:et Dr. Ton,aschewski, who 

was on h,s return to civilization after three years' service at Xishni Ko 

lyrnsR. On the ..d they crossed the Indi^irka at Sasclm ersk, where thev, wo .lays the hospit.nlity of ,he venerable Father Michel 

a^ed e.^hty-seven, who, in a residence of fbrty vears ha.l bap.i.ed an.! 

-strucce.1 In the .l.>ctrines of Christanity, about is,<kk. |aku,s, Tun^uses 

-< Jukahires. Next reaching f.ake Orinkino, they entered the .list.^t of 

Kolymsk, and traveling 150 n.ilesover an cntirelv uninha],i,e.i waste, fbr 

the n.ost part In.t little better than a ^r...,, n.>rass, (hev arrive.l at ,he 

Alase, Range, which constitutes the watershed between the river of that 

name an.l the Indigirka. 

At Sar.lach station ..n the ..1 of Noven.ber, Wrangell luvn-.l (he first 
tKhngs of Matinschkin's salb arrival at his .les.ina.ion, and of .h.. prepa 
-t.ons be was there n.aking fbr ,he expedition. Crossing a low ran.^e 
of hdls which divi<le the waters ofthe Alasei tron. ,l,e KoUuk., thev n- 
.W a, the latter river on the 6,h, a, the .own of Sre.ine K..lvn,si:, the 
oftcal headquarters of the .listric. Here a .lav was spent in pr.Hurin.. 
the heavy fur clothing necessary f.,r ,l,e eol.ler region ,l,ev wcae hasten" 
-"g .0, though .he teniperature was lar from genial where thev wer.- 
the thermometer ranging on the .lay of tluar arrival (Von) ,;o .0',, ],,' 
low .en.. At length on the ,yst of October, on the banks of thc'on.o- 
Ion, having their last trip .>f ,85 miles .,n lu.seback, they .dadly 





exchan<,.ccl that .ncans of travel for the doK-sledgcs of the country, a.ul 
reached Lower Koly,„.sk two .lays I.ter. Here they wintered to recu- 
perate and prepare for the exploring expedition in the sprin-. Tlie 
Kolyma at this point is usually frozen over heforc the middle of Septem- 
l>cr, and so continues tuUil June. Durinj,^ the three summer months, the 
sun remams for fifty-tvvo days constantly above the horizon, hut so near 
>t tliat he gives but little heat, and may usually be gazed upon with the 
naked eye w.thout serious inconvenience. The inhabitants are very jeal- 
ous ot the distinction of the seasons, and insist that it is spring when the 
sun becomes visible at noon, though the thermometer is usually 35" be 
low zero at night; and autumn begins with the freezing of the "river 
when the thermometer often points to 47^^. But visitors are content to 
d.vule the year into nine months of winter, and three of summer. In 
June the temperature sometimes rises to 73°, but before the close of 
July .t sinks to the genial warmth of a pleasant autumn d.-v in more 
favored climes. In January the thermometer goes down . . 65" below 
zero, thus showing a range of 137" in five months. Clear days are 
very rare .n winter, vapors and fogs almost constantly prevailing ^ And 
yet the climate is not unhealthy; catarrh and ophthalmia are conimon, cs. 
pecally in the foggy period, but scurvy and other dangerous diseases are 
very rare. 

It was the 3<1 of March, .S21, before they set out for Cape Schela-^s- 
I<o>. 1 be mtervening coast is uninhabited, the Russians makin-^ occa- 
^>nal hunting excursions as n.r as the Baranow Rocks, .uul the 
Ichuktchi, from the other side, to the greater Baranow River, while the 
unsubdued Tchuktchls, with their numerous herds of reindeer, roan, over 
the nuervening moss-covered plains, and are an object of dread to those 
who have occasion to cross their territory. Reaching Sucharnoi 
Island - latitude 6y" 31', longitude .61°. ^'-at the mouth of the 
cast branch of the Kolyma, on the 5th they made their final arran-a^- 
ments for the trip. There were nine dog-sledges with their drivers; a>ul 
tlic ecpupuK-nts were as follows: A tent of reindeer skin, witi, a skele- 
ton frame of ten poles, and the necessary cooking utensils; a bear-skin 
apiece to he on, and a double coverlet of reindeer skin fo,- each pair- the 


outer clothinj, of each comprised a f\„- shirt, or kan.lcia, an overcoat or 
outsKle wrapper of double fur, called a kuchlanka, fur-lined boots, a fur 
cap and j,doves of reindeer skin, with some changes of linen. Each per- 
son was supplied with a gun, filty cartridges, a pike, a knife, and the 
-ncans of .f.iking fire. The instruments were tw.. chronometers, a sec- 
onds' watch, a sextant and artificial horizon, a spirit thermometer, three 
a.nnuth con.passes_one having a pris>„-two telescopes, and a measur- 
-ng iMie. The provisions for each ,ness of five for one month were .00 
11.S. of rye biscuits, 60 lbs. of meat, 10 lbs. portable soup, 3 lbs. tea, 4 lbs 
candy, 8 lbs. grits, 3 lbs. salt, 39 rations of spirits, 13 lbs. tobacco, and 
smoke<Iy..^W« equal to 1,000 herrings. The food provided for the do^s 
consisted of frozen and dried fish of difibrent kinds equal to 8,150 dried 

Each sledge carried about 900 lbs. avoirdupois, besides the driver 
I he whole was so carefully covered and tied down with thon.^s and 
straps that nothing could be displaced or injured in the event of a'^sled-.e upset. The driver sits about mi.lvva^, holding on by a thon.r 
wh.c!i runs from end to ..,,\ of the sledge, and carryu.g in the odier hand 
a long staff with a prod or spike at one ^n.\ and small I>ells at the other which, an.l his voice, he .Inves an.l guides his team, and which he' 
uses also as a support in an emergency. The six provision sled-^es ear- 
ned most of the stores, and were to return as soon as unloaded; but a 
portion was also placed on the traveling sle.lges of tiie explorers as a 
.ncasure of precaution. The latitude of the islaml was found to be 69- 
3.', and the longitude 161" 44', and the thcrmonaeter, at noon, showed 
hall a degree below zero. On the morning of March 6, ,821, they 
started for the lesser P.aranow Rock, tvventy-four miles distant, and ar- 
nvcdata hut erected by Capt. Billings, some thirty-three years before, 
which ihey found in a good state of preservation, but filled with snow 
and .ce. Dislodging the boards which formed the roof, they cleared 
tlK' hut in half an hour, but it proved only large oiough to accommo<late 
lour persons. The j.arty at this time consisted of Lieutenant Wrangell, 
tlie mate, Kosmin, and nine drivers. Seven were housed in the lent."' It 
was found that their observations corresponded with the careful surveys 


i I'; 





of Capt. nillinprs. On their way they had scvn tin- woodiii tower 
erected hy Lieut. Laptew, in 17,^59, at the incuth ..f the Kolyma. 

Tile next day, witli the tiiermonieter at jo helow zero,at noon, thev 
readied tlie vicinity of the -reater iJaranow Kock, havin- made ai.oiil 
twenty-five miles. Here they saw the enormous masses of noticed 
by Sarytschew, some of which looked like ruins of vast huildinj^-s, and 
others, colossal fi<,'ures of men and animals. On the Stli, Iiavin-- made 
about twenty miles, with the thermometer n.nirin^- from fom- to eleven 
degrees lower than at noon of the day before, they pitched liie teni on 
the bank of a small stream of .rood water, beyond which no Russian 
had penetrated since the ill-fated expedition of Schalarow. Here also 
they erected a depot of provisions for the return trip. This consisted 
of four ])osts (h-iven into the snow, on which was placed a rou-h box 
made of driftwood at a hei-rht „f nine feet. Tn this were p'aced the 
stores, covered with wood and snow. The tent was twelve feet wide at 
the bottom, and ten feel lii-h at the center; and around the central lire, 
with their feet toward it, and their Ixxlies radiatin- from it like the 
spokes ot a wheel, they lay down to sleep, and i^rcnerally rested ell. 
Risin<r :it six they were ready to start at nine, and usually made their 
day's journey of twenty miles in eij,rht hours, includin,t,r stoppajres fo, 
observations. At ni<,rht they laid the sledges bottom upward, and pomvd 
water on the runners to form an ice-coating, l)y the help of wiiich thev 
could glide more smoothly over the snow, the drivers always making a 
special effort to keep on the snow to preserve the smoothness of the 

On the (jtli they made only twenty miles, a severe snowstorm ex- 
hausting the dogs, and the next day their route lay over the sea ice at 
the distance of a few hundred yards from the shore. As far as the eve 
could reach they could see nothing ])ut a level sheet of snow, which made 
traveling much easier for the dogs, l)ut very monotonous for the men. 
They halted early to make observations for ihe longitude, which was 
ascertained to be 166° 11', and to erect another depot of provisions. 
At noon on the nth, a mile from the coast, tlie latitude was ascertained 
to be 69" 30', the longitude 166" 27'. The temperature falling to 

5 t 




37" hulow zero, it became necessary to protect the (lo<rs l,y clothing 
their bodies and feet, while the s.iow became less smooth, and thus the 
progress of ih,- animals was ,lo„bly hin.L^rcd, so that they were able to 
make- only fifteen miles. The travelers had now reached the crreat Ha- 
raiiicha, where the coast jrradually rises as it trends to the north. In the 
distance, to tlie south and southwest, could be seen the hazy outline of 
some mountains, and f. the north the white <rlint of a line of ice hum- 
mocks. Observations 'became dilHcult and uncertain, the instruments 
bcin- alFected by the intense ct.ld, and at a temperature 36" below zero, 
uvrc discontinued. On the I3th they encampe.l, after a journey of sixteen 
miles, at tiie foot of a hill in latitude 69" 38', and lon^dtude 167^' 43', 
with tiic temperature at 29". Here was <leposited another lot of pro' 
visions. At noon of the 13th they were 5' farther north, and at the foot 
of a low bluir they saw a Tchuktchi hut, which had tlie appearance (,f 
havin- been recently occupied. About three miles farther on they en- 
tcrc.l the strait lyin- between the mainland and tiie Sabadei Island of 
Schalarow, in the middle of whicii they fell in with several Tchidvtchi 
huts, built of drift larch wood, in latitude 69" 49' ajul lonjritude i6S° 
4'. At no,m of the 14th, in latitude 69^53', they saw from the top 
of a hill which tiiey ascended for the purpose, a stretch of open water in 
the distance, extendin- east and west as far as the eye could reach, with 
-real hummocks of ice to the north, which they had at first supposed 
vvas lan<l. Within two miles they identified Laptew's Sand Cape, in 
lon-itude 16S ', where the low, Hat coast gives way to the more elevated 
surface. At the end of a journey of twenty miles they made a fourth 
and last deposit, and dismissed the last of their provision sledges. 

There now remained Wrangell, Kosmin, and three drivers, and their 
point of departure was now 69" 58' by 168° 41'. They gave the 
dogs a (lay's respite, and on the i6th of March they proceeded toward 
the hills of the east, but after making thirty-five miles they were com- 
pelled t.) hail for the night among some ice hummocks. Finally, on the 
lyth, having traveled some eighteen miles, they reached the northwest 
point of C'ape Sclielagskoi, with ice hummocks and icebergs all around. 
Pushing on for live hours longer, during which they had only made live 


milt-s, oviT hummncks, ;in)Uii(l l)er,<,'s, tliroujj^h loosi' snow, and n<,'litin[^ 
("or fviM V loot of the way, they reached a sheltered cove and encanipe<l 
for tlie \\\'^h\. Here they had the jLjood fortune to find some drift- 
wood, and l.nildinj,' a rousiiifr lire— a privile<re they had not enjoyed 
for some days—they recruited their stren,<>:th, with tlie .Scheia<,'skoi tow- 
erini;- west of them to the iicifjhi. of 3000 feet. 

Willi only three days' provisions remaining,', Wran<jcli and Kosmin, 
ieaviuL,'- one sledije fiehind to await their return, proceeded to test, as fin- 
as mi<,'ht he possil)Ie, the theory of Admiral James Bnrney, recently ad- 
vanced in ICn-rland, He conjectured that an isthmus mi<,rht l)e found ex- 
tending- from Schela<,rskoi to the main land of America, north of Uehr- 
inji^'s Strait. I[avin<^- ^hmic ten miles east from the camp, at noon of tlie 
18th, they Ibund the latitude to he 70" 3', and seven miles farther on, 
with twenty-four miles of coast in view to the east, the main trend «.f ijie 
land was southeast, and therefore not confirmatory of nnrney's views. 
Namint,' the farthest point seen Cape Kosmin, in honor of his compan- 
ion, and markinj^ the limit they had reached by a can-n on a hill, in lati- 
tude 70" i' and longitude 171" 47', on tiie bank of a stream signifi- 
cantly named the Return, Wran<,'ell with his three companions returned 
to camp. They had traveled 341 miles since leaving,' Snchanioi Island 
—an averap^c of twenty miles a day. They erected a memorial cross at 
the cape, and set out on the retuin trip the next morniny. They reached 
Staduchin's Wolok (porta<,fe) three miles from camp, but farther inland 
than the route previously taken, and at noon were at 69" 44' by 170' 
47', and to a cape three miles away in a southwest direction, Wrant^all 
<,^ave the name of his midshipman'Matinschkin, then absent on a nii-^^ion 
of peace and inquiry amon<:j the Tchuktchis. Next dav they made 
across Tschaun Hay to Sabadei Island, and late in the eveninj^ of the 
2 1st reached their fourth depot of provisions — none too soon, for thev 
had used U[i all they had taken with them, h proved their salvation, 
havinc: escaped the <lcpredations of foxes and wolverines, b\- wliich the 
other three were successively found to lia\e been rilled. To add to tlirir 
disappointmiMit, no supplies were found at Sucharnoi Island, as ordered, 
and the hungry travelers — men anil dogs — had to wend their way to 



Lower Koly.nsk, svIkmv llu-y ar,ivc-,l ,.„ ,ho, l.avin,. l.v„ ..I.s.nt 
Ufmiy.iwu days, the- (wo without Too,!. 

'>^'- '••"■".I «np, as, was 6j7 ,nilcs, or a,, avc-ra^e ofncarlv ihir- 
ly-oM. ,n,k-s a .lay lor tl,c twcUy-onc .lays actually consunu..! i„ 

On the last , lay of March Wran^^cll was rcjoincl l.y Matinschkiu 
who ha.l hccM. well receivcl l.y the Tchuktchis, an.l pro.nisc.l a kin.l re- 
ception whenever the expe.lition shoul.l reach their settlements. They 
l.^.'l never seen or hear.l of a lan.l to the north of their coasts, an.l here 
■^'^■^^n Unrney's theory faile.l of support. He ha.l left [..nver K..lyniKk 
-.the ,6th ..f March, accompanied ],y an eccentric British naval ..Ihcer 
C'aplan, jolm Dun.las Cochnuie-sunuuneU "The I'e.leslrian Traveler"' 
'iH'n on his fam.n.s trip an.nn.l the w.,rl.l-a Cossack servant an.l 'a 
.h'l^i't uuerpreter, an.l in f.,ur .lays arrive.l at Fort ()str.>wn..i, where an 
^".nnal fair is hel.l f.,r tra.lin,^^ with the Tchuktchis. This fort comprises 
:i k-u- hnts snrr..nn.le.l hy a palisa.le, an.l is huilt .,n an isla.ul in the 
lesser Aniuj River, in latitu.le 68 ' an.l lon-itu.le njG' ,./. 

On the 3ist a caravan of Russian merchants arrive.l with 135 pack- 
Imrscs I.Kule.l with commo.lities suitahle f.,r the Tchuktchi tra.le. " These 
ueret..hacc...l,ea.lsof various an.l hardware, the last cmsistino- 
mostly 01 hatchets, knives, an.l kettles, with other culinarv utensils, hi 
si.les some smu-de.l, very si<r„incantly calle.l hv the Tchuktchis, 
"w:l.l-n,akin,^-water"--.a much n, appn.priate name than the French 
"water-..i:iitl," i^iven it in the earliest peri.,.l of Iun-.,pean a.-.,uaintance 
wilh,.s,lelusive stimnlatin,^^ p.nvers. IJut th.,u,^di unfortunately 
^H.inanUe.1 with its frenzyin.L;- properties, the n,is.^M.ide,l ahori^nnes will 
i.-l hesitate to exchan,i,^e their fm-s to the value of two hun.lred 
'l<.ll:ns f..r a few Ix.ttles ..f ha.l costin,^. perhaps tw., dollars at^oiitsk. 

IJesi.Ies this race, the fair is visitc.1 hy the other native trihes within 
n nulins .,f six h.m.lre.l miles-the Jnkahiri, T.m,t,, Tchnwan.i an.l the 
knraki -together with a few scattered Russians, for wh.,se hen.'llt the 
"•^•'vhants hrino- :, small stoek of tea, su-;,,-, el.,th and To trade 
m this last with the ah..ri,rin..s i. duly !orhidd.-n hv the Russian c^ov- 

11 ! 

^ N 




eminent, luit incaiiH are easily louiul to evade tlie law, ami the pdor 
sava;;es are only the more heavily lleeied because of the eontrahand 
charaeli-r llnis ^'iven to the tralKie. 

The i-onunndities hroiij^ht lo this market hy the Tehuktchis consisted 
chielly of \\\c furs of various animals intli;,fenons to iheir tonntry and the 
opposite shores o|" North America, hesiiles the skins of hears, reindeer, 
seals and walruses, as well as walrus teeth. Most of these they barter 
for with the American tribes, ^iviiii^ them in exehan^'e tlu- lob.ueo 
and trinkets which they procure from the Kussians, The ehii-f arliiles 
of their own manufacture are sledfjfe-rumurs made of whalebone, cloth- 
ing; made from reindeer skins, and seal skin bail's. IJefore the open- 
inij of the fair, a basis of barter is settled by the principal personaj^es 
on both sides. The value of i^oods exchanj(ed annually was estimated 
at this time at about $1^0,000. The Russians make a profit of about 
60 pi'r lent. on what the i^oods cost them at liie homt- market, and 
the 'I'chuktchis about x^iHt pi'r cent, on wliat thev .u'ive for the ftns to 
the American aborit,nnes. HiU tiu' laltei' are several months on the 
road, while the Russians are only a few weeks from bomi'. The lair 
lasts only tinre days. The Russians are vehement and noisy; the 
Tehuktchis calmly wait for wliat they consi<lei- an eciuitable olFer, which 
they at once accept. I'he noise, press and bustling- activity on the 
j)art of the too career Russians, together with the jarj^on of mixed 
Russian, Tchuktchi and jakut words, in which they proclaim the value 
of their wares, creates an indescribable confusion and uproar, in 
marked contrast with the silent composure always maintained by tiie 

Here Matinschkin took occasion to introduce his mission to the 
notice of the chiefs of the Tchuktchi. These were Makamok and 
Leutt, from the Bay oT St. Lawrence, Waletka, whose mmierous herds 
of reindeer crop the <:^reen moss of the plains to the east of Cape 
SciielacTskoi, and Ewraschka, whose tribe of nomads roams the lowlands 
round the Tchaun Hay. lie explained to tiiem that the miu^bty Czar 
of all the Russias wished to ascertain if his ships could reach his 
Tchuktchi friends by the northern sea, and brinj^ llieiu the wares they 



lunlid l.y tlut r.M.U- i„ j.,eaUT ;<l;in<v, .-.n.! Mt ,. rhcipiT rali-. I le 
iM.|'«iinl uliHlur i„ |,n,si-niti..M <,f UmI .Irsi-,, tl.f ..crvaiils of Hk^ lO.u- 
IKHM ...ul.l ,vly ,.„ a tVa-n.lly .v.cptiun an...,,- tlu-i,- ,.c<,,,lc, a„.l ,„„. 
ii..v lu, ||k„, s„cI, supplies as they ,ni-l,t „ee.l, l.y payi„jr f,„- ,1,,. same 
in Slid, ru„u„.,<lities as the Tchiiktchi we,e w..„t t.. p.iivhase. 

'I'm all llirse ..vertures, amm.paiiied l.y p,vse„ls ki,„|lv s.„t ihi.„, |,y 
"'^' i:.npn<.,, tlu- chiefs ;.avc thei,- willi,,,;,. asse„l, pn„,",isi„j. that ihc 
cxp.(li,l„„ w..„l,l reedve ihei,- o„clial supp..,i vvhe„eve.' a„.| wherever it 
mi.Lrht he lecjuired. 

Lemi ieceive.1 hi,,, with -real .,.r,Iialityal his (er,t, whe,-e he par- 
tonk of his h,.spitality which, however, he vv.ul.l have,, ;^la.l tu dis- 
pense with, a,ul wheie he was snllbeated l.y the finnes'^of sli„kl„jr 
oil .m.l the evapi.ratic, f,„m six dirty, and alm(.st naked people. His ilN 
concealed squinnishness excited the hilarity of the wife and dau-hter of 
his l,, who we,e l.nsily enj^,-ed decoratin- their pe,s<.ns with niany heads in honor of his visit. Makom<.l invite.l hi,,, to witness a 
sled-e-i-aee in which the three pi-ize.s were, a hlne fov skin, a heaver skin, 
;.nd a pair of walrus teeth. The spee.I of the ,eindeei-, and the dextcity 
of the drivers elicited his admiration, and the applause ..f t n.ultitudc 
was as sincere as it was well -deserved. This was snpple,nente<l i.y a 
foot-.ace, in which the contestants wo,e their usual heavy fur clothin-, 
hut seenied, nevei-theless, to run <.ver the course of „ea,ly nine miles, 
with as nuich ileetness as the li-ht-dad runners of ,n(.re -enial clinies.' 
Matinschkin „(.ticed that the Tchuktchi evinced a ,iuich hi{,rher appred- 
atioi, of the previous performance, which is ,„ harmony with what niay 
also he ohserved amon- civilized men. At the close of the -a,nes, spec- 
l;itois and peitormeis were entertained with princdy hospitality at a 
MHct of l.oiled reindeer, cut i,p in small pieces, and served in lai-e wooden 
lu.wls .list,-il,ute.l a,-ou„d over the snow. The <iuietness and -ood onler 
Mianifeste.l l.y the jieople who pa.took of this wide-spread repast, elidted 
thr a(linirati(.n of Matinschkin, who could not fail to contrast it with the 
joNlliii- and cnishin- and sul.dued (luarrdinj,^ which so often character- 
i/e puhlic l.aiKiuets in civilized communities. 

lis \is,ts \v 


e,v toiinally ivturned hy a party „f the Tchuktch 

h I i- 




on the followincr day, to the ladies oi which he presented red, 
white and lihie lieads, and for refreshments, some tea and candy; 
of the hitter onl}- did they partake, tea having no cliarms for 
the fashionable ladies of Northeastern Asia. Then they danced, if 
dance it may l)e called, where the feet and bodies are moved 
back and forth, without change of place or evolution of any kind, while 
the performers beat the air with their hands. In the next stage of the 
performance, three of the most competent dancers signalized themselves 
in a \'ery energetic and complicated series of evolutions — dignified with 
the title of the national dance of the TchuktchI, in which jumpings, 
grimaces and contortions formed the chief attraction — until forced by ex- 
haustion to desist. Thereupon it was whispered in the ear of Matinsch- 
kin, by the interpreter, that the etiquette of the occasion required him to 
give to each of the three distinguished artists, a cup of brandy and some 
tobacco, which was accordingly done, when the whole partv took leave 
of the Russian, charging him to remember to return the call in their own 
country. The chiefs also made him a formal visit, to renew their assur- 
ances of friendliness, and disposition to forward the cxplcation of the 
Icy Sea. Leaving on the 2Sth, he rejoined his chief, as has been said, at 
Lower Kolymsk, on the 31st of March, 1831. Dr. Kyber, the remain- 
ing officer of the expedition, had arrived from Irkoutsk the day after 
Wrangcll's departure on his first sledge journey ; but was so feeble that 
he was not able to take part, even in tiie second, for which they now 
began to make preparations. 

■ ^t "^ • ■'■■^ 



The outfit for this journey was substantially the same as for the pre- 
vious one, with some few improvements and additions. The most im- 
portant of these was a portable boat made of skins for crossing open 
cbainels in the ice, a crowbar for breaking through the ice when nec- 
essary or desirable, and whalebone shoeing for the sledge-runners to be 
attached where the loose snow or the crystals left by salt water overflow, 
made the passage diflicult. To the instruments were added a dipping' 
needle and sounding-line. The traveling sledges were six, and the pro- 
vision sledges fourteen, besides two sledges belonging to the merchant 
Bcrcshnoi, who had asked to be permitted to accompany the expedition, 
making in all a train of twenty-two sledges, with 340 dogs. The load 
of each sledge at the outset was nearly i,,oo lbs. avoirdupois. Wrangell's 
immediate companions were Matinschkin, Reschetnikow— a retirecrscr- 
geant who had joined him at lakoutsk, and who some twelve years be- 
fore had accompanied Hcdcnstrom in his exploring expcditi(,u to the 
New Siberia Islands— and the sailor Nechoroschkow, who had accom- 
panied him from St. Petersburg. 

On the 7th of April the start was made, as before, from Sucharnoi 
Island, and the first halt was at Billings' hut near the lesser Baranow Rock, 
whence a more northerly direction was taken than on the first jourtiey.' 
A mile and a half from the siiore, on the second day, they encountered 
.nuch difficulty in threading their way among the ice-hummocks, but 
setting clear after three hours' labor, they found themselves five miles 
n-n.n shore on a level plain tmbrokcn as far as the eye couhi reach, save 


1 j 

. '; 

:'. IS 

' .1 
1 f 

':■ 1! 

' '4 




wlierc an occasional small hummock stood like a rock above the surface. 
Having made seven miles farther, the traveling sledges stopped to await 
the coming-up. Here they encountered an enormous hear which they 
succeeded in killing, mainly through the dexterity and courage of one of 
the Cossack drivers. 

When the i)rovisi()n sledges arrived, they reported two of their 
numhei- missi.ig, having had their sledges upset among the hum- 
mocks. Three sledges were quickly unloaded and sent back to 
their relief, and in two hours the rescuers and the rescued re- 
joined the otiiers umnjured, but tired and cold. It was therefore deemed 
advisable to camp for the night where they were. Wrangell's tent was 
accordingly pitciied in the center with four smaller tents belonging to 
the merchant and the wealthier drivers, round about, the whole being 
encircled by the twenty-two sledges, with the dogs tethered on the int 
side. On the ptlr, one provision sledge returned homeward; and at noon 
they found themselves in latitude 69° 58', with the greater Baranow 
Rock to the southeast. By night they had made twentv-eigiit miles, 
reaching latitude 70° 12' 30". On the 10th, after a journey (if twenty- 
seven miles, they camped in a small bay on an island which they judged 
to be the most eastern of the Bear Islands, though they found the lati- 
tude only 70° 37', while Leontjcw, in 1769, had determined it to be 
7i"5S',and the longitude iGz' 25'. VVrangell named it the Four- 
Pillar Island from the remarkable pillars of granitic porphyry, the tallest of 
which measured forty-eight feet in height and ninety-one in circumference. 
The form was somewhat like a gigantic human Ixxly with a turban on 
its head, but without arms or legs. Finding here an 'abundance of drift- 
wood, they concluded to remain one day, which was devoted to making 
observations and collecting a store of firewood. 

Two provision sledges returned from this point, when 0.1 the 12th 
of April our travelers set out toward the northeast, and at n.jon Ibund 
themselves 5' north and 4 ' east of the island, having made between six 
and seven miles. All this time the temperature kept a few degrees above 
zero, usually between seven and fourteer.. Now they encountered the 
salt covering on the ice surface, which made progress slow, :,m,| a thick 


A SALT MOOR. g^j. 

fog, which ma,le then- clothing wet a„,I „„c™f„„„bk., B„eh circm. 
s a,K.o,, ,, ,„ ,„„icatc.l ,,„ :,pp,.„„ch ,„ „„en „:„„■; a,„, .„ „a,l .„ their 
;„,, the w,„d h,ew a ,alo, threatening the .ii.nption „f the iee. 
. • , ^ ^'"' ^'''''*''' "^ •■' linmmodv thirty feet hi.rh, and 

:::,. ;; ^-7': :!'""^' -™- - ^^ -■-'> "-.v wejah. t;,,;.:;, 

vate, ht f,„- .lr,nk„,. and eookin,. The ten, wa» torn, an,l w„nl,. have 
>oe„ swept away l,y the win.l ha.l they a„t ,ee„re<l it by extra fa*ni„„ 
... t e hnntmook. By four in the ,n„n,in,. the stornt ha.l ™bside<l, and 
.he temperature rose to .3". By ^^^ ,„„ ^,,^,^„„,_^ 

rnnnersan., walKin, heside the sled^eMhey continued to aavaLe, hnt 
the surface was ,0 ron.h that i, took seven hours to ,nake nineteen „,ilc, 
witde the provision sledges were away beltind, out of sight In the 
evennrg the temperature again sank to 7", but rose on the morning of 
A,>. .4 .0 ,8", when thcy again took the road. Eight miles further 
on hey saw hrce seals, which, however, got safely away to their hole, 
... .1 e .ce. Havmg traveled twenty miles, they camped at 7," 3,' by 

•SS -'.....d sent back three more sledges. I i ^ 

They now adopted the plan of trav'eling by night, and started after 
sunset on Apnl ,5, hut after traveling nine miles they found them.,elve, 
...;vhat Vrangel, calls a deep sal. moor, with the fee five i„che 
*,ck, and s„ rotten that it could be cut through with a common knife 
Hastemng on, of „» dangerous place two miles to the southeast, they 
fon.,d the ,ec sntooth an.l so.ntd an,I fourteen inches thick, and the sea 
■lopth twelve fath„m.s. They camped at ■,.' ^y ,,y ,630 ,, „„j 
»pc... the n,ght in great alar.n, as a high northern wiu.l so li.ated the 
"1.0.. sea somewhere .0 the north, that the ice benealb the^r fee, was 
made to vd.rate by .he disturbance of the water. Leaving this camp, 
W.angell w,tb two sledges only proeecled fo.n- miles farther, when I 
"......1 . .e ,ce so broken by lissures, and so unstable, that he eonelude.1 to 

seek s.afety u, quitting the neighborhood. The highest point reache<l was 
7. 4.? , a. an air line distance of ,.4 miles from the lesser Baranow 



made al)oiit thirteen miles to tl 

limit, they encamped for tli 

10 south-.southea'^t i 

le n 

i^ht of the 1 6th of April 

rom t!ic 
in a circular hoi- 




lo^v foi-med by ice hills. At noon the next day they were at 70° 30' 
hy ^63" 39'; and resuming their journey after sunset toward the east 
they soon fell in with a labyrinth of hu.nmocks, with what they con- 
ceived to be an island i.i the distance. Breaking througii the intervening^ 
obstacles by the free use of the crowbar for three hours, they reached the 
foot of the towering mass, which proved to be only an ice hill of uru.sual 
dmiens.ons. Here were carefully deposited the surplus provisions, thus 
rchcvmg eight sledges, which, with their drivers, in charge of Ser-t 
Reschetnikow, were sent on to Nishni Kolymsk. There remained ten 
persons including the merchant Bereshnoi, who wished to see the adven- 
ture through to the end, with six sledges and provisions for men and do-^s 
for fourteer. days. On the iSth at noon the point reached was 71" 15" 
by 164° 4', and at night they encamped about 600 yards from a recent 
ice fissure, in the shelter of a large block of ice, still moving in a south- 
easterly direction along the margin of the fissure, with the clefts becom- 
mg more and more numerous. 

^ Having made thirty miles they halted, at sunrise, on the 20th, at 70° 
56', by 164° 49'. In the evening they ferried themselves across a wide 
fissure on a floating block of ice, and at a distance of eighteen miles 
from the halting place of the morning, they sighted the greater Baranow 
Rock, about sixty miles away to the southeast. Ile,.^ while on a short 
excursio.i from the main party, in pursuit of a bear, Wrangell and 
Matmschkin, in two unloaded sledges, got among the breaking ice, and the utmost difficulty and haste succeede<l in rejoining their compan- 
ions on the stronger ice, at 70° 46', by 165' 6'. After resting for the 
night they resumed their course to the southeast on the 31st, but findino- 
the hummocks impassable t<. their broken sledges, they returned to the 
same place, and rested on the next day, which was Easter Sunday, and 
which they observed as nearly in accordance with the customs of their 
country as they found practicable. They made a block of ice do service 
as an altar, before which they burnt the only wax taper they possessed, 
while Bereshnoi read tiie prescribed service, and the Cossacks a.ul 
sledge-drivers sang the customary hymns. On the 23d one of the drivers 
was suddenly takcn^sick, causing a <Ictention of another day, which was 



f I 






devotcl to repairing sledges, with the temperature at iS° above, and 
the stiUncss relieved from time to time hy the thunder of crashing ice in 
the distance. It was now determined to go back, and having" made 
thirty-seven miles due west, they encamped at 70° 39', by 163° 39', with 
Four Pillar Islands twenty-two miles to the southwest. Then turning 
north they fell in with the tracks of the sledges dismissed homeward, 
and having made twenty-eight miles, they halted in latitude 71" 4'. 

On the 36th, after eleven hours of dangerous traveling — Wrangell's 
eight dogs were once precipitated in the water, and he was saved from fol- 
lowing them only by the length of the sledge-they reached their depot 
of provisions, which they found intact, though numerous tiaces of bears 
and other animals were found on all sides of the ice hill. The next day 
they rested, and found the latitude to be7i° 2S'. During the night 
they were awakened by the barking of the dogs, and on'getting "up 
saw two bears, which they pursued without success until morning, leav- 
ing Wrangell a solitary guard over the camp. A third bear soon put in 
an appearance, and, after a moment of painful suspense to the beholder, 
scampered off, soon falling in with two of the 'mnters, by whom he was 
wounded, but without being prevented from making his escape. This 
fruitless night's hunt necessitated another day's rest; and on ^hc 29th they 
crossed their own tracks of April ist. They noticed three halos around 
the sun,and made over twenty-three miles before encamping, at 71° 26' 
by 162° 27'. Finding himself on the scene of Plcdenscrom's labors in 
iSio, Wrangell now concluded to direct his attention to the land they 
had seen from Four Pillar Islands. " The inhabited country to the north, 
as alleged by Tchuktchi and others," had failed to heave in sight, and 
he lost all hope of finding it on the present trip. Having made Uvcnty- 
four miles in a driving snowstorm, during which they tied the dogs of 
one sled to the end ..f the one preceding, so as not to become separated 
.n the thick darkness, and being guided only by the compass, they halted 
on the oiDcn ice plain, In.t were unable to pitch their tent or light a fire, 
thus spending the worst night they had experienced on the trip? 

On the 1st of May they reached a bay on the north side of Four Pil- 
lar Island after a journey of thirty miles in the continued darkness; show- 


ins the accuracy of compnss-,.uida„cc. Two blazinj, fires which they 
soon -.ncled on the lan.l, restored their spirits, and on the ..ornins of 
the 3d, they were re,.aled by the notes of some linnets as they an- 
proached the secon.l island of the ,roup_the first cheerful sound they 
had heard since taking to the ice. On the 5th they examined the west- 
ernmost of the Rear Islands, and found that the group comprised in all 
S.X >s ands, including the one they had previously named Four Pillar 
Island. Proceeding south-southwest on the 6th, they reached Cape 
krestowoi, having traveled only twenty-five miles, and enjoyed the lux- 
ury of resting under a roof, and within walls. Provisions runninc. low 
and the season being well advanced, it was now deter.nined to maL the' 
hest of their way to Nishni Kolymsk, which was reached on the zoth of 
May, after an absence of thirty-four days, and a journey of 700 miles 
w<th the same dogs, and without serious accident of any k,nd to men, 
dogs, or ijrovisions. 


The scarcity of provisions at Nishni Kolymsk rendered it necessary 
for Wrangell to make special efforts to secure supplies for the expedition. 
F.shn.g parties were dispatched under Sotnik Tatarinow, Wran<.ell's 
Cossack sledge-driver, in whose intelligence and experience he'^had 
earned to place great confidence. A party was placed in charge of 
Alatmschkm to survey the coast from the Kolyma to the Indicirk-, A 
small dwelling and depot of provisions was to be erected by another 
party under Sergeant Reschetnikow, at the mouth of the Great Bara 
n.cha River. Dr. Kyber, who had now recovere.l, was at his own re- 
quest to explore the banks of the Greater and Lesser Aniuj. A fourth 
section under Wrangell's imme.liate oversight, was to survey the mouths 
01 the Kolyn... The mate Kosmin, Wrangell's companion on the first 
sledge journey, had been occupied during the second, in making a laroe 
hoat or shallop, which was successfully launched on the 33d of June and 
ngged with sails and anchor from those which had been used by Cap 
tan, Bdhngs a generation before. A small boat had also been con- 
structed, cajjablc of holding three persons. 

n i 




The whole party now embarked in the shallop, but were pre- 
vented by contrary winds from making much headway. With 
four oars they laboriously made their way three miles down the 
river, when, in inakin<j a landing, one of the dogs fell overboard, 
and becoming entangled in a rope, would have been strangled 
had not Matinschkin sprung to the rescue. Unfortunately in 
cuttnig the rope he cut his own thumb so severely that Dr. Kvber 
thought it migiit easily become dangerous; and Wrangell insisted that 
patient and physician should return to Nishni Kolymsk, also instructing 
them to explore the Aniuj together as soon as the wound became healed. 
On the loth of July Wrangell and Kosmin, with their companions, ar- 
i'.ved at the Tschukotschie River, whither the fishing parties had been 
sent forward, ami where they were glad to see that success had crowned 
their efForts. Here they landed, proposing to make the coast journey to 
the Indigirka on horseback, and while waiting for the arrival of the 
Jakut o'.vners and the horses, they succeeded in killing three reindeer. 
With only five animals— all that could be procured— two to serve as 
pack-horses and three for himself and two companions, Kosmin under- 
took to traverse the desert waste between the two great rivers, and 
started off on the 14th of July. His companions were a Jakut and a 
Cossack, and they took with them two light canoes for crossing streams. 
Wrangell occupied himself with determining some positions on the 
river, the north being still blocked with ice. On the 27th of July, while 
absent in the middk' of the river with the two companions who alone 
remained with him, the tent on shore took fire and was destroyed before 
they could reach it. Wrangell had, however, the good fortune to save 
his papers and instruments; but the survey of the Kolyma was aban- 
doned, and he returned to Nishni Kolymsk. He found Matinschkin and 
Kyber ready to start for the Aniuj, as previously agreed, and under the 
advice of the latter he retired to the more genial climate of Sredne 
Kolymsk, in the hope of being relieved from the rheumatism, which for 
some time had been growing more troublesome, and now threatened to 
unfit him for prosecuting his future sledge journeys. 

After spending nearly seven weeks among the hospitable Jakuts, near 


Sredne Kolymsk, Wrangell, much invlj^oratcd by the repose and kincily 
treatment he had enjoyed, proceeded down the river in his shallop, arriv- 
■ng at N.shni Kolymsk on the of September. Here he found Res- 
chetn.kow returned fn.n his mission to the Haranicha River, wnere he 
had completed the recjuired buiUlings. Soon Nechoroshkow joined 
then, from the fishin, .rounds, and reported exceptional .access in that 
wMdertakm,. On the nth of October Matinschkin and Kyber, and a 
week later Kosmin, arrived in safety from their respective expeditions, 
and the whole party was thus re-united for the winter at Nishni Kolymsk 







In prcparinjir for the third journey, VVranijcll and liis party encoun- 
tered a very serious difficulty. An epidemic broke out amonjf the do<rs, 
in which four-fifths of the whole stock perished. Ry great exertion they 
were able to procure forty-five dojrs instead of the ninety-six Wran<?cll 
had (icsif^ned to use on his third trip to the north. The Cossacks, who 
were the fortunate owners of most of the do<^s tiiat had survived the 
epidemic, now volunteered, in conjunction with some of the other inhab- 
itants, to fit out twenty sledjjfcs, eat-h with twelve doj^s, for tlie use of the 
expedition. Wranfjcll now selected five traveling sledges, and ninetei !i 
to carry provisions, which last were to be sent back as soon as possible, as 
out of the whole number of dogs, amounting t^ nearly three hundred, 
only enough for the traveling sledges could be found which were fit 
to make the whole journey, His immediate companions for the trip 
were Matinschi-in, Kosmin and Nechorovvsky, Kyber being again pre- 
vented, very much against his wishes, liy the weak state of his health, 
from accompanying them. Wrangell proposed to make this journev a 
continuation of his former one by proceeding as directly as possible to the 
limit previously attained, and prosecuting his labors from that point. 

With forty days' provisions for the men, and thirty-five for the do'^s, 
they set out once more from Sucharnt)i Island on the 36th of March, 
1832, reaching the greater Baranow Rock on the next day. On the 3Sth, 
after clearing the rock, they directed their course toward the northeast 
for the intersection of 71° 30' wilh the meridian of Cape Schelagskoi, 

at a distance from the same of a'lout ninety miles. At a point about 





c^htcen .n.les .ast of tl. .i.„it of th.,us j..,..-..,, they .„ade the 
iMtcn.Ie.l deposit ..t'pn,visions on the 6th of April, an.l next .lay dismissed 
tl>elast th.rtecu of the provision, si. havin,. l.een already sent 
•-^'i^ -"> '>ne intennediate .leposit ..f provisions havin^ bee.. estal.lishe.l 
on .ho .St, at 70' ,,' l,y , ^' ,,,st of ,he ,nvatc-r Maranow Rock. M-,- 
t.Mschkn, was sent to ,i,o ....rthoast on the 6th, with live days' provi- 
sions an.l two sied,..s, and Wranj^ell and Kosmin set ont on the 7th 
w.lh the three remaining sledges and three days' provisions, toward tin' 
-•'^'-th parties ,0 .vf-n on .he ...h to the depot. No land had discovered hy ei.her p.ny. On .he , .,!. ,hev .-esumed their explo- 
-.H.a together towanl the nor.h, having fonnd hv .he p.evions short 
M-.,,s .hat the way was more open in that direction. The , ^.h was Snnday, which .hey devoted .0 rest, the nnld weather an,l hri-du 
sunslnne adding, to their enjoyment of the occasion. It was the i8th of 
Apnl before they a.-.-ived a. the limit reached hv Wran,.cll and Kosmin 
the y.h, newly.fonne.l hnmmocks, as well as the enlar<,cment of the 
1 ones, hein:^ the chief cause of this ^reat <lisparitv in the .-ate of pro- 
j^rcss. A sledj^e-driver was se.U hack with two compa.dons and a 
.louMe .can. of twenty-fonr do<,s, releasing, one sledge, which was used 
for .epa.r:n,g the others. A small <leposit of p,-ovisions was also made. 

Ti^eix we.-e now hut five men, with three sled<rcs a.ul two small tents, 
tlu. lar^.est tent havin.^ been turne.l over by Wrangell to the use of thJ 
inval.d. On the of April, havin- reached ^x^ ^z' by 3-^ 23' east 
of U,e ,<,n-eat IJaranow Rock, and .I,e increasing number oV new hrm- 
n.ocks ren.lerin,^. further pro^^ress ext,-e,nely dhBcnlt, it was detcrniined ' 
to .vlurn. They had about reached the limit of the shore ice of Sibe.-ia 
as .hey judged, but before turning their backs to the threatenin.' 
north, Matinschkin i,i a lightly-equipped sledge jn cecded six milc^s 
farther .0 the north, where ail fui-ther advance was stopped by the com- 
ple.e breaking up of the ice, and the near a,,p,-oach to the open water of 
th. Polar Sea. Jle here ^' beheld the icy sea breaking its fetters; 
."on. hehis of ice, raise.l by the waves into an almost vertical position, 
'Invn, against each other witi, a ..vmendous c.-ash, pressed downwanl 
by the force of th 

le foaming billows, and 

reappearmg agam on the sur- 





face, coverctl with the torn-up green mud which everywhere here forms 
the bottom, and which we Iiad so often seen on the hij,'hcst hummocks. 
On his return Mr. Matinschi<in found a great part of the track he had 
passed over already gone, and Large spaces whicii he had just traversed 
now covered with water." He had been gone six hours. Now striking 
to the west-northwest, they reacheil 72" 2' on the 24th, at a distance of 
151 miles in a straight line from the nearest land, the great Haranow 
Rf)ck, and about 2° 50' east of its meridian. Progress in this direction 
was stopped by the same obstacles as before, and it was now determined 
to make for the central depot of provisions. 

On the 4th of May at the distance of forty-six miles from Cape 
Schelagskoi, with a clear sky and an open horizon to the north and cast, 
extending twenty-nine miles, and no land in sigl they concluded that 
the "inhabited north country" was probably not to be found in the me- 
ridian of that cape, nor of the Baranow Rocks. Five days later they 
reached their provision depot, which they found uninjured, and resting 
one day for the refreshment of men and dogs, they started for Nishni 
Kolymsk. On the i6th of May, at Pochotsk, they met Lieutenant 
Anjou and party on their return to the Yana River from the islands of 
New vSiberia; and on the 17th arrived without serious disaster of anv 
kind, at Mishni Kolymsk, after an absence of fifty-three days, and a jour- 
ney of 7S3 miles. 


The only important expeditions of the summer of 1S22 were Matinsch- 
kin's journey across the Eastern Tundra, and Wrangell's own trip 
through the Hilly Tundra. They parted company on the 13th of July, 
at Pantelcjewka, a few miles north of Nishni Kolymsk, the proposed 
scene of Wrangell's exploration lying almost due north of that point, and 
Matinschkin's away east toward Tchaun Bay and Cape Schelagskoi. The 
'ntter was accompanied by the merchant Bereshnoi, who was bound on a 
trading journey to the Tchuktchis of Tchaun Bay, taking Ostrownoi on 
the way with the hope of securing an interpreter. v\rriving there on 
the 2 2d, they hired Mardowskij, a Tchuwanzian chief who under- 


stoo<I the Tchuktchi language, to accompany them. A week later they 
nrnvecl «t the Fedoticha River, on the confmes of the wide-spreading 
ttnulra.s. Ry this name are designated the mossy flats or vast plains border on the Arctic Ocean, chiefly in Siberia, but also alon^^ .he 
nor*.h coast of Europe. The word originated with the Finns, who" call 
these wastes tunturs. Th^ are of the same general character every- 
where, being great tracts of swamp-la.Hls, partly covered over with a layer of bog-moss, and partly with a dry snow-white coverin.. of 
rcMuleer-mossand dilFerent of lichens and similar Arctic vegetation 
There are no trees, or even shrubs, and it is only the reindeer that ren- 
ders these frightful wastes habitable for the hordes of aboriginal nomads 
A great portion of them can onl> be traversed in winter when fro.en 
over; and to these belong the tundras of Northern Siberia which retain a 
covering of snow throughout the year. 

On the 2d of August Matinschkin rejoined Wrangell, who had mean- 
tnne reached the buildings previously erected on the Great naranicha- 
and on the 12th crossed the three arms of that river in Kosmin's boat' 
On the 14th they met Kosmin himself, in the shallop, who had come to 
fish in those waters, accompanied by four companions. With his aid 
a l.ght boat was co.istructed for Matinschkin, who pushed forward on 
the 15th with Bereshnoi, the interpreter, three Jakuts, and sixteen horses 
On the 26th of August when they had about determined to abancfon the 
li.thcrto fruitless search for the Tchuktchi and turn back, they reached 
the Taunmeo River, and the ensuing day, on the other side, found 
aluMKlant as well as recent traces of that people, who, however, had all 
disappeared some short time before their arrival. 

Bereshnoi was now importunate to turn homeward, and proceedin-. 
..p the river until the first of September, they then turned their faces to 
the west for Nishni Kolymsk, striking the route of the Tchuktchi to the 
■n.nual fair, at Ostrownoi. On the 3d they were without food of any 
kind except a single wild duck which one of the Jakuts had killed un 


wii to the rest of the party. This h 

■saying: « There, take and eat it alo 

of us and you a 

e furtively ofltred to Matinschl 


you are very tired." The jrcnero 

ne; it is too little to do good to all 

us offer was, of cour 

"se, re- 




M ! 




fused, and the Jakut's duck was put into the kettle, the broth makinc. a 
rcfreshn.g, thouj,.h U.^^ht repast for all. On the 5th, after three days' fast- 
ing and jrreat labor in crossin- snow-covered lulls and ravines, they l-.y 
down at ni,,d.t on the bank of a stream, in which they exerted ti.eni- 
selves to place a net. xVIatinschkin ha.l sngj,.ested the kiUin.^^ of one 
of the horses, but this was overruled, as the [akuts declare.l that in 
the heated state of their blood the use of their flesh would cause serious 
:Ilness. Hopin-, and yet fearin- the downfall of tlieir hopes, they hesi- 
tated to draw the net next morning, and were delic^hted to find three 
large and several small fishes. They reached the Aniuj the same day 
anu found more fish than they could consume. The surplus they were' 
thoughtful enough to place as a deposit for some future travelers- and 
were rejoiced to learu, some months later, tliat the 5000 fishes they had 
thus taken the trouble to store, were found by some distressed wanderers 
and supplied them with food for a n.onth. And as if in direct retur-. tor 
then- thoughtfulness, they themselves found a similar deposit of clothin- 
which they much needed in the daily increasing cold. On the I3th they 
resumed their journey, and four days later arrived at a sn.all settlement 
where they rested. Math.schkin now concluded to devote the remainder 
of the season to a survey of the country from the Aniuj to Nishni 
Kolymsk, a of n-early 300 miles, and took his departure on the 
iSth. lie reached Molotkowo on the 25th, in the boat of his friend 
Karkni, by whom himself and Dr. Kyber had been hospitably enter- 
tamed the year before. Finally, on the r>tli of October, he reached 
^.shni Kolymsk, after an of eighty-six days since leavin- 
Pantelejewka. ° 


\\l!.VN,,KI.J,',s lOUKTII SI.,,;,,,;,,. „,n,-V.v 

."o, with Li„,„. A„j„.„ who... ho„.,^„anc,. we, ' . h '• "r," 
"... "l..ainc,I .he p,.„,„lse of nftoc. „ood te-un, s^ ' ' ""• 

K..,„n ..,,.o<, o„ ,, „eci.> e.po,„, wlh .„„ 1, . "^ T''^ 

l«l»...l», 1.. »s<:o«.i„ Joilnildy whether the.,. u ' 

lluv ha,l helbie ,ee„ TT , " "*^''' """ "'"«■■ 

"- - .."- isia,.., e.i.te., i„ thrw:;:.' "' """ ^^'"^""' "'"'-"• 

All preparations hciim made Wrmm.ll i- ■ i . , • 
*ctio„s, one ,„uler M-tH„r I, ■ ' ''" P""y'-'»" '«« 

-.... ,0 :;"■ : , ':'::-;:;r ": ";;"- '" - '■■™""- 

"■111, innabited country " hi flio L-.r « 
noitli. ^ '" ^"'' ^'-y >^ca to the 

patches ,Vo,n the ^oven^or-^encrnl o S ''"""''"- ^"^■ 

^'e<l'.^c.s. They,,cnh 1 , ^ '"' ""' "'"' '^^"^'^ ^^^^ 

AMC} it.ichod the buildin<.s the s-itdp n;,r!-. s • 
17 25^ •""'' "'S''^ '"Hi loinul the extra 



shelter very desirable, the thermometer having sunk to 42" below zero. 
Three clays were consumed in final ,M-eparation, repackin-,^ the nineteen 
remaining sledges with what they had brought along, and what had 
been previously stored in the buildings. The Ibtn-tii day was so stormy 
that they could not set out, and it was therefore tiie 17th of Mmcii before 
they were fairly under way on the fourth and last sledge jomney over 
the ice of the Polar Sea. In three days they reache.i Cape Schelagskoi, 
where they met a kabnakai, or chief of the Tchuktchi. A sul,.,rdin-,tJ 
governor in Turkey is known as kahnakam, which suggests a possible, 
relationship between this remote aboriginal tribe; or possibly tiie word 
in that form may have been borrowed from some of the Tartar hordes ,.f 

Our travelers found tlie Tchuktchi chief friendly and serviceable, as 
soon as he became satisfied that their intentions were entirely paci'lic 
From him they learned that the region of the cape was only tcnporariiy 
ndiabited by his people for bear hunting purposes, a.ul that it iiad been 
previously „ecupied by the Schelagi and Tchewani tril,es, wliose names 
survive in Cape Schelagskoi and Tchaun Bay, but wlio had themselves 
migrated westward many years ]>efore. Wben cjuestioned about the 
".nhabited country to the," he said: "There is a part of the cast 
between the capes, where from some cliffs near .Ik- mouth .,f a river one 
might, on a clear summer day, descry snow-covered mountains at a -reat 
distance to ilie north, but that it was impossible to see so f.r iu win'ter." 
These distant mountains, in his opinion, belonged t.. an extensive coun- 
try, not to; and he had heard from his father that a kain>akai of 
then- race had migrated thither with his horde years before in boats, b„t 
what had become of them was never learned in the o„mtrv lluy had'lell 
He had himself ^een herds of reindeer conn,.g from that land on the iee" 
an<l lan.ling on the Siberian rontinen,. He also attributed to the inhahi- 
tants <,f thai land the wounding of a whale whieh was f„und stranded un 
an .slan.loirihe coast, with slate-pointed spears still adhering f, its body 
Hut Wrangell thought it likely that it had been attacke.l by the 
mhabitants of the Aleutian ishuuls, who are known to use just such 



'^Jic latitude of the isthmus r /. 

cucdiiij.- cast 

-y ^'i-nvcd at Cape Kos 

111111,111 70 '^ I' ],y 



'' '^ -"""oiiiul theruasl line |u ,),,..., . 

""•"- \v..ko„, „,,,,, , , , ""' ""™ •""' '•illy... ,hc 

^.'^' Kvl.,, ii, , ,;,"''''^'''''';'''"' '•'"-'>-'• ^V.a„,.nna...d 

'''^''-i^lcveaaudah, V T'^'''''^'^'^''''^'-'- ^' '^^^^ '- 

" ^-^-Pl-al iiulc. distant in.m ,,,, ,,,, ,,^^ 





cm l);iiil< of (lu- river. To the small island two miles to tin- iioitli lie 
gave the name of Sehalarow Island, in lionor of the menhani navigator 
of tliat name, who perished in this \ieinity in 1765. Ahoul Ihrei^ miles 
from the shore and in the loiiL^dtude of the east hank of the Werkon, tliev 
eonslrneted a depot of provisions, on the i^th, and sent l)aek (he em])ly 
sledges to Xishni Kolymsk. 

The next day they fell in with Innnmoeks at the dista 

nee o 

f ( 


miles Iroin the depot, where the c-rowhars were lir()iiL,dit into reti- 
ihe 27th was eonsiuned in making- llni'e miles. 

uisition : 



ler deposit was now made to liijiiten the sledges, and 


of these were sent homeward. A twenty-three days' snpply for men and 
<loj4s \vas here hnried, and only lour sledt^^es and live men remained in 
VVranj^elTs section. This was at 70" 12' hy 174' . On the zi)\\\ the ice 

on which they were hecainc detached from the main 1)od 

V ill a storm, Init 

on its snhsidence became a-^ain united. On th" ^ist thev mad 

e onl\' SIX 

miles, and were on 


en miles 


liie coast. Fin(lin<^ the way d 



rth or northeast lilockcd by impassable hummocks, thev struck 


'401U' ahotit 

m, new ice. 

toward the west-northwest, on the ist of April, and havin.i;- 

llv • miles they came to a phice wdiere the coverini,^ was th 

loo fr.,]l to venture on, and encamped on its inar<,nn. !>ut the next day 

seeiiiL,'- no alternative, they risked the new ice, and had the _L,^ood fortune 

to j^et across in safety, owiiiiL,'- largely to the alertness of the do^s and llie 

lijj^htncss of the s]cd,!::es, which liore at this time oidy a few days' 



Notwithstanding^ these advantnijcs the trial w; 

IS extremely dan 

i^crous, as shown by the fact that the heaviest of the sledi^^es broke 
thi()u,t,^h the thin crust several times, l)ut only to be whisked out ll 


re rapidly by the doq-s, whose encrj^ics were evidently stimulated 1 


y a 

cecn sense ot danp^cr, 


lis was at 70 20 i)y 174 13 , as ascertained 

after crossing-. On the ni^ht of the 3d, after havini^r madi' twenty miles, 


camped amoni 

uimmocks and surrounde( 

1 by t 

y lissures, yv'here the 

j^ot detached, hut succeeded in reaching;' the main body in the moinin^- by 
a pontoon brid'j^e of ice blocks. Two slcdj^es were here ordered hack 
to the depot, and their provisions transferred to the rcmainint; two, with 

m ■' 



wh,ch W,-„„KoU .lc,cr,„i„e,i i,' ,„ssi,,,, ,„ ,„„,, „„ ,„ „,^ _^^_^,^ ^^^ 
the .,,h, a, 7„" 5, - I,, ,;-. 3y,_ „,„, ,|.^,,,_„ .,_ ^^ ^^^,^.^^1^^ |,^^ ^_^^^^^ __^^^^ 

.'l-o... »My ,„ilc,, „K,. c„c„u„teml UK. open w,„c,-, not los, than 3C0 
yan Is w., ., an,l ox.uncih,,. .«t a„,l wc,, a, far as the eyo could ,c„ch. 

VV . ohmh„l one of the ,„f.i,st i,„ ,^,,. ,„^, Wrangdl,"aff„„,i„„ a„ 
.■..c„»,ve v,c„ towa„l ,hc north, an.l fr„n, thence we heheld the wide, 
■mmeasnrahle ocean spread on. hefore onr ....e. It was a fearful a„c 
n.a,,„.hcent spectacle, though ,0 „s a n.elancholy one. Frasn.ents of ice 
o. ononnons si.e were „„at!n, on the surface of the agitated ocean, and 
were dashed hy .he wave, with awfid violence against the edge of the 

"^■' ' '"•■■ "'■■'"^■»' »"'<' '"-'l- •^'-'-■l l-'-o..e ,„. These collisions wc,-e 

so .remendo.,s .ha, large n.asses were every ins.ant In-cken away, an.l it 
was ev,den. that the po.-tion of ice which stil, dividcl the channel fron, 
he open sea would soon he con.pletely dest.oyed. Had we ,nade 
the attempt to ferry o.nsehes across upon „„,. of ,he detached pieces of 
K;e, there wo.dd have heen „o lirn, footing „„ reaching the opposite side. 

Uven on our own side fresh lanes of .vater were eons.autlv Torn, , and 

e.tendmg thcnselves in every direction in the field hchind" ns. We^-onld 
,l;"<» no farther." 

"■■ Ihc nigh, of the 5th they canrped at the second depot of provi. 
^-sw e,.e they found the two ret.uned slc.lges and the supplies 
0".l,e,S,h .heywcvn, innninen, danger, having heen dcached , Von, 
e u,an, 1,0, y „„ a ,l„e of only „„ ,a,-ds wide. . Eve,,. ,„„n,en,," says 
\Vrangell,..h„ge .nasses of ice a,.ound us wc-e dashc.1 a-ains. . 
■■■■"■I. "tl.e, .-u,,! hroken in,o a thousan.l frag,„o„ts. Meanwhile, we wc-e 
.ossed ,0 and ,Vo l,y the waves, and ga.ed, ,„ helpless inactivi.v, o„ .he 
-ld.,,„he,o, the clcnrents, expecting every „,on,e„t ,0 he swallowed 

"|.. U e ha.l heen th.-ee long hours in ,his painful position, and s, „r 

;'"," '"''' "'••'•■'"-■• ""™ - -">■ i' "-as caught hv the s.onn and 

-1-1 ^ a la,-ge liel.l of ice. The crash was tc^rilic, and we felt 

■•■ ."-s hcncath us giving way, and separating in everv direction. At 

' ;" 'l'-"'"l n.on.en,, when .Icsfncion incvi,al,le, .he in,p,dse 

"l-l,.preserva.ionin,pla,„e evcy living heing saved ns. rus.inctively, 

""' """ "'^- '""^■'"'-» "'■ "-"="». "-0 sprang on ,he sledges, and .rZl 




the (logs to their utmost spcetl. They flew across the yielding,'' fraj^ments 
of the (ickl against which it hail hecn straiulod, and safely reached a 
part of it of (inner character, on which were several hummocks, and 
here the dogs immediately ceased running, ajji^arcntly conscious tiiat the 
danger was passed." 

Proceeding forward they soon reached the first depot of jirovisions, 
and taking with them all they could, tliey hastened to tiie shore and 
camped under a clilF near tiie mouth of the Wcrkon. Thev spent the 
night in hringing away the remainder of their jirovisions from tiie first 
depot; hut some they had left at the second coukl not he reached. On 
the loth they rested, and ascertained tlie location, uhich was found to he 
^9'\Si'J'y 173" 34', on the east side of the Werkon. On the nth 
tiiey made anotiier efFort to reach the second depot .^f provisions, hut 
encountered too many water lanes, and returned in six hours, Wrangell 
occupying tlie interval in examining and naming Cape Kekurnoi, in 69 ' 
51' hy 174" 3|.'. They started eastward on tiie i^tli in the iiope of 
falling in with Matinschkin, as their |)rovisions were running low, and 
their northern depot on the ice c(Mild not he reached. Tliev had gone 
over forty miles witiiout meeting Iiim,wlienit hecame necessary to make 
for the ci'utral depot at the Greater IJaranicha, two himdred miles to tlie 
west, witli a very poor jirospect of heing ahle to reach it, as tiieir pro- 
visions were nearly exhausted. They had scarcely proceeded six miles 
when, to their great joy, tliey fell in with the ohject of their seaicli, 
whom they found, as anticijiated, in possession of full supplies. ATatinsch- 
kin, during his survey of tlie tundra t ast of the Werkon, discovered a 
hut on the coast, which hotli lie and Wrangell concluded was the hist 
resting place of Schalarow, in 1765, wlio, therefore, succeeded in (lie great 
ohject of his amhition, the douhling of Capi- Sciieiagskoi, hut did uot 
live to return to civllixatiou. 

Before leaving, they here, 69" 4S' hy 176" 10', cstai>iisiied ;, depot uf 
provisions, and sent hack eight sledges, retaining tiircv for Matiuschkiu's 
party, and four for WrangeU's. On tlie 2otli the latter r..;ulie(l Cajie 
Yakan, 69' .|j',hy 176 32 ', whence, according to certain I'chuklrliis, 
"the northern countrv " was sonicliincs vlv;ilil,j. \\n\ \\ j-iiUv! 1,, :inj)e:ir 


.^ v:..„l 'V; 1 '■' "' ""'■ ^" '"■'" '''• "^ ''^'" 5'^'- ""- --"'I. " 
. vca lK.,„l„„o„ U,e,„ .„ ,.,„..• „„, ,|,ey o,„orv.,l .,„„.,„,■„,. 
wh .o,.,.ck „,„.,„„ „,. „„„,„,„ „^ ,,^, ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

h,ch ha,, ,»a„poa,.c.l. T,,,vdi,„, f„«, „„., f„„„ .Ik-I,., place 
y ar„ve a. ,■• ..S-, „, ,„.. ,^,, „„„,.^. ,„ ,_^,„ ,,_^^ 

'" '■." m w,th a lot „f ,lriftwoo.l, mostly llr and pi,„ 

0„ the .,«t MatlnschUin ,„a,le „,., „„„,, ,,,,,„ f„,. ,„^, 

k„„ ho .., ,vith his throe s,o.„os, a.,., p,.,„,s„a.s „„. nftoo,,' 

• «. wh,.o Vyn.,„on, K„s,„i,„a„.. Kyho,. p,.„coo,.,,, oa„ „,,h tho 

""' '." »>e<l..os, a,„, provisions fo,- thirtoon .lays. Tho last-nanu-,, 

. ..sso,,^ K, ,.i.o,., ntilos .„ .l,o oast, a..,, .oaoinn^ 

■- . '.y .79 .3', »von an.l a half ,„iles farthor, hy ,ivo oVlook 

I- next n„„.,.n,., they hal,o,l. Havin, j,„„.„oye,l thirteen an., a 

'f -'.■» a -n, the ooast, which here tre„„s a ,i.t,o sonth ..f oast, 

hey reaehe, o„ .he n,.,rni,„ of t,to 33.,, the ,,0: „„, „,,io,, Cap. 

C... . ha., „,h.e,, in ,„,S. an., ,ro,. Cape North. Irco thoy no 

■"•I -' - trihe .„■ Tohnluchis, „,,., evince., a frion.lly ,„„,. 'i.i.,n 
— . Wra.,,,o„ to his .en., .. Thc-e," s. ,e, .. ,„„„ J, „„ „" ' 

T' vr '''^™ "'"' ^•™' '"'^■' "■■■' '^-^ ---■"■■••■•-". ™ 

''7 :;■" t"' ": ' ■"'■ ""'■>■ ''"■'" "'■ ""■^'. -' -.« »..- 1 c;„. „so 

.-....„ hotter than the ,n.,„„tain TchnUtchis, an,on« vvhon, 1 „nce saw 

""";"".:' ■'■"• -''"'"^"- "- ^-n---' '■"■■"-•.-.. sea,, , a 

;"'''■'■ '" T""''- '''-* --- — v..,na,,le than a„ the ho„seh.„, 
;-,„.s .,r the chier. Wi.h Etc a, ,ni.,o, they set on. on the . 

'""T""'- ^' ^ ' '■"■■""' ""->'-I«la...l, .n., havin. ,oa,, ,i,t 

;•■'-' -Mte,.i,,.,,c,,i,,,. at .,te,,,.ts,.,- two Tc,,,,,;,,i,.: 
-- - .No Cnet. Twenty-thrco ,„i,os farther ..n .hoy erosse., „ 
;■-•;-. R,ver,a,so.hroe snral.or s„v.a„,s, which .,„ „,„ ^ „,„,,, , 

■"." ''"""■^"" "'"■'■• '--i"'" "'il- '-•.v.,n.,, whor.. .he t,„„,ra .a-a 

:::"" "■;'[ "■ .'"'7 f™'^-' ' '• "-y -certaino., the ,a,itn.,e ... ..o^S'^ 

•I'- ■ *". .v--h.n, a s,„al, scttie.oent .,n the west ,,ank ..f .,,c \Vanka,e,., 





R.vor, an<l near the Capo nf that « There is a remarkable simi- 
larity," says Wran,irell, "between (he three promonu.ries of Schel- -skoi, 
Ir-Kaipij a.ul Wankarem. They ail consist of line j^raine.! syenite, with 
J,n-eenish white feldspar, dark j,n-ecn hornblende and mica, and are united 
to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The elevation of the headland 
.■n.<l breadth of the isthmus are -reatcst at Cape Schelaj,rskoi, and least 
at Cape Wankarem." 

On the 27th, doublin- Cape Onman, they sij^hted Kolyutschin, 
or Hurney Island, about twenty miles to the southeast in the en- 
trance to the bay of the same name, lookin<,r like a circular moiu.- 
tain. On the southern shore was a Tchuktchi villa-e, xvhcre 
•some seventy men soon -athered around the stranf,^ers, ea-er to trade 
Whale's flesh, of wliich they ha.l an abundance, for tobacco and trinkets. 
They rested two days on the islan.I, and not bavin- wherewith to con- 
tinue his barter witli the natives, Wran.i^^ell now determine.! to re-tra- 
verse tiie 600 miles tliat separated him from Nishni Kolymsk. He had 
reached the where Captain JJillin^rs' siu'vey from the east ha.l left 
off, a -eneratio.i before. Ascertaining the location of tlie southern point 
of the islan.l to be 67" 27' by 1S4" 34', they set out on the ret,n„ 
trip on the evenin,<r of the 29th, and tliree days later arrived at Etel's 
villa-e, back of Cape North. A peculiarity n.)ticed anion- the Tchuk- 
tchis of the coast was the existence of a class of servants, entirely depen.l- 
entupon the weaUhie, of the natives, by whom they were fe.l and clotlu.i 
in return for tiieir services, and not entitled to hold jM-operty of anv kind; 
in fact, slaves. Of this institution no history or explanation was offered' 
other than that "it had always been so, and must always continue to 
be so." 

On the 6th of ^ray tliey reache.l the point whence ^ratinschkin 
had started norlhwanl, an,l found a cross erected by him, with a notice 
attached statin- that he ha<! not been able to -et farther than ten miles 
from the coast, owin- to the breakin- up of the ice. On the 7tl> thcv 
■slept at Schalarow's hut, and six days later reached the villa-e t<. the rear 
of Cape Schela-skoi, with their provisions for men an.l do^s exhauste.l. 
The natives had had a bad season of huntitig a.ul lishin- since their de- 

PL' ) i 


loarturc, and could ,,mvc then hut Httl. assistance. So .hero was nothin-^ 
to 'lo except to push on for the Greater Baranicha, with doj,.s foot-sore 
:..Hl weary, l,ut ea^er to .,et ahead as as possihle. Reaching their 
supphes on the .5th, they remained two days in camp to rest the over- 
worked animals, and on (he ,7th resumcl their iourney. On the^>d 
they arrived at Nishni, after an ahsence of seventy-ei<Hit <lavs 
and a round trip of 1330 miles. Matinschkin ha.l arrive,! on the ^M^ 
\v.xvnv^ taken occasion to sm-vey Tchaim IJay on iiis return fro.n his fruit- 
less journey to the north. He and Kyher left for St. Petersbun- about 
the middle of July, and Wrangcll and Kosmin followed toward the vnA 
ot Aujji-ust, rS23. 

Thus closed this remarkable series of sledj^e jotn-neys over the ice of 
tlie Polar Sea, leavin- the parties enga-cd therein still disposed to believe 
n. the existence of the alle-e<l northern country, the discoverv of which 
was .lenicd to their Ion- continued e/Torts heroic en.hnanee. Wran- 
-ell su-rested that if the attempt should be resumed. Cape Vakan ou-ht 
t.. l>c« selectcl as the base of <,perations. T.)o much time, enerc,ry Tn,! 
provsH.ns were necessarily wasted before -ettitig fairlv under way from 
Xishni Koly.nsk. The ice kin.i,r of the north had proved tmconquerablc. 
I'om- well-planned campai.^nis had been fou-ht and lost, the va.uiuishcd 
.vtirin,,. with only the sense of havin^^ bravely done their utmost to obtain 
an aim. .0 impossible victory. Had they started from Cape Vakan there 
is little reason to doubt that they would have discovered the object of 
their search, of which the southwestern corner was only about one ,le-ree 
to the east, and a de-ree and a half (o the north of that poiut, or about 
10,^ miles in a direct line to the northeast. 




PAiiKvs sKiovn v(.va(;k to thk NoirnrwKST — shaki' vativks — 
rAiKvs nrscovKUKP- xumickous i,isi f)VKurKs— Kxi-i.oitAiroN 


xoiniiKitN (;ko(;i{apuki{— A sokceukr— kim^ko mv a t-ai.t,. 

The second expedition undei- Commander Parry comprised the Fury 
of 377 tons, and the Ilccla, of the previous expedition, of 375 tons, to !>,■ 
accom])anie(l l^y tiie transport Nautilus until they reached the ice. The 
instructions were to proceed to Hudson's Strait, an.l thence throu-h 
Hudson's Hay to Rowe's \V\-lcome, or throu-h Fox Channel to Repurso 
J5ay, on the soutli coast of Melville Peninsula. From the neiohhorl ul 
thus indicated it was hoped a channel mi^^ht he found to the Pacific, and 
if they should succeed in reaciu-n,tr that ocean hy any route, they were to 
proceed throu-h Tlehrin- Strait to Kamchatka, and thence to the Sand- 
wich Islands, „r to the Canton River, in China, where they were I., 
refit and re-victual hefore returnin- to En-land. Thou-h Parry's 
commission was dated Dec. 30, 1S30, they did n..t leave the coast ..f 
En-land until May i, 1821. The Hecla was under the immediate com- 
man<l of Capt. Geor-e Francis Lyon, and the Nautilus was in char-c 
of Lieut. Scym-our. On th.- 14th of June, in latitude 60 48', and Lm- 
-itude53^ 13', in the entrance to Davis' Strait, they met the first ice- 
her-, and in obedience to instructions took the surplus stores of the trans- 
port al)oard the Fury and llecla. 

The Nautilus was ready for dismissal on the first of July, when 
she proceeded on the homeward voya-e, and her late consorts made 
for the ice. Two days later these were stopped hy the ice-lloe, 
with over thirty icel)er-s in si-ht, .■md on the 5th were completely 
heset hy the ice, against which they were often driven willi some 




violence, Imt willionl 

MTMiiis iiijiuN , !)(>ih heiii" 

well adapted (or ilu- lou-,--!! iis,,l;i' (1 
si,i,dited t\v<, vessels „r tl,o Iluds,,,, 15;, y C 

very sln)ii,L,rlv l„|ii|'^ .,,„i 

U'v i\eeiveil 

iiL'lit (lavs I, 

Hit Ilu 

l-'ird VVelliii^rfon, with 160 set 1 1 
(.r the North. .\ wrrk later, I 

oinpaiiy, and on the 1 iil 

1 'It- 

ers, mostly roreij,niers, \\ ,■ ilu- U,.,l Ki 
y iiiiislanl i-d'orl fn t; 

\ er 

i:iKin-- a<lv;mta'4c ol 

--.y opeu.,^, an.l In l-ren,^ th.i: .,,y ,vhe s.uh opening ..IR-re.!, 

tlH'.- rea.^ d 6, 50' ,^" 1„ ,,7 ■ ^> ^..^ ;,, j,^^. ^.^.^^..^^^^ ^_ ^^^. , ,^^_,^,^^__,^ 

S.ra,t,an,ll,;si^h. r s.ddled-ack Island. I lere, while, anehored t., .„ 
'"■"''" "''""'^ '•""■ '"■ "^•^- "'il' ' '-".n land, M>ev were vi.i.ed hv over n„e 
l-.'dred !■ .inimaux, ,„ale and lanaK. dl verv ea^er to traflie," hut l-v no 
-ans wdlin,. .„ p.,t with their wares at a saeridce. I'arrv lound'this 
"•'•-"^•'^"•■''^•-'u„h less honorahle than the small h.U he had .un-nn- 
•'•'-lliio previous ^ear. They were .,. all . hev eonld, and 
c'V.n ofTl-red to hart.r their ehiKhvn lor ^oo,i. ■ I'm. nn to 
-•.|"n-ed," says Par-y, u ,,3. ,„ ^,„„„^,, ;,„,,.^^,„., „ ^^,. ,, ^^_^, ^,^.^^^ ^,^^, 

.H.irlv a Innulred vears, ,na, . ofthe .-es whirl, unhappilv at.eful a first 
•nl-v.„n-se with the elvilix.d , orl.l, without Iku ,n^ imhilu.d any of the 
vntn.'s or relinemenis which adorn an.I ren.ler it happy." 

On Sunday, the ..d orjulv,a I'.n orahle wind arose, and tlu-vpro- 
avde.l rapully, un.lerall sail, through tlu Strait., fin.l .■■ . .K/open- 
in^s hetween th.- iee-lW. Thev weie .ot a attle .nrpris.d at th. 
•■"no>n,t ol roeks, shells and wcvds whieh thevnoiieed on Hoes 
"Masses of roeks," ^vs the ol.servaut eonnnander. -m,.,,- 1,.s thn, a 
l"""l'vd pounds in weight, an M.nn.times ohserved iu the middh of a 
"'H-, n.easurin^ half a nule or ,nore eaeh way, an.l of whieh the whole 
surface ,s more or less cvered will, suiaMer stones, sand and shelN." 

<)ii ihe first 

ol .\n,i,nisi thev arrived n 

uerr visited hy sonie natives with who 
" Ma 

•inliamptou Island, and 
'" ' ^ - \;'ed eonnnodities. 
'.Many of , In- jackets of these people, and particniarlv thos. ,., ,h, 
l-nalcs, were liued with the skins of hirds,;, the ll-athers inside" 
Skn-tn,^ thenorlh coast of this lar^e island or ^roup, ih^v arrived on 
'iH' .S>h, at a hold hea.lland, which Parrv named C >e I5ylot. jud.dn.- i, 
'" 'h. the most wa-stern point seen hy the navigator of that nanu. i^, I^,, 
U,anucl,in .r,,^. I lavin,,; soon arrived within liv miles of tl • 

Ill I 

I ' 1 r ''I 


/l.V AfiCTlC xi:ch 


-m.v,n^ il-n..s, line, lor al..H,t 600 .nil.s. Tlu-y .lisone.v.l's 


Channel^ ... calU.1 i. l,.,,,.,. „f Thomas Hnr.!, hy.|.-o,n,.lu., ,.. „,. 
MrmsU A.I,„M-aUy, (io.c Hay, I.Het, Iloppun .„,., ...., „,.., „.. , 
Lcsulcs n..h,n...„, V..,n.ittar,, a.ul Stu,,.. M„„nu. IsI.n.Is, Can. Mo - 
...u. a,ul M..OOI.V Mh.n;na,nc.Ii..„ono.ortlu. o„loc..•sorUK..xpc,li- 
'-"• IlH-y l,c-,.an , slow nur.hcMn progress o,. the .,1 ..f Au' 
a.ul went i.uo ui.uc.,- quarters on the Sth of Octoh..-. M.„,, „... ^h.J 
. K, ha.l lo,n..I ,u.v. i.c of the seaso,. he^nun,.;, ,o ,>„■„,, ,„., p,,,,, „,„^ 
.k-scnhes ,ho ohstnictioM i, p,,scnts to successful .>avi.ratio„ • 

"'''''^' '"''"''l'"" ••'■ youn;, ice upon the surface .,C ,he water 
- .he cn-cunistance which „.os, .Icci.lcliy he,^i„s to p,., a stop ,o 

"- nav,;,a.ion of these -as, an.l warns the seaman, ha. his J 

':'-"-• "l-'-tions i. nearly a, a., cn.l. I, is in.leed scarce! v pos- 
^''''^' •" ---- .he decree of hindrance occasionc.l hy this in.- 

I^'dnncnl, Irillin- as it always aDpears hcfor.. I. ; " 

.... , , •' •'|'F'-''is nctoiL It IS eiK-onn.cred. 

Ul.en the sheet has ac.p.ired a ihickness of ahout half an inch 
.nul isol considerahle extent, a ship is liahlc to I. stoppd hv i. unless 
l.' hy a strong an.l ireewiud; and even when s.ill re.ainin.^ her 
u.iy.hron^h the water at the rate of a mile an hour, .nir conrs. i^ „., 
always under the control of our hehusman, hi.t depends upon son-e acci- 
''^■'•<='' 'l-ease or increase in the thickness of the sheets of ice with 
-l--'^ <""e how or ,hc other comes in contact. A ship i„ this helpless 
^'."cJKM- sails in vain expanded to a f.vorahle hreexe, her ordinarv re- 
-nces .ailing, and suddenly arrested in her course upon the eluaei. 
tln-..u;;h which she has heen accustomed ,o move without restraint has 
""- reminded n.e of (Julliver tied down hy ,hc techle hands of LiUi- 
MU.uns. Xor are the stru^^^les she makes ,o efll-ct her release, and the 
■Tl-vn. insi^nillcauce of the means hy .vhich her eflbrts are oppose.l 
'!"• leas, just <,r least vexatious part of the resemhlance." 

They were at one time driven across to Southampton Island, flndinc. 
|.nse.vcs,on the .1 of Septemher, almost a, the spot thev had 
•^" '••> the r.tho, Au,a,st, which serves u ^o show," says Parrv," "the 
-1- o, even the snudlest geographical inn.rmation in sc:,s where not an 
'-"- must he thrown away, or unprodtahly employed." On the .th of 
bcptemher they again sailed nortluvani, and leaving the ships in as 



n.i.^ mmn 




1 ' 1 

[ i is ■ ; 


cas ,„ ,.op..a.., .,,„» ,., 1,,,,., „,,„„,„„ .„,,„, „ ,,l.,, I 

- ■! .1 S h „f Octobo, whe„ ,hc now ice was al,..„lv .h,-ce ..,.1 ^ „i- 
.....on ,.,« P.,,,, „„,„., ,,„„.,^,„^ ^^,^^^^ 

".■■ .■„,.„ ,„. „,,j.,, „,,„. ,„,,„,.„. „„ „_^. ^.,^^^ ^^^^^ ^^_ ^ . 

;:":':"": t :'"';"■• '-"" ^'^ ""■ -" *•-- '»" '- ...»., 

sccunty lor the season." 

TIK. ,v,v .etectal r,„. „,,„,,- ,,„„,„,, „^„ „ .^^ 

'■'-■'.- 'l.-™-nc. .. Ly,.nV I,,,e,, .Mvas," savs ,.,,,.,,,..,. ,i,K 

■;'.'''■"" V "f" '■' ™-"""''-'™ ---i« "-" r-n .ho .,„;„, 

■...„s >W„ol, ll,o, ,„i„„ ,„ ,„,,,„ ,.,„,„ ,-.,„„ „_^.,. ,^_^^^^^. _ • 

■""■ "';■ .-"1.. Tho ohier p,,„ccu„„ was „.„,„ Hk- „ow.,„a,,o- i™ ho 

; '■ 7 '■'■ "- P-i"..^ .•,,, ,„„ wi,„ ,ho,,,vo,„o,„s'.„.,. 
..-■^1 hy .ha, o.pono„oo_„u,v uv,... ,.oa,lv ,„ „o ann.sC. AHo. a a.; 
''•'y^ n.u,. ,„ ..„,,,„, ,„o u,oa.o,," ,1,0 .season .,r „S„.. „,,,„,,, ,, 




ESmi/MA (rx SNOW-// UTS. 

cioiisly on llu- cjih of NovcmhIht, willi SuTid.iirs romcdy of » Tli 



Is," Capt. Lyon lakinL;- tlif place of iiianaiLi^cr, 

o atiH'ptahl)' lillfd l>y 

usical c-oiu-tTls all(.'riiat(.'<l 

Lii'iil. iK'c'chi-y of llu- roinior cxpcdilion M 

with tlu-atric-al i-cpivscMitations, and a m.'1ioo1 was opened, hnt ll 

papiT vrnlnro does not seem 1 

o hvw lu'en lenewei 

i. Clirisl 

eelcliialed with sneh of tlie usnal oIis.tx anres and festixities as ti 
eoinniand, and the ■'eiieral iiealth was e\ 

le news- 

nias was 

ie\ eonid 

eellenl, lliere heiu''- only a sin 

Ic ease ol sickness, tlie eariunter 

s mail'. " 

1 1 nieiease onr ordinal" 

issue of anti-seorI)utics, lilie 

ral as it alrea(!\- was, sav: 


we liad 


tlie eoinnieneeineiit of tlie winte;- adopted a re'^'ula 

r s\slein < 

it ^IDW 

ni''- niiistar( 

1 and cress, wliiili the ,Mi|)erior wanntli of the slii] 

)s now ena 

hied us to do on a lan^ir scale than hefore, IC.-idi mess, hoth of the olli 
cits' and slii|)\ lompany, was lor this pui| 

)ose lurnislied witii a s 


l)o\ lilled with mold, in which a crop could ,i;eiierall\- he r;tise(l in fr 
I'i'^hl to IfMi days." On the iSth of | 



iiiuar\- I. Si J, ihf St. 

i>ve-pipe in t lie 

commaiidir's cahin toolv ll 

re, creatiiiL;' a momentary alarm, hut ao daiHi- 

ai^e. On the ist of I\'hruar\- thev 

were \c rv aL;"reeahlv sninrised 1 

• V a 


visit hom a party of ICscpiimanx, who liad settled in wiuti'r 

ahoul two miles from the sliijis. A small party of i:n-lish accompanied 

them to the xillan'e, which consisted of lr\-e huts recenti\- erected. The 


ishmeiit comprised sixt\' person-- 

with their 

(lo;_;s, sieil'^'es ;iiid 



examination it war, found that the hnl- were m, 

ol snow iiiHt ice. 

A I 

ler creepiii''- throu'''h tw 

o low ])assa;j^es iia\iiiL;- eat'h 

ide cut 1 rely 

Its arilied doorwa\-, wc canu 


ciix'ular ai)artment, ol" 

winch I he 

roof was a perfect arched dome. I'lom this three doorwavs, also arched, 
and of lari^-er dimensions than tiie outer ones, led into as nianv inhahitt'd 
apartments, one on each sidr, and the other facin-- us as we entered. 'I'he 

woiiU'ii were seated on the heds at the sides of the hnl 
little lireplace or lanii). with al 

s, eac:h havin<'- hi' 

her doim-stii- utensils ahout 




children crejjt hehiiid ihi'ir mother-, and 


doLi^s slunk jiast us ni dis 

that of th 

he construction 

.f t 

Us iiiiia 

hited pari of ihe hul w 

IS similar to 

lat ot the .niter apartment, heinir a .Ionic loinu'd hv sfpanu,. l,lo( ks of 
snow laid with rc'^nilarily, an.i n,, small art, each luan- ent into 
the shape rcjuired to form a siihstantial arch, from seven to ei'rh.i fee! 




:''«*.*. :r^ 


..- _ J: 

il - 





hij^h in tho center, and having no support whatever except what this prin- 
ciple of buildin;.^ supplies. Sufficient light was admitted into these curi- 
ous edifices hy a circular window of ice, neatly fitted into the roof of each 
apartment." The imexpected cleanliness of these huts astonished the vis- 
itors, Init they afterward found that it was largely due to their newness. 
The usage of a few months made them much less attractive, but the tribe 
were nevertheless judged to be more neat than most of their race. With 
one or tv/o exceptions they were found to be honest, and in their domes- 
tic relat'ons (juite afFectionate. One of the boys declined all overtures to 
leave his parents because it v/ould make them cr^. The women were 
occupied with the usual domestic cares, and not required to take part in 
fishing or hunting. But few of them could count 1t)eyond five, and were 
slow to learn English. Yet within the range of their own experience 
they were sharp and alert. They kept themselves comfortably and 
neatly clothed, and were ingenious in devising means of 2:)i'oviding for 
their wants. When their supply of food ran low for a few days, and the 
ship's bounty was extended to them, it was noticed that their first care, 
before partaking of any of it, was to hurry back to the village to feed their 
little ones. 

There was noticeable among them the usual variety of disposition 
and intellect; and Parry grows enthusiastic over one of the boys in 
whom lie recognized an aptness to learn, which would have made him a 
famous scholar in England. His sister, Iligliuk, also attracted their no- 
tice by her marked intelligence and love of music, and became useful as 
an interpreter between the English and the more stolid or indifFercnt of 
the tribe. Having observed that they were acquainted with the four car- 
dinal points of the compass, tlic commander marked them on a sheet (jf 
l^aper, on whicli he designated also a spot to represent the location of the 
ships. Iligliuk was then requested " to complete the rest, and to do it 
mikkec (small), when, with a countenance of the most grave attention 
and licculiar intelligence, she drew the coast of the continent beyond b"r 
own country, as lying nearly north from Winter Island. The most im- 
jiortant part still remained, and it would have amused an unconcerned 
looker-on to have observed the anxiety and suspense depicted on the 



countenances of our part of the ...roup till this was acco.uplished, for 
never were the tracings of a pencil marked ^vith more earnest solicitude. 
Our surprise and satisfaction may, tiierefore, in some- de-ree he imagined, 
when, without takin- the pencil from the paper, Iligliuk hrought ihJ 
continental coast short round to the westward, and afterwanl to the south- 
southeast, so as to come within a few days' jomney of Repulse P,ay. 
The country thus situated upon the shores of the Western or Polar 
Sea is caW^d Akkoolcc (now Melville Peninsula), ami is inhahited ],y 
numerous Esquimaux; and halfway between that coast and Repulse 
15ay, Ili<rliuk drew a lake of considerable size, havin- small streams 
from it to the sea on each side. To this lake her countrymen are annu- 
ally in the habit of resorting during summer, and catch there large fish 
of the salmon kind, while on the banks are found abundance of reimleer. 
To the westward ofAkkoolcc, as far as they can see from the hills, which 
she described as high ones, nothing can be seen but one wide, extended 
sea. Being desirous of seeing whether Iligliuk would interfere with 
Wager River (about loo miles to the south of Wi.iter Island, opening 
to the west from Rowe's Welcome), as we know it to exist, I requested 
her to continue the coast line to the southward of Akkoolcc, when she 
immediately dropped the pencil and said she knew no more about it." 
" Others of the more intelligent of the tribe being tested on the 
subject, " their delineations of the coast made without any concert among 
them, agreed in a surprising manner." Fmm the head of Repulse Bay 
to (he northern sea of these Esquimaux, now known as the Gulf of 
Hoothia, was three scnicks (sleeps), or days' journey. 

"Considering it desirable," says Parry, " to increase by all the means 
in our power the chances of these people giving information of us, we 
distributed among several of the men large round P.elaUions of sheet 
cojjper, having these words punched through them: ' j !. B. M. S. Fury 
a.ul liecla,all well, A. D. 1S22.'" Smaller medals with " Fury and 
llecla, 1823," only, were given to the women, to be shown to any Kab- 
Ioo»a ( Europeans) they might tall i,i with. Five or six of the most de- 
serving men were i)resented with st 

for their spe 

;irs, uito the wood fjf 

Inch w ere driven small nails forming tlu 

g the words "1' ury and llecla, 1833." 


fill! I 

[t I ifK VI' i 



As the weather grew warmer, tlie huts were felt to l)e too conlincd, 
and they proceeded to euhirj^e them in a manner his^hly creditable to 
their injfenuity. They built the new around and over the old, which 
they tlien removed iVom within. They had early exhibited to their vis- 
itors, at the commander's retjuest, the method of construGtion, erectin" 
one in their presence in a few hours, i'arry and some others accom- 
l)anied them in one of tlieir seal-l]silin^• expeditions, and noted with sur- 
prise and admiration the skill, patience and endurance with which they 
carried on that imi)ortant business. -'It was impossible not to admire the 
fearlessness as well as dexterity with which the Esquimaux invariably 
pursueil it." Among other noteworthy characteristics of these jjeople it 
was observed that, although tlie seal or walrus, or whatever else they 
succeeded in catching, was invariably taken to the hut of tlie party im- 
mediately concerned in securing it, all others were made pa'lakers of 
this good fortune. Early in March a number of them tiarisferred their 
residence to the ice, some live or six miles from the ships, perhaps for 
greater convenience in lishing, and ipiickly erected four new huts. 
Some two weeks later they were joined by others from the old village, 
and a few erected huts near the ships; but far or near, intercourse was 
kept up. The English noted many superstitious practices among them; 
and one was found to l)e an acknowledged angetkook, or sorccror, who 
was liclieved to have a ioorngoxL', or familiar spirit, lie was about 
forty-five years of age, and 1)ore tlie name of Ewerat. He did not seem 
to be a conscious impostor, Init on ihe contrary, was a sensible, obliging'- 
man, and a lirst-rate seal catcher. When appealed to on occasion of ill- 
ness, or for other purpose, to exercise his art, « his lips l)egan to cpiiver, 
his nose moved up and down, his eyes gradually closed, and the vio- 
lence of his grimaces increased until every feature was hideously dis- 
torted; at the same time he moved his head rapidly from side to side, 
uttering sometimes a snuffling sound, and at others a raving sort of cry. 
Having worked himself into this ridiculous sort of frenzy, which lasted 
perhaps from twenty to thirty seconds, he suddenly discontinued it and 
suffered his features to relax into their natural form; but the motion of 
his head seemed to have so stupefied him, as indeed it well might, that 

Pi ! 



.hero ,.™„i„e,, ,,„ „„„,„„, ,,,,,^„^y ^,,,, .^ ^^^^^ 

-anc. f„.. ,„™ .„„e .fterwur,!. To,a..,, hi. wife. ., J| ,„„ „, ,"; . 
no„, .one some questions .ospecing me, wl,ich he „s seriously answered » 
Early n, May Cap.. Lyon, aeeompanie,, hy Ueu,, Pal.ner, fivHl 
."cn an., three n.arines, was <,ispatche„ „„ „n exploring expedition, with 

.".0". to prooee.1 a,„„, .ha. eoast .o the northward, careful,; exa.nininl 
=";y hen or ,„,et he n,i«ht ,„eet with, so as to leave „o d„„h , if possi I? 

;:;:::",""""' "-:' ^^ ''-'-- '^^-"^ .-^; .,:. nee : 

• ',"" '^'"" '■■'"■■■"'« " "■> "- rival there." The result of this 

ped,t,„„ frou, whieh .hey returned i„ safety on the evenin, of the 

-.».,was tocounrn, what they ha.l learned fr„,n Ili.liuU, of tire cou- 

.rn,at,„n o, the ntainland, around the northern o whieh th ' 

H- ... find the eoveted passage ,o the Sea. (. 'the , ,th Ta.nes, a seaman was instantly killed l.y fal,i„,, f,„„, ,„, , „,;^, ,„ 

Aedeekof the Hecla; and f.rty days later they lost two m '„ „n the 

rury l,y d,sease; Willia.n .S er, „.,ar,er,naster, after a short illness 

i'lKl tho invalid, Roid. 'uncss, 




I in; i 








From the 3(1 to the 3ist of June they were cn<2^agcd in cuttin-,^ canals 
for the ships to escape to sea whenever an opportimity ofTercd. This 
opportunity Avas supplemented 1)y tlie action of the ice itself toward the 
close of their labors. On the 19th a body of sea ice was driven by a 
southerly breeze aj^ainst tiie bay ice, which, weakened l)y their labors, 
broke asunder, forminjr a new channel, l)ut closin<,r the canal tliey had 
constructed. In a few days the action of the wind and tide reversed, re- 
opening the artificial channel, into which they hastened to float some 
loose masses of ice to keep the sides from bein<,r aj^ain driven to<:fethcr. 
It was not, however, till the 3d of July, after almost nine months' deten- 
tion, that the ships were able to leave the roadstead. Sailing northward, 
they were in <,n-eat dauLjer from ice-floes and iceber-rs until the 12th, 
when they reached, in latitude 67° iS', the mouth of a river, where they 
anchored. This they named Barrow River, in honor of Sir John Bar- 
row, secretary to the admiralty, and an active promoter of Arctic voy- 
ages. On tile next day, in pushing their exploration up stream, they 
found a beautiful cascade of two falls of ninety and fifteen feet, respec- 
tively. Higher up they fouuc' two other smaller cataracts; and were, alto- 
gether, much delighted with the novelty of the experience. Their 
pleasure was further enhanced by the richness of the vegetation on its 
banks, and the killing of some reindeer. Leaving Barrow River with a 
favorable wind they soon reached a headland, which they named Cape 



Pcnrhyn, .ind on the next day encountered great numbers of walrus, as 
they had been led to expect from the accounts jDreviously given by Ilig- 
liuk and the other Esquimaux. They were seen lying in large herds 
upon loose pieces of drift-ice, huddled close together, and .-ven upon one 
another, not less than two hundred being in gunshot. They killed a few 
and found the flesh palatable, though somewhat objectionable at first, 
because of its dark color. 

On the 1 6th they arrived at the entrance of the channel which Ilicr. 
link liad marked on the chart as opening to the west, but only to find it 
closed by an unbroken sheet of ice. Here they encountered some Esqui- 
maux, with whom they landed on Iglooklik Island. The encampment 
comprised sixteen tents, in two divisions 
of eleven and five, half a mile apart. 
These natives were found willing to 
exchange commodities, but altogether 
uiKiccustomed to receiving anything 
without giving an equivalent. Unfor- 
tunately the visitors, in tlieir desire to 
win the confidence of these simple ~^ 
]x'ople, began to bestow piesents, and 
naturally they soon became as willing 
■as tiicir kindred on Winter Island, and 
others of the same race elsewhere, to take gifts 

in the tents, to which they had been driven back from the sea 
by the stress of weather, the visitors gained their ships and stood 
to tlie west. They, however, made but little progress, and landed 
a-ain on the 33d, to visit the village, having meanwhile been 
visited on shipboard by the Esquimaux. This time they had an 
opportunity of inspecting tiie permanent villages at tiie distance of less 
tlian a mile inland from the tents. These were of the same shape 
as the snow huts on Winter Island, but of different material. Here 
the lower part of the circle was of stone, and the rest of bones of 
the whale and walrus, gradually inclining inward and meeting at the top, 
with the interstices filled with turf, a layer of whicli also covered the 


After a night spent 






whole of the outside. This, with the added layer of suow which envel- 
oped the whole structure in winter, made these huts (juite warm. The 
entrance is always from the south, and consists of a passaj^e ten feet \mv^ 
and not more than two in heit^ht and width, tln-oti^h wiiich, therefore, 
it is necessary to crawl to <rain the hut. Tiiese passages are made of flat 
slahs or lar<ife stones, and like the huts, are covered with turf to keep out 
the cold. Lying all arounil were seen great quantities of bones of the 
whale, walrus, seal, as well as bears, wolves and dogs. The visitors 
were not a little shocked to find human bones among the others. HiU ,i 
greater surprise was in store for them; for as soon as they were seen to 
put a skull or two into their bags, the natives volunteered to hunt up 
some more, which they thrust into the s:nne receptacles, with no more 
compunction than if tliey had been the skulls of wolves, instead of p';r- 
haps their own grandfathers. 

On the 24th they were able to get some salmon from a late arrival in 
the village, who stated that more could be <)l)tained at a distance of three 
days' journey. Capt. Lyon, accompanied by George Dunn, volunteered 
to go with the new-comer, Toolemak, in search of the coveted salmon. 
Equipped with the necessary supplies and Ibtn- dav^' provisions, tliey set 
out, but were prevented by open water from reaching tlie designated 
fishing-ground in their sledges. On tlie 27th, wiiile on tliis I'xcnrsion, 
Lyon discovered o\er thirty small islands, \-arving 'wi size from a hun- 
dred yards to a mile or more in length, which he named Coxe's (iron]). 
Meanwhile, the ships wailed in vain f )r the breaking iip of the ice, and 
could onlv gain at intervals of several davs a half-mile or so, as an occa- 
sional break would occur. On the 14th of August the commander, with 
one otHcer and four men, and ten davs' provisions, set out to reach, if pos- 
sible, a point on the mainland whence he could overlook the strait. On 
the iSth thev reached tlie desired point, whence, looking to the west, thev 
coukl see no land, and quite naturalh' inferred that thev had discovered 
the Polar Sea, in what is now known as the (iulf of IJoothia. The nar- 
row chamu'l at their feet, comiecting I'^ox Channel with tiiis sea, Parry 
named the Strait of the Fury and Ilecla, which it still retains. It varies 
in width from eight to forty miles, and is studded with islands. Its west- 

". „ i 


erii ciUrancc is i„ latitude 


Joth, th 

le s 


hips slowly lahorc. 

y STJiMT. 

'iijritinlc ,Sk . Rot 

ic einraiice lo th 

I he west, :in<l 


uminpf on the 

'•II ihc 


o narrows. 

were at 

l)loeive(l hy a continuous lii 
This they tried to hore ti 

leir w 


as .1 liii 

)f unhrokcM ice lyinj^ 

I a 


r rii'-li 

11 II! 

hy '■r()^•,•dinff sail, and .,,1 

si rait, 
"ced in 

C. .■„«„„.,„,,. „„ .,,0 .,«„ ,„■ ,„„ „„.. ,„., .„„„i„.l ,,„ "^ 

wcM, ,„ ,„e v,ci„i,v „f „„ae „,„ artc-wa,-., „a,n..., a',„„.,.. I,,, 

'.-,„.„„ „a„ie,, „„.L.,. Capt. Ly,.„ an.l ,.io,.,. R, ,u 

.... .0.. ,,,,„ ,.pa.e,.., i„ „.. .,, „ , „„„ , ; 

:^j:: : :,^';::";;;~;7'--"---^-e.,.a,,.. 

I>ail}, a„<l K,t,sfii,l h„„.,„lr ||,,„ ,1,^,,^ ^^,,^ ,_,, 
..a lo ,„.„,,.. ,■„,.»,,,,„ |„ ,„„ ,„„„,„. ,,,,,^. i,,,,, ,,,,,„,^ ,„. 
.. , lc„, c,.„„n„ ,hi, „„i„i,„„ ,. ,.„,„^ ,.,. .,^.,, ,^^^^ ^^^ 

tat »ea»„ „ ,„ „.,■ >av „,„;, I,,., .y.h.wi.ho,,. any ..pponanitv ,„ 

■"'";7; "■'"■- ' >"' - -P«"y f-nnin,, an,„„.l ,l,o .hip., .I.c-v 

"■•■>■ ^■'■nv.,, ,,, f,,„, .„■ ,.„„, .,,, ,,^,„,,„.,„^ ^,,,^^^^,^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ -+ 

""™ ""■^- ""'' '"■»' ---I ">- "-.-», and , , »a„. .hci,- „l,| nU-,.* 

M-ainpi.,-,,,.,. 1V„,„ tl,, |,„„ „, ||,„ |„,,,|, ,„ ^.^.^,^,j ^|_^^^_^ 

AfU-r »,„„,,,,„ ,,„,„ i„ „,„,„., ^, ,,^ „„i,H,„„H„,, i,,,„„ ,,„^, 

-I —■„,. a,,,,,i„„„ ,„„„,,„„„„ „„,,^ „,^ „^,.^.^_^^, ^1^^ j,_^^^ ^^ ■ 

:;■''■' 7:" '";■ ■■"'-'■ ^''"^'' "■ "- »»«. •"-• -"i^ w„ .„ ,„o „,.* 

"I,l„n,, .,.. sh,p,. Thi, „„,„,„.„, ,,^, ,,,^^^ ,^^^,,. ^^^, ^ ^^^__^ 

»."nc- P.-..V,.,,,, „.,,. ,„a,lc r,„. ,„„ scanity „r ,hc ships a,„l storos, as n-dl 
»» "- tiK- hc,.l.h „,„, „,„„•.„, ,„■ .„, „„„_ ^,^ „,_ ,,,,.,,^^^. _^^^,__^.^^^^^^ , 

-I- > >,s,u „r ,„e r,.ic,„lly „a.ivc.s u-cv a ncvor-cali,,. »„.„.,„ „r i,,,.,,,. 
-' -— -n. ..,„ni™,, a,„l ,„.„, „.|,id, „„ ,vs,„„a, ,.fth.i,. „„„ 

;■';'"'' ■;;'7'"-" -Pl"-I- This cabled ,hcn,. sp,„s„„.i.h .h, 

W- "I llu.a„,cal ,x.pros..„,a,i„„s, whiol, ha.l al,„ l„s, .h,ir „„vd,v a„.l 
|;H,ao„v..„c,s. They sc.c,„.o.l a shcl.ored space f,,,- oxcoiso and recrca- 
I'-n I'V .avcl,,,,!;- hi-li s,„nv wall,, which „„l „„ 

■ ly 

Iccl se 

nsihly to the 



«. ^' .% 

rv ^JV 



5r ^/. 

#/. % 

1.0 Ifritt IIIM 


I «- IIIM 


IL25 III 1.4 




WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 




warmth of the sliips, but was moreover a protection against snow 

The Esquimaux suffered from scarcity of provisions before the close 
of the winter, though with anything like economy they could easily have 
lived on the supplies they had provided in advance, as it seemed to their 
English friends. It had already been often noticed what immense (,uan- 
tities of food they could consume; and it was now thought worth while 
to make a careful test of their powers in t\vM direction. For this pur- 
pose a young man, scarcely full grown, was selected, and left at entire lib- 
erty to eat all he wanted ot staple food previously weighed. It was 
found that in twenty hours he had consumed Sj^ lbs. of sea-horse flesh 
—half being supplied frozen and half boiled— and 13^ lbs. of bread, be- 
sides 11^ pints of gravy, soup, i gallon of water, i tumbler of whisky 
and water, and three wine glasses of raw spirits. There was no evi- 
dence of gorging or over-feeding in this performance, and the party con- 
cerned did not manifest any sense of having consumed an al^iormal 
quantity of food. The English had, however, noticed a tendency to de- 
liberate gorging in other instances, especially when plenty succeeded 
privation. Some were seen in the huts so distended by the quantity of 
walrus-meat they had eaten, that they were unable to move, and com- 
plained of severe pain, which the observers could only ascribe to that 
cause. They inferred that a great part of the illness from which the in- 
habitants of Iglooklik suffered, and of the deaths which ensued, was due 
to the frequent changes from excessive to insufficient feeding. On Win- 
ter Island, where there was less fluctuation in this respect, there had been 
but little sickness and no deaths, the preceding winter, among the natives. 
P^or the first time in Parry's Arctic experience, he frequently saw 
"hard, well-defined clouds, a feature he had hitherto considered as almost 
unknown in the winter sky of the Polar regions." And in the spring, 
about the time of the sun's reappearance, "the glowing richness of the 
tints with which they were adorned," excited his admiration. "An- 
other peculiarity observed in this winter, was the rare occurrence of the 
Aurora Borealis, and the extraordinary poverty of its display whenever 
it did make its appearance. It was almost invariably seen to tlie south- 

ainst snow 

e the close 

iasily have 
ed to their 
inse (juan- 
orth while 
this pur- 
entire lib- 
. It was 
lorse flesh 
bread, be- 
if whisky 
3 no evi- 
oarty con- 
icy to de- 
jantity of 
and com- 
e to that 
:h the in- 
, was due 
On Win- 
had been 
e natives, 
lit)}' saw 
as almost 
le spring, 
ss of the 
n. "An- 
;e of the 
le south- 


serve, ,„ the c„,„,e „f the preceding winter; ,„ul did not p„K|„ee .nv 
sensible effect „„ .|,e gold leaf i„ tl,e electro„,eler " ^ 

On the .oth„f April the c,„„,„„„dcr announced to the officer, and 
-■w of both »h,p, that the Hecla was to return to England on the p " 

..yfnav,g„.,On, and, ,„.r.„„it, was given to Ih of h=r olC 

n -^a, cho»e to volunteer ,„ regain with the expedition, o .^ 
.* "- May, w,th the ai,l of their dogs, the necessary transfer of ' ovi 
-n. and stores for one year was ,nade fro™ the Hecla to tl e P rT 
w..hou any exposure or lahor to .he crews outside their respective ^ps' 
As an „l„s r„t,on of what the dogs could achieve. Parry state hat' 
-..ogs of Captain Lyon's dragged ,,6„ pound, a distance o ^t 
■d .n„,ne ™n„tes, and that they worked in a similar way hetv " 
.he sh,ps for seven or eight hours a day." The road was, howeeer ve ! 
good at h,s t™e, and the <logs the be.,, that could be pro^red ' 

O'- the 7* ofjune, having previously made all neecary' prepara 
..ons, Cap.a.„ Lyon, accon^panied by .wo ,nen and .en dogs, n l^e,, provisions for a trip of thirty days, set out ,„r an tjplo ,t o 
o Akkoolee, they had named Melville Peninsula. A , gh. ex 
P ,™,o„ Of .he land aero,, .he stral.-which .hey named c! b I 
'sl..nd. behevmg .. .„ be ,„eh from informa.ion received of .he E,<,„i 
-ax had been made before going into winter quarter,. P„„y at m 
pa,ne.l Lyon for a few days with a small party in the hope of . 

*.*mak's salmon lake on .he route. They found .he lake, but a 'r 
twenty.four hou.-s fishing through a hole in the ice, they failed to 1 
..»y salmon or fish of any kind. Lyon had started south on t e company with Parry and hi, companions, who oecuple he ' 
ve,,nshoot.ngd„cks and making observations until the ^.h, n 

cy .e.urne<l to the ships, with thirty or forty duck, each. On the 11 

coast .ft! 7 "■"' "" ''"^""' """''^" - 'heir na.ive 

of Toonoonck, and their sledge wa, m.rde from piece, of 

that coast, of two ships, which h= afterward ascertained 




wore .he I)..u.-,itv of Leith, and the Aurora of Hull, which were 
.■.I'-Kloned on the .8th of Au,.,.st, .83t,ahout the latitude of 7. ^ on the 
;-t coast of Hamn's Hay. O, u.e 34th Parry set out a.ain, this ti.e 
- -ni.any with Toleen^ak, f,r ... sahnon .Isiun-y, and reaching it as 
';— -"- .w. <1 .ys, hy sled,e, the, succeeded, .fter several ' hours' 
l.sluu^ on the .5tl. ...d .6th, in catching one small Msh-only one, not- 
wnhstandh.^ the earnest supplications of Toolen.ak and his wifb to the 

f ''^^ " '"'^"^-' ^^'•'••^"^'"^ '--P-ial Siraciousness to the <,ood Kab- 

l""na who had done so for her f.ithful Esquinianx. On the ^.th 
■n another pool, Toolcn.ak had l,etter success, and hetore leaving for thJ on the 38th, he directed the Enj^lish to a s.rean. at son.e distance proved to he the true sahnon Irshery. 0,i the ist of July they 
">und the spot and saw the remains of two sahnon that had been thrown 
"1-n tile >ce, and returned on tiie 2d to the ships, intending, to send ou^ a 
l.shn,,. party for whose use they left behind their fishing equipment. On 
th.s tr.p, when they had <,one into camp at ten o'clock the first ni-^ht out 
I^'ny lound that his tean. of ten do^,.s had drawn his sled,.e, loaded with 
alH.ut ,,.00 pounds, a distance of forty statr.ce miles, half of the road 
bcino- very nuiilFerent. Lyon had however, returned tmsuccessful from 
the mainlanil. 

They ^vere now visited by a party of twenty Esquimaux from 
tlu. shores oi Baffin's Bay, and the same region as their visitors 
These also were acquainted with the story of the abandonment of the 
tNvo Nvhalers. Lieutenant Iloppner now conceived the idea <,f crossing 
Cockburn Island to the scene of the disaster, with one of the twenty at 
..nude, but found the whole party, together with what might be termed 
>lH' rcsHlent Esquimaux, had abandoned Iglooklik on the 4th. It now 
bccauK- necessary for the English to provide walrus-meat for their doc^s, 
and tour boats were so engaged for three weeks. 

On the .6th Ilopp.ier returned, having only reached the south coast 
o( Cockl,urn I.aand, beyond which his guides had not yet determined to 
proceed. Two of the Esquin.aux accompanied Hoppner's party to the 
«hil)s, loaded with various useful presents, and returned the nexi <lay to 
then- hshn.g grounds. On the lyth the party which had been sent to\he 




salin.,,, stream ivlunu.l, uKh an.;;!.. ,„•„„(• that Tcok-mak ha.l „„t la-c-n 
.Ic-cc-ivin- tlR-in will, an lOsciuiniaux lisl, story; for tlu-y hrou-ht had; 
f)|() p„tMuls of salmon, hcsidi-s niiu-ty-tive ..rvrnison. The- (ish varii-.l in 
kM.-ihrroM, twenty to twcMly.six inches, an.l one of the lar-est, when 
cleane,i, wei-he,! eight and a half pounds. Towar.I the end of the .nonth 
symptoms of scurvy appeared in four ..r five of the crew of the Fmy, l.ul 
soon yielded to medical treatment. 

The 1st of August, KS23, had now arrived, and yet the ships were as 
securely held by the ice as in mi.I-winter. On the ,|th they hegan to saw 
the ice, and on the Slh the ice al,(,ut the Fury hega.i to move m.der a 
northern bree/e, when, crowding sail on the ship, she was got entirely 
five; hut the Ilecla still remained ])eset. On the next day she, with the, 
Hoc in which she was embedded, was carried out to where the swell of 
the sea soon broke away the ice girille, and she was also free. Mean- 
while, Parry, with the concurrent a.lvice (,f his oflicers, ha<l determined 
not to risk another winter in these regions, with the small hope there 
was of penetrating to the west in the short season that remained. Moth 
ships returned to their late winter <p.arters, which they named Tur.on 
Bay, to ligliten the Fury by the re-transfer of the surplus stores, an.I to 
make their arrangements for final departure from the scene of their ton 
months' detention. On the 12th they sailed away to the southeast un.ler 
a favo able wind, and on the morning of the 14th were ofFOoglit Island, 
twelve leagues distant from Iglooklik. Here they received a final visit 
from a number of their Escp.imaux frienils, whom they loaded down 
with gifts, being more free to give what they would no longer need, 
as the ships were now bound for home and plenty. Full raUons ha,l 
been restored to the men, anil entire freedom in the use of anti-scorbutics, 
the recognized tendency to scurvy in numbers of the oilicers and men' 
having been perhaps the most weighty influence in determining tiic 
commander to forego his contemplated purpose of spending another 
season in the attempt to get through the Strait of the Fury and the 
Hecla. On the 27th they were able to leave Owlittcewik Island, having 
made but little progress for the preceding fortnight. Now, however, 1k^ 
ing less beset by ice, and again favorctl by a breeze from the north, they 

1 Il<>( l)l'(.-ll 
Hf,'lit l);ul. 
1 \:ilic'<l ill 
,^ost, wluMl 
llir inoiitli 
Fury, l)iit 

)S Wflt.' ;iK 

:;iii to saw 
i iiiuIcT a 
>t c'litirciv 
, with (lui 
c swell of 
ope there 
•(I. IJotii 
I Turtoii 
■s, and to 
their ten 
ast under 
it Island, 
iiial visit 
L'tl down 
er in:cd, 
ions had 
ind men 
linj,^ tlie 
and the 
, haviiii^r 
.'ver, l)e- 
•th, they 


pn.ccc.le.I ...ore .apidly ,o ,he south, au.I o.. the they .cached Wi.-te.- liie .listance froni ()oj,Iit was ahout i6o .t^iles; of these thev 
iK..I .eally saile.l only forty, having, .h-iftcd the rcMuain.ler with the iee hi 
whuh ,h,y vve.-e beset, showing, an averaj^e drift .ate of llfteen u.iles a 
.fay, and live of sailiu,. On the 6th of Scptc.nher, Fife, (;,.ee.,laud or 
- -.aster of the llecla,die.i of the scurvy, owinj. pa.-tly ,o his ow.. aver- 
S.O.. to the use of They continued to he embar- 
rassed by the ice-o,.e or the other of the ships bei..^ in .la..- 
.-.uf dest.-uction, or at least serious i,.ju.y, or penrianent detentio.,- 
"nt'l the ,7th, when at len,.th they we.e able to .nake <h.e east h. an 
open sea acoss Fox Channel for Hudson's Strait. 

I'assiuKH.y T,-inity Tshmds on the i8th, a.Kl mcctincr no obst,-uction 
fro.„ ,ce or other cause i,. IIu,lso..'s or Davis' Straits, they .„ade a c,uick 
voyage ac-oss the Atlantic, .-eachinj, the Orkneys in three weeks f.o,T. 
the weste,-n ent.-a.,ce of nudso.,'s Strait, o,. Oct. 9, after an absence 
of twenty-seve.. .„o..ths. On the ,oth they entered the ha,bor of 
wck in the Shetla..,! Isla.uls, f.ndi..<, it impossible to p,-oceed south be- 
cause of adve.-se wh.ds, which also kept them weather.]K>un,l for three 
.lays, ,., Hressa Sound. » O,. the first informatio., of our arrival " s-iys 
l'ar,y,u,h, ,,,„, „■ L,,,,;,,, ^,,, ^^^ ,,^^,.^^^^ the h.habitants /locked 
fn.u. the count,y to exp,-ess their joy at ot.r unexpecte.l return, and the 
town was at nij^ht illuminate.!, as if each hidividual had a b.-other or a 
son an.on.,. us." (),. the .3th they p.-oceeded south, a.-rivinK off IJuchan 
Ness on the next clay. On the .6th Par.y lef^ the ships, ^oin^ ash».-e at 
Wh.tby, he p.-oceeded by land to Lon.lo.,. Arrivin.^ o.i the 
.nornin,. of the iSth, he went at once to the Admiralty to ,nve a.^ account 
-.1 h,s secon.l voyage to the northwest. The ships soo.i arrived safely In 
"H- Thames, with M3out<,f u.S .Mlicers and men in good health, after 
spen.lni.^. two consecutive winteis i.i the ice, with the .nea.. temperature 
several de<rrees below zei-o. 


I'l.ANTS IMS I.LA«; (,V AN AHCTIC ISI. A M, - ,.<„rr KU A N K 1.1 N -, 

Anivod in England, Franklin, Hack, and Richardson were hr.noie.l, 
congratulated, and feted, in a manner somevvhaf resembling the trinmphs 
given to the ancient Latin heroes. Upon Franklin was also bestowed 
the rank of Captain. It would naturally be supposed that these bold 
men, after sulFering the agonies of hunger and braving the dangers „f 
Boreas for three long years, would be content to rest on their laurels. 
Such, however, was not the case. The explorations of the early part of 
the nineteenth century, particularly the events just narrated, had whetted 
the appetites of scientillc men for more accurate knowledge concerning 
the mysterious regions of the earth's axial termini. Investigation, too, 
was beginning to take a more definite form, and to strike at a more'deli- 
nite object. The existence and possible commercial value of a North- 
west Passage was more firmly believed in, and operations in the 1-ne of 
exploration were largely conducted with reference to its discovery, or to 
its utility in that important event. It was desired to know more fully 
the character of the land bordering on the Polar Sea— of the resources 
which it possessed, of the people who inhabited it, and of the probable 
future value to civilized nations of this hitherto unexplored wild. More- 
over, Arctic explorations had been hitherto fostered almost wholly by 
Great Britain, and that, too, it may be said, in a disinterested way, and 
not wholly nor chieHy for her own political or mercantile aggrandizement. 




"-«»iK..., ,.nv..„,::::,; 3^^^^^^^ ■ 

•'i»'"«.n»i>c.., ,„.„„,„„„„ .,.,;„,.4: " ;7>'- -■"'■ ^'^ li.^. 

-'-..-I ju,,. a. .hi» .i,„. f™„ ,,, v^„,. ': '■ ' ;'"'• '-"'• 'i-k 

-■on, somewhat familiar with A,- ,• ' '"""• ^"^ "" ''•"'•■ 

-..,.he „„, e„«a,.,l ■"'"^""'■''■'' '"» -"■■- -e,o also 

«I-M .h,cn, ,.oc„J hi''' "™^- "';"^- l"-^--- -y^«^-. -I a» w. 

■'■-■ ..-» L .he o^e Lti:;:,:,:-;^ t-t'--' ^" ^^- .-«-ia. 

™von„«, ma.i,„"it ,, I I, '"'""T- " "^ «""' -"" ■' "■■.!- 

woatho,-, A xZ „r,hr ■■" "" '■'■'"" """■'"» -"I '-" 

™y ,.,. impo.,, '"^^' ""' '''•■^ ''"■^- <■"• "■ -l-o 'vol, 

-wh„ie„ar,,rx:::r::;:ir7:: . . 

siiiuiiier of ■S-'c -m,! .., "ucrioi ot America in the 

MacKo„.v. k;; :' ;t '" -''^ -•■""■ << -'■> ™-who..,.. „: 

«>-■• viciniev, as iv„l „„l ,„. ' "' "'"' ">°"'"^'i"H in 

"-.-vos ;. .a is ,' " f '^'^ -"•""-'.-" vvoro,,, hold 



I , 

lri|) to llic iiioulh of the MacKcn/.ic, in order to have as imicli of the sum- 
mer as possihle I'or tlic important woiii which tliey were about to un- 
dertake. Arrived at the mouth of tlie -jfreat river, Capt. Frani<iin, with 
Lieut. Mack' and a part of tiie men, was to explon- the coast westward, 
until he should meet a party who were to arrive l)y way <>f IJehrin^'s 
.Strait, ;nul were to co-operate with him in iiis investijjfatioiis. In tiie 
meantime, Dr. Richardson and Lieut. Kendall, witli the residue of the 
men, were to procceil eastward from the MacKen/ie to the Coppermine, 
which will be remembered as the point of departure of their previous 
coast survey. This would make an unbroken and nearly complete 
chain of surveys between east and west; and thus the preliminary work 
of proving the existence of a Northwest Passa<;e from liaiHn's Bay to 
Behring's Strait, would be in substance .accomplished. 

The death of Franklin's wife on the day after his departure has al- 
ready been referred to; she had been very low for some time, but in 
spite of her condition, she, with remarkable ambition, urged him to leave 
her, and to sail on the day appointed by the Admiralty. Notwithstand- 
ing this cahimity, Franklin, when the news was brought him, concealed 
his sorrow as far as possible, so that he might not be the means of de- 
pressing the spirits of his officers and men. 

The expedition having been duly conveyed to Hudson's Bay, the 
boats .and crew all the way by water, and the officers liy land through 
New York and Canada, the whole ]jarty met about 1,200 miles in the 
interior, on the 29th of June, 1S35. This junction took place in the 
Alethye River (latitude 56" 10' north; longitude ioS° 55' west) which 
is almost the head of the waters that How from the north into Hudson's 
Bay. After traversing this river with much difficulty, on account of its 
rapidity and shoals, the expedition pushed on to Fort Chipewyan, where 
it arrived about the middle of July. The inhabitants here were much 
surprised to see the adventurers so early in the season; being only two 
days later than a former party, who had spent the prece<ling winter in 
Canada. At Fort Chipewyan, the party received material addition to 
their store, and also secured the service of several Indians, whose faithful- 
ness they had had ojiportunity to jjrove upon the jjrevious voyage. 


As there was still consi.lorahle time l,ef„rc winter wcuM set in, I'.-.nk- 
l.n pn,cee.le,l ace.^nlinj. t.. a plan which he ha.l cherishe.l ever since he 
set out fn.m ICnj^land. He llrst eon.lnete.l the partv to the 
-..I .leseen.le.l ,0 a point whieh he deemed suitahle Cor' 
IK. then instrueted Ur. Riehanlsou to proeeed across the country and dis^ 
c-..ver some convenient point on tlie Coppermine to reach, when he 
should traverse that river in returning fVon. his pr.^ecte.l trip ib,- the tbll..w- 
n.^ sunmier. He, himself, thou.^ht it ,,ruden. for hin, to .l.scen.l the 
Mackenzie to the sea, and make with a selected crew some ohservations 
prelnnn.ary to lea<li>i^. the whole party there in the followin-^ summer 
Th.s plan was executed, an.l Uie sea was reached after an evcM.tful iour- 
ney; The occasion of then- arrival at the seahoard is thus descrihed ],v 
Franklin: ■' 

"Immediately on reachin- the sea, I caused to he hoiste.l the sHk Wvr 
wluch n,y deeply-hunented wife had uKule, an.l presented to n,e -.s \ 
partnijr j,nft, under the express injunction that it was not to he tn.furied 
untd the expedition reache.l the sea. [ will not attempt to .Icscrihe my 
emotions as it ex,,anded to the hree.e; however natural and irresistihle 
r felt that it was my duty to suppress them, and that 1 had no ri.rlu hy 
an in.Iuli,rence of my own sorrows t.. cloud the animated coimtenances of 
.ny companions. Joinin,t,r, therefore, with the hest <,rrace 1 could com- 
M.and, in the .^^eneral excitement, [ endeav<.re,l to return wif h correspond- 
ing cheerf.dness, iheir warm con,t,M-atulations on havin- thus planted 
the IJritish flai,' (.11 this remote island of the Polar Sea." 

As the autumn drew on, hoth parties returned to the point which hal 
heen previously selected as cp.arters for the winter. Suhstantial huts of 
wood an.l stone were erected, an,l every precaution taken to make the 
c-onun,^. winter as tolerahle as could possihly he ,lone. The place was 
..ame.1 Ft. Franklin, after the .^^allaut leader of the expedition. The 
whole estahhshment now nu.nhcre.l ahout fifty persons; includi.u, 
live ofHcers, nineteen Jiritish seamen, mari.iers, and voyaj^ers, nine Cana^^ 
.l.ans, two Esciuimaux, three women, seven children, an.l one Indian 
Ia.l;l,:.-sides several infirm Imlians, who rec,uire,l temporary support 
llie wniter was spent according to the instructions of the admiralty, in 

i : 


1 ^1 


. J 







cxploriiit; •iiid suiveyiiiiL,' the ;(iL'al lakc-s and tliu atljaceiU innuiitalns, ami 
ill making; t()p()','raj)hical HUctche; of the co'miry. Of this woik, Dr. 
Richanlson chiclly hat I cliai-ji[e; and his rcpcrti. have heeoine clashics up- 
on the j^eo^^raphy of (lie portions examined. 

The summer of 1826 found them preparin<,' tr» descend the MacKenzie. 
Before startinj;, the and all the supplies were divitled hetweeii the 
two j)arties which were to separate at tiie mouth of tliis river. The 
men were eiioseii out, and complete preparations made, in order to avoid 
the ilelay and inconvenience of doiiij^ it in a less comfortahle place. 

At the mouth of the Mackenzie, as at the mouths of most <,n-eat 
rivers, there is a separation of tiie main stream into two principal part ;, 
inclosinj; land to a considerahle extent l)ctween them. Before this di- 
vision was airiveil al the expedition encjunped to spend the ni<,du, and to 
allbrd ail opportunity for the two parties to say their adieus, as they 
would naturally descend hy the two difrerent mouths, accordiii<^ to iheir 
instructions. As the parties entertained for each other sentiments of 
true friendship, the evenin-,^ hetbre their separation was spent in the 
most conlial and cheerful manner. They t'elt that they were onlysep- 
aratiiii; to he employetl in services of e(pial interest; and tiiey naturally 
looked forward wilii Lcreat delij^ht to their next meetiii<^r when, after a 
successful teriuiiiatioii, they mi,L,dit reh.earse the incideius of their respec- 
tive voyaj^es. 

It is im[)ossil)le, for obvious reasons, to iLfive tii«; minute di'tails of llieir 
interestiiiL;- and successful enterprises. The jud^i^meiil of IJrilish sliip- 
wri«^hts seems to have been well taken, for the boats used on these oi-- 
casions provctl exactly adapted to tlie service reipiired of th( m, and 
carried tlieir valiant crews thnnigh all the stoiins and ice-iiound liays 
with no fatal and few serious disasters, Franklin explored evei\ ba\ 
cape, luountain, river and inlet, as far as he went to the westward, but 
dill not succeed in iuidiiit;" a siiij^le L,^ood iiarlior. He was tiie lust lo 
discover that tiie Rocky AL)uiitaiiis are not a contiif-ious chain l)ut con- 
sist of several parallel rani^es of i^n-eater or less extent. 

During- this season of tiie year ICsciuimaiix -/ere verv fivtiiieiit and 
anxious to trade. A diiliculty occurred with llieiii 011 lliis trip whicli 




Itin' '° '^ T"'"- " ''^-"^ "^■'"^' "^•^'"« "^ "- "f ""• ' 

o.^, ,t» owner w„, pl,„„.c,l „u„ ,1K. w.,.,. „,„ „» „.,„, ,, „,,, 

^-'^^"^^'•"-^>^.»^....„,^,„,,^„,,,,,,,„„^,.^^ ,,;,,^ 

"..INK. wa,c.,.c„„l,n,c.,h™v„ „,u „rch„ U„y,,k;a„.l A,„.,„„M,| 

... I... own ,,rc„. c„a,. A. ,ir„ „„. TcHow wa, .xc-cc Jy a,,-, v .„ 

soon ..can... .concilo,, .,. hi, ,,„„.,,„ .„„ „„„.„^ „„;;,^ ,„: ^ 
I he, ha„ ™a„, hale, of „o„,,s an,, o.her anicK, In ,h,. h„a. .hioh 

i,a,l l.een ca,ef„,ly eovcre,! and c„„,.,.a,e,l ,Vo,n Che „a,i, ,.. , 

bcjjfanrl.-ing for every. f • 

.•; .li-^posses, .ho crew! ^„„,„ e,„.,., .„„ t^^!!'Tl!:;!:, 

,.n to eatch hi, ha„,„ wheneve,- he ae.en,p.e„ ,o hf. hi, „„., ,„. ,h,. „ , 
.l....or wh,.h lan, a. hi, ,i.,e. The whole way ,o .ho ,,l„ ,.. .he,- U- 
.cpea.,„« .he wo„l ..Tcy„a,.M,ea.ln, ,en.Iy „„ „-,„,„„,, ,,,,„.' 

-■..I pro,„ng h,s h.,n.l, a,.a!n,. .heir own. A, .ho hoach w ., • | 

.- oo,„|aK, full of won^on anivcl, a„„ .ho ,hon., were re„„„l.,o,l. T 
ochcrboa..|oad foll„wo.l, an,, „„.„ „,.,, „„„ ,„.„„^„„ ,^ ,^^, ^^^^^^ 

.ccmenw ohad hol.l F,.an,di ,„„„.„, „,,„,,.,..,„„ ,„„^„ ^^.,,_, 

. .na,ne<, .,, .he.r canoe,,, .„e,n on. „r .he wa.o,,oar,ie., ,he,n 

A numerous pnr.y „„w ,,row .l,oir ,.nivo,, a,„, ,.,,ppi„„ „„„„„,,,„ 
tc. .ho wa,,. ,.an .„ .he R,,,.,,,, („„ „^„^,^, ,,,_^^,^_^^^_| .^_^ ^.^^^ 





i i 



hauled her as far as they could, bcjjau a icjjfular j)illa<ifc, handing the arti- 
cles to the women, who, ran<j;ed in a row behind, ([uickly conveyed them 
out of sight. Lieut. ]?ack ordered the muskets to he drawn on them, hut 
not to he tired till the word of command. This display frightened the 
natives, and they quickly dispersed. They afterward gave as a reason 
for their actions, that they had never seen white men before, and seeing 
so many things together, they could not resist the temptation to steal 
them. They strenuously promised better behavior, and wished to be 
restored to the good graces of the commander. A plot was also laid at 
one tini" to murder the whole party, including Augustus,, the interpreter, 
but it was fortunately frustrated before any attem])t was maile to carry 
it out. 

Franklin had intended and hoped to reach Jiehring's vStrait,orat least 
to proceed far enough west to meet Capt. Jiecchey and his party, who 
were supposed to In- a]:)proaching in that direction. Having seen no 
traces of liim, ho^vever, and the summer being well gone, he decided to 
return to tl-.e AfacKenzie. Two ether important facts also justified his 
discontinuing tiie voyage. The instructions of tiie Admiralty iiad b-jcn 
to return at a certain time, which time was now nearly at hand. An- 
other reason was found in tiie following generally believed report: The 
mountains along tiie shore were inhabited by a savage and cruel tribe of 
Indians, of whose numbers and ferocitv ilie !Cs(|uimau\ gave thrilling 
accounts. Tiiey b;id been accustomed to trade \vilh the ICsciuimaux, and, 
on hearing of the white men's approach, and seeing tiie tilings wliich the 
Es(|uiniau\ had obtained in barter, tliey feared that their own trade \vith 
the :! itives would be ruined. Accordinglv, a plan wr.s laid to come 
down and destroy the whole party of whites, and take jjossession at once 
ot tJK ir stoics and trade. This could be I'lisily accomplished, as thev 
were determined and powerful wari-iors. All things consitlered, Frank- 
lin thoiigl.t it j)rudent to reverse his course, aiul was soon on his wav 
back to the mouth of the great river. In spite of storms and ditliculties, 
he had traced ;lii! coast to the one hMudred and llftieth meridian, and 
seventieth parallel. Nearly 400 miles of coast were thus more accu- 
rately traced and located than it had hitherto been ])ossible to do. 



In th<; meantime, Dr. Richardson had been equally successful in his 
trip toward the cast. He explored the coast all the way from the Mac- 
Kenzic to the Coppermine, besides examining much of the interior. 
His untiring perseverance, uniform justice, and jrreat nautical wisdom, 
did much to make Franklin's expeditions successful. His foresight was 
seen in all he undertook, and his party always found in him an example 
of diligence and of manly courtesy. He eulogized Lieut. Kendall as a 
very accurate and companionable gentleman, and as an instance of the 
former quality, cites tlie following fact: 

Having been deprived of chronometers by the breaking of the two 
intended for the eastern detachment, during the intense cold of winter, 
the only resource left them for correcting the dead reckonings was limar 
observations, whenever circumstances would permit. Yet when they 
approached the Coppermine River, Mr. Kendall's reckoning of the posi- 
tion of that place differed from the previous location by Franklin only 
l.y a few seconds— being a very trifling disparity when the great distance 
is taken into consideration. 

Richardson secured 1,500 specimens of floral and animal life, many 
of wiiich ]ia<l never been classified before. His report of his voyage was 
very full and complete, and was completely satisfactory, both to Frank- 
lin and the admiralty. Having joined Franklin's party in the interior, 
llu' winter of 1S36-7 W..S spent ''i Canada; and the party having suc- 
ceeded beyond the general expectation, returned to England in the sum- 
mer of 1827. 



PAHRv's Tiiiun Kx-PKorrroN — six)\v progrkss — nkw ick encoux- 



onsKijvATioNS — mi;n'ii\'(; — captuhk ok a wuai.k iiik iukv 




The third expedition to the Northwest, in eliai\<,'e of Commander 
Parry, was soon ecjuipped. To the usual stores were added preserved 
carrot>^, jiarsnips, and sahnon, to<,rethcr with pickled onions, beets, cab- 
bai^^e, and split ])eas; also a small quantity of beef pemmiean, made after 
Capt. P'ranklin's recipe, ])y cuttinj^f the meat into thin slices, which, l)ein<,r 
dried in the sun and pounded, are mixed with a small (piantity of melted 
fat, and compressed into bags. The ships were the same as before; but 
the Ilecla was tnider the immediate command of Parry, and the Furv 
under Captain Iloppner, promoted from the rank of lieutenant, which he 
held in the jirevious expedition; Captain Lyon ])ein_i,r detailed, as we will 
see farther on, for a special exploration in the (iriper. The William 
Harris, under Lieut. Piitchard, was joined to the Ilecla and Fury as a 
transport until they should reach the ice. They left Deptford near Lon- 
don, May S, 1S24, and on the loth took aboard their ammunition and 
powder at Northlleet, near (iravescnd, :it the mouth of the Thames, 
whence they proceeded on their voya'/c. On the 3d of July tliev dis- 
missed the William Harris, after having transferred her surplus stores to 
the Ilecla and Fury amid the ice-floes of Davis' Strait, out of which she 
was toweil by the sliip's boats into clear water. With their now heavilv- 
ladeii vessels, under light northerly winds they made l)ut little progress 
for several days. Once or twice it became necessary to tow the ships 
with their boats from a dangerous proximity to icebergs, of which ihev 
couulc-d lit one time no less than one hundred and three from the 


s/.oir p/foa/ffiss. ^,^ 

•Icck. TI,c crows ^vc,•o k.p, constantly ;.,, work, lu-avinj,, warpn,^, savv- 
-n^, an,l nsn,. every <lcvicc known ,.. their craft in Arctic navigation, to 
keep clear of tlie icc^l^er^r.s, an.I n,ake a little headway. 

V.y the en.l of Jnly they n.a.le l,„t seventy n.ile; to the west, since 
l-.'.n. with the transport. Five weeks l.., they kept up the .lailv and 
1-urly strt,j,.]e with the ice, s.nne of which was over twentv feet t'hick 
nbove the snrface of the water, an.I reaching, o„t of si^ht H-on. the n,as,' 
He-1. Fhroush snch harriers an.I o],stacles they could o,w-„ only work 
I.y towing with l>oats an.l warping with hawsers, ^aiuin^ hen-" an en- 
trance hy sawinolhe ice, an.I there I hron,,.h some natural openin.^ he- 
tween the Hoes. Hy such toll an.I lal,..r ,li.l they achieve a pro^.-e^s ..f 
about lour huudre.] .niles, arriving, at length in si<,ht of tiu- of 
Lanca.tor S.>nnd, in open water, .,n the ,oth ..f I, was no- 
t.ccl that lor some tinu- the ic. ha.l heen ^^ less in thickness as 
well as in the extent of the lloes, s., that ..n the whole the tarth..- they 
^ot t., the northwest, the easier was their pr.>^ress, the .>hstructi..n lu-in.. 
greatest ah.n.t the n.i.l.Ue ..f the ice-pack, where also were seen the 
larnesl number of iceber'-'s. 

They ha.l n.,w accmplishe.l only the preliminary sta-^e of the voy- 
a.Lre, I.ancaster Soun.l beins a-ain the preconcerte.l startini,^ point of the 
exploration. It was h.,pe,! that the ice-barrier encountere.l live vears 
i>, alter penetratin.^^ Prince Re.^.ent Inlet, woul.l prove to have'been 
pecuhar t.> the seas..n; an.I that a jK.ssa-^e woul.l now be fotm.l practica- 
ble by that r.n.te. It was .leterminc.l that the trial shoul.l be made, and 
tius was the direct object of the present expe,liti.,n. Unfortunately it 
ha.l set out too late, or ha.l been to., l„n,,. .letaine.l in the ice-pack .,f 
ISafbn's IJay, to have .nuch chance of success the first season. On the 
I3tlb in si,irht of Cape York, the eastern lieadland of Prince Recent In- 
k-t, they encountere.1 new ice, which formed very rapidly, and '^^.-ew in 
thickness from day t<, day. Towinj,. with the b.,ats, backing veer- 
.".^•, an.I haulino. the ships, they kept movin,i,s but often as much l>ack. 
wanl as Ibrward, until the ni^H.t of the 17th, when they were completely 
'HMnmcl in. The ice cxtende.l in mass t., the, thickene.l by 
ll^^' natural process .>f continual iVeezi.i^, .n.i stili more by the action ..f 


rill' Firm- swlil'T AW.\)- 

hf >» 

the wind mikI swell, which rolli^l il unoii itself, 1 

, iMver upon layer, some 

times to a himdred leel in thickness, formiuL;- impenetrahle hinnmoeks. 
'riiey now l)e,i;an to saw a canal so as to t;et the ships nt-aivr the shore. 

in Ihi- event of heinu' unal 

)lc to '>el out of the ice. On the 2isl, throuLrh 

the o;ienin,tC ''i""^ partially cfrected, tlie ships were slowly sipiee/ed 
to\sard the laud hy tlu' pressure of the ice from witliout, hut on the 

H'ui^ driven with the suiroundmtr ice out 

next day were thieati'iied with I 

to sea hy a chan^-e of wind. Hawsers were now run out to the laiid-ii-e, 

and the ileida was thus secured; hut the Imiiv, which la\- farther out. 


as swe])t oir with the ice. The hawsers of the II 

ecla were soon cut 

one alli-r aiiot 

her l)y the driftinu: Ice, hut not hefore they had 


in castiii"- anchor, 

In an hour the mo\iiu 


oe was iiartei 

1 in t 


'V it^ 

own action aLjainst the chain cahle, and tine sawiu'. 
crew, U'a\in-- the llecla ailoat in clear water, ahoiit hall 

operations of the 
a mile from the 





le 1' ur\- 

icehei'"- '•rounded oil" a small 


t>een earned h\' the wind heyond an 


leadland, and was cleared Irom the 

loe !)\' 

nx-at e\ei tion on the i)art 

ot lier commander an 

d crew, some li\e or si\ 

miles away, where she was joined hy the I lecla hefore ni^ht. On tl 
moruiii^^- of the 37th they found tlieniselves at 1 

eii'>'th WvL' of 

ice, and 

within a tew miles , if the western shore of I'rince Kceiil Inlet. At 

noun ihey were ahreast of )ackson Inlet. 
Port r>oweii, which 1' rr\- had now d 


lelore in''ht had made 

elermmed to maju' their winter 

(piarters for tlu' season. 

Ileri' the usual arrann'cmcnts were made, with 

some unnro\ements 

for heatiuL;- and ventilatim;- the ships, and with maN(|ucradi 

theatru:al represiaitations, a 

s amuscuK'n 

t for t 

le men. 


ne si'iioois 

wi're lesiime.i with ycr\' satislactor\- result- 

md less dist rai'tion, as then 

well' no I-^scpiimaux in the yicinity. Tauij;-!!! hy cxperienci', thev had 
learned to place tlie stoves in the very hottom of the hold, w liicli, with 
er appliances, enahled them to keep the temperature of the ships 


leir otii 

at ail a\eram' ol" ^6 ; so that with imi)ro\'ed 

heatni''- ani)araiUN and the 

i)reserved and nn'kle 

d vc'-eta 


already relenvd to. 

reneral health 

of the men sullered less deraiiLrement than ou a 

ny of the p 





:S M 




mi "■ 




An incident related by Parry is worth reproducing? in illustration 
of the distance which the voice can reach in favorable circumstances. 
Lieut. Foster havinj? occasion to send a man from the observatory to the 
opposite shore of the harbor— a measured distance of 6,696 feet, or 
about one statute mile and two-tenths— in order to fix a meridian mark, 
Iiad ])laced a second person half-way between, to repeat liis directions; 
but he found on trial that this precaution was uiniecessary, as he could 
without difficulty keep up conver.vition with the man at the distant sta- 
tion. "The thermometer was at this time iS" below zero, ihe barometer 
30.14 inches, an<l the weather nearly calm, and (|uite clear and serene." 
It was noticed that the meteors or fallini,^ stars were n'aicli more freciuent 
especially in December, than in any previous winter of their residence in 
the Arctics. They also observed a particularly brilliant disjilav of 
Aurora F?orcalis on the 33d of l'\-burary, the next day after the sun had 
become visible at thi> ships. Owin.t^ to tlie hei,<,rht of the hills snrround- 
int,'- Fort Bowen, the sun had been hidden from the harbor for 131 days, 
thou,<rh to those who took the trouble to ascend the hills his reappearance 
was made manifest twenty days earlier. " It is very lon<r after the sun's 
reappearance in these ret^fions, however, before the cfTect of his rays, as 
to warmth, became perceptible," says Parry; " week after week witii 
scarcely any rise in the thermometer except for an hour or two durinLC 
the day; and it is at this period, more than any other, perhaps, tliat the 
lenjifthcned duration of a Polar winter's cold is most wearisome, an<l 
creates the most impatience." It was not till the middle of June that 
there was any considerable amount of water from the meltin,^- snow on 

There were more bears killed by the crews this winter than in all the 
previous seasons put together. From October to June, twelve were se- 
cured, and many more seen that they were unable to kill. On two oc- 
casions they witnessed the strcn<,'th of parental aiFection in these animals, 
the mothers staying to protect their young wiien they might easily have 
escaped. One or two foxes were killed, and fo in- were caught in traps. 
" The color of one of these animals, which lived for some time aboard 
the Fury, and became toleral)ly tame, was nearly pure white, till the 



month of May, wlicn he shed his winter coat, and became of a dirty choco- 
late coh)r, with two or three h-ht brown spots." Only three hares were 
killed, whose fur was " thick, soft, and of the most l)eautiful whiteness 
inia,<rinable." One ermine and a few moose, complete the scanty hst of 
quadrupeds at Port Howen. No deer or wolves were seen, but toward 
the end of June they were able to kill several hundreds of dovekies, 
which made an acceptable chanj^e in their diet. On one of the nume- 
rous excursicMis for shootin,<.- these, John Cotterell, a seaman of the Fury, 
was drowned in a crack of the ice, on the 6th of July. 

Six days later the ice be<,'an to detach itself, and they succeeded in 
killin,ir a small whale, the oil of which they needed for another winter's 
consumption, in the event of their beinjif detained so lon«,' in the Arctic 
rci^nons. They be<ran the usual operations of sawinjr a canal for the 
ships, the work provin<j an unusually heavy task, as the ice was in 
some jjlaces over ten, and <,'enerally from five to ei<,^ht feet thick. On the 
Kjth a welcome stop was put to this arduous labor, by the separation of 
tlic ice across the harbor, not, however, without a final tu<^^ at the saws 
all ni;^rht to cut away the intervening^ ice. In two hours of the ensuinjr 
(lay they succeeded in towinj^- the vessels into the open sea of Prince Re- 
,t,'eut Inlet, after twenty-six hours of continuous work. Parry now made 
for the western shore, inteiulin.t,^ t(^ coast North Somerset to the south, 
jiid;^nng from his former inspection of that rei^non that it would be found 
to trend to the west. Trying,' i,, vain to penetrate the ice-barrier, they 
moved northward until the 24th, when a channel was found alon-- the 
western shore about two miles wide, the ice having,' been driven to the 
east hy a nralc. They were llien at Leopcjld Island, in Harrow's Strait, 
wheiKv theyi)ri)ceede(l a,i,^iiii to the south alon,i,r the channel tlnis opened 
aloii^- the coast of North Somerset. On the 28th their further pro-,n-ess 
w.isl.locked by the ice in latitude 72^' 51' 51", within about twelve miles 
ol' the most southern point sii,dUed on the same coast in i8iy. On the 
301 ii, the llecla was worked a mile and a half further to the south, 
a narrow chamiel bavin."- been opened in the ice by the action 

III ihf wind 

The next dav the Fmv 


^en at^rouiu! by th<. 

pressure of the ice unilei' the inlluenee of a northern "-ale, but was 


thi:' ' 





Tl//i FUnr ALEAK, 

oil .t In^.h water hy the exertions of both crews, without serious injury. 
On the ist of Au-ust h.,th ships were hemmc.l in hy the ice 
a.ul .h-ivcn with it to the shore, cm which they f^rounded, the F,u-y 
ben,^. severely injtne.l hy an extra presstu'e from tlie cniin.^ ll„o 
after she ha.l ah' struck, which force.l her heavily a.^ain^t the 
l-<l-,ce of the hcach. The Hecla was j^otten ..fF a, hi^.,, ,,,,,, 
the .ce fortunately recedin.^s and anchored to a line at mi.ini.rht.' 
The Fm-y also succeeded in gettin- aHoat, hut was Coiuul to" l,e 
Icakn,,,. ha.liy. They now made a strenuous elFort to enter a 
small harbor, which they opportunely discovered at a short .listance 
The way beinc, fortunately clear of ice at the tin^e, they succee.le.i in 
.^UKhnj, both vessels into the only two coves out of twentV, exan.ined by 
1 any ,n a small boat, of suihcient .lepth to float them at low water 
These ewes were formed by o-rounded masses of ice, and afforded l,ut a 
precarious refu-e, especially as it ^vas now evident that the Fury wouhl 
rcqun-e to be thorou,i,dily repaire<l before she could be considered sea 
worthy. Four pumps were at this time constantly en<rajred in the effort 
to keep he, f^-on. sinking;. In these coves, the slij^htest presstnv from 
the ontsule ice would be snlHcient to drive the ships ashore, as they had 
only about two feet of water unde. their keels. Parrv and Iloppner 
bestn-red thenrselves to seek a n.ore sectn-e anchorage, and bad the .-ood 
fortune to find, withh, a mile, another, but deeper cove, ^vhere tliree 
masses ol grounded ice were so situated as to afford an ice-locked harbor 
But notwithstanding their activity, heightened if possible, bv the- 
supreme mgency of the situation, before the ships could be n,oved, the 
.ce, bke a watchful enemy, closed in and again held them i,i bis 
tightening grasp. A narrow lane of water affording a passa-^e for bo.ts 
between ships, some of the Fury's dry provisions were taken aboard the 
Hecla, and a quantity of heavy ironwork and other not easily i„iured 
stores were conveyed ashore. On the 5th of August they st.ccee.led; dur- 
.ng a temporary opening of the ice, in running the ships into the harbor 
already chosen, In.t were prevented from reaching the n.ost desirable 
anchorage, and in twenty minutes after their arrival the ice again close.l 
arouml them. 


They „,nv proc-cclcl with the li«IUonin„ „f .he Fury, ,„„l i„ „„co 
.l.Vsl.„l „„l„acod he,„.,„„ch .1.,. :„•„ „u,„p, wee sumdu.t .<, koc,, 
.c- n-ce; spa,.., I,„„.. a,„i evcy.hi,,. r„„„ off her „ppcr .leek, a, well a, 
o pn,v,.,„„» a,„, „„re„ l,„vi,„ l,ee„ ,.e„„,ve,l. These were ,e„,p„ra. 
.. y ho„,,e,l ,„„ er .he ship', .e„t, „„ ,h„re; and a. .he same .!„,„ pl-epa- 
n. ".-vere,h ,,e„.,y,„a,e.„ heave .he F„ry over o„ .he ieo for re- 
.a".. Mea„„h,le, „„ .he S.h, a sou.hwar.l movemen. of .he ice in 
n„ce Kesen. ,„le., <lr„ve .he „.,.er ice of .he harhor a.ains. a„., „„,ler 
. A.PS .hm,.e„„„ .o keel over .he Fury hefore .hey were ready, „„,! 
.l"vn,,Mhe Hecia ou a pr„iec.i„. .o„,ue of ice a..aehe,l .o „ue of .le iey ,, .h,s ra.her .lanRerous harhor. 0„ ,he ,„„„ l.y eu.tiu, four „r ,ee. of ,ee a. .he s.ern ,.f .he Hecla, she slid off .he .ougue, an.l was 
....» ,„„,.e e„.irely alio,... A li.tle ...o,.. r„o„, heiu« soo., „b.„i„e,l l.y 
"..o of he eve,-,-ee,„-ri„g „,oven,c„.s of ,he iee, .hey eleare<I .he basiu If 
ho .sca..ered masses of broken ieo, pieoe by pieee, loavins .ho ships a few 
CO, „ spare „, eu«.h, bu. none in wi.i.h. The F.ny, ou .ho insi.le of 
.Ins harbor, had eishteou feet of wale,-, au.l .he Hecla, ou .ho ou.,ide„,.. The cloaruoss of .he now euable.1 .hen, .o for,u a„ 
"p™.m o ,he i„j„,.ies received by bo.h vessels in .heir lo„„.i„ued ■ 
iK.ttlc w,th .ho ,co. They discovercl .ha. iu .ho Fu,y u bo.h .he s.orn. 
pos, and forefoo. wco broken and turned np on one side with .he pros. 
s,uc We also could pceoivo, as far as we wore able .„ sec alo,,,, .ho 
--. l-oel .1,,,. ,. was ,„„ch .or,,, an.l we ha.i .hore,b,-e ,„ueh reason to 

' ^■''* f" ""' "■"'""' ""■"'' ^""'--"-'- P'"vo serious. We also .lis- 

oovc-ed ,ha. sevo,al fee. of .he Ilecla's false keel wee .orn away 
al-as, ,„ ,he ,b,eol,ains, iu cousequouoe of her ..ouudin. forwa.l so 


'nK> Fury was completely cleami of everything on the i6th, 
-" -> ""successful attempts had been made to lay her down, when 
-"he H,th the iee onee more peremptorily decided against further 
'-;- '" "-t direction. A huge outside Hoe, driven southward bv a 
^aie, so pressed upon the harhor ice as to .lislodge the ice piers and de- 
^^'••>y .he basin prepared with so n,uch labor. IJoth ships were now in 
'i-'^- o, being again lorced aground by the next pre. . ,Vom the un- 


! t 

Tim Funr ahaivdoned. 

certamicc.m.l it was dctcnnincl to save tlu- Ilcdafn.m Ihat ,lis-.stcr 
I.y prc-parin^^ lb,- sea. An.l, if vv<n.i,l pcr.nit, .Ik- 1.'„,v too' 
Hhoul.l he .owe.| out aa.I staunched with sails u.U.l a more secure harhor 
c.n.l.i he reached, ^^y the they had piace.l ..hoard the Fury ahout 
fifty tons wei^iu of cal and pr.>visi.>ns, and her anchors, cahics, rudders 
-.1 spars-ail ,ha, was dcuned a hsoh.tely necessary lb r her e,M,pn,ent, 
sh.n.ld they succeed in ^ettin^ her out to sea. IJnt the ice a^ain can,c on 
and dr.,ve her ashore, the llech. havin;, harely escape.l the san,c disaster 
by luvn,,. ,,.one out to sea one hour and live minutes hefore. At ei-dit 
o clock the last n,an had lelt the Fury, and at eleven half a n.ile of packed 
_.ce lay hetween her and her consort. In the nH.rninj, the distance had 
increased to four or live n.iles, the Ilecla having, heen horne south hy 
the current, and during the ensuing ui^iu f .ur or live leagues Ihrther 
Ihe wmd now chan-^in-., they were enabled to retrace their course, hut 
a>uld j,et no nearer to the Ftny than twelve nnles. This was at noon of 

the 24th, in latitude 7.J' 31' r^" .,,,,| ,,„ ,1,,. • ,- , 

' i4 :>! •> -""l "11 llie niornmj^r ol the 2:;th thev 

were at leas, (irtcc, ...ilc. awa,, th.. ic. ,,avi,„. p,.,,s..l l.-.w..,, then 
and the shore where she lay. 

Stiil hovering in her ;icinity an,I watching every opportunity to 

reach her, I arry and lloppner were llnally enabled to make an ex,on into her condition. Getting within seven or ei^ht nnles of her 

and a narrow channel opening, the way for the boats. Parry and lion, - 

ner ^ot aboard the Fury Ibr the last tin.e, at hall^past nine. It w!. 

reluctantly decidcl that l,er cou.Iition was hopdess in view of all the cir- 

cun)stances, and that it woul.l only endan^^er the Ilecla and the lives of 

l>oth crews to waste anymore tin,e in ,0 rescue and repair her 

vvuh no secure harbor in view, even should they succeed in lloatin^ 1 J 

o/n She was therelbre abandone.l where she lav,in latitude 7. , ,' ^o" 

-^'1 longitude ,. • 5..' 5^ ,,,.,, ,,,,- , ,^^,.^^ ;,^,^,^ ^^,. ^,^^._ j^^^^ ^^^ 

qna.-ters, but on the opposite side of Prince Recent Inlet, and just above 
where the coast of North SouK-rset wears rapidly to the west 

Ihey now proceeded ,0 n.ake both crews as con.lbrtable as possible 
on he I ccia, and sailed across the inlet .0 Neill's Harbor, a little south 
Of 1 ort howen, to relit and ^et ready ,br ,he return ^ oya.e to England. 


all f.n-lhcr attempts to continue their explorations i.ein;. neeessarily 
abandone.!. John Pa^'c, a seaman of fi,c Fnry, wiio ha.l sufFercl lor 
several months from a scrofnlons <lisorcler, now died, and was In.ried with 
the nsnal marks of respect. By the 3,st all neeessary arran^^ements, 
.ncludinj,^ a fresh supply .,f water, having been perfected, th.y sai' ' „, 
the northward, gaining, the open sea of Harrow's Strait on Sepc .st 
They found HalKn's Hay very difTerent from what it was the precedin<.' 
year, wthin four rlays of the same date. Wlu-rc on the 9th of Septem" 
bor, ,824, they experienced the utmost .liniculty in escapinj. from the 
.ce, on the 5th of September, 1835, a.ul within thirty miles of the same 
spot, there was no floe whatever, and only one or two solitary icebergs 
On the 7th, in latitude 7." 30', and lon<,itnde 60 ' 5', they first encoun- 
tered .ce, w,th .hirty-nine iceberj^s in si.^Hn, but also with plenty of se-. 
room to the east. Next ,lay, in latitn.le 7, ' 55', they fell in with three 
whalers <roing north, t<, whom they were able to <,Mve no encotn-ajre.nent 
as they had not seen a sin-le whale since they left Neill's Harbor" Their 
advance to the east was now much .nore retanled by contrary winds 
and they did not pass the Arctic Circle until noon ,.f the 17th, but for the' 
ensuing week the winds were favorable. On the 35th and 36th they 
encountered a very severe gale, after leaving Davis' Strait, and whi' • 
southeast of Cape Farewell. After the gale they had a week of remark, 
ably fine weather, and though somewhat hindered afterward by stron<. 
southerly winds, they reached Mull Ilea.l, the northwestern point of the 
Orkney Islands, on the loth of October. Two days later, encountering 
a southerly wind off Peterhead, Commander Pan,-y went ashore at tha^'t 
pomt and set olT for London, arriving at the admiralty on the i6th TJie 
Ilecla arrived at Sheerness on the Thames on the 30th, where Capt. 
Iloppner, his officers and men, being put on trial for the loss of the ury' 
were honorably acquitted, the abando.nnent of the ship bein<r amply' 
justified. * ' ■' 

li!' ^ 




AJHTU \<)V,\(;K ()|- SAItlNK AND I I,A V lilt I N<; M A M MIC II K EST — lOD- 


The main purpose of this voyage was to further the " penduhim ex- 
periments " of Captain, a»*terwar<l Major General, Sir Edward Sahine, 
for the completion of which he obtained the nse of the ship (iriper of 
the royal navy, whicli had been one of Par-y's vessels in his first voy- 
a<(e in search of the Nortliwest l'assa«j;e. She was now placeil in com- 
mand of Capt. Claveriiifj, who in the intervals occupied by Sabine on 
land, made some few discoveries in Arctic seas. They sailed from the 
Nore on the ! itli of May, 18^3, and arrived at Ilammerfest in .S^«r^/ 
Oi\ or Whale Island, on the north\>'est coast of Norwav, 70° 40' 7" bv 
23" 35' 43% <'» the 4th of June. Here Sabine prosecuted his scien- 
tific experiments until the 23d, and leavinj; him thus en<,M«,red, the 
reader is invited to take a survey of Ilammerfest, which is a town of 
much interest in connection with Arctic exploratio... , 

Ilammerfest is situated on the west coast of the island, and is the mo^ t 
northern town of its size in the world. Sixty years a^o it had only fortv- 
four inhabitants, l)ut has now a settled population of about 1600. It is 
the capital of the province of Finmark, which has an area of over kS,ooo 
square miles, and a population of only 34,000. The town comprises one 
lonj^s windiiii,' street alonj,^ the shore, the houses of which, made of 
wood and painted, present the striking; peculiarity of havinj^ j^rass plots 
on the roofs. The warehouses are built on piles driven into the water, 
ffivinj^ ready access to ships and bo.ds. -i :d, with the adjoininj^ sheds, are 
usually well filled with skins of r'.:; . . mdofiv, bear and wolf, reindeer 
Iwrns, walrus tusks, dried fish a-;,! w^^n u\\. These the merchants obtain 

from the Finns— more properly Lapps— from whom the province ile- 



rives its, in oxchaM^^e f,„- hn,„,|y, tcba.a.^of l>oth „f whici, the 
p...... "at.vcs arc very fun.l _|,ar.lvvare, and cl<,th. Some .,f the resi.Icnt 

merchants fit ,n,t annual expeditions for walrus an<l seal-hunting, at Cherry 
I.s!an.l an.1 the Spit.l,er,.en j^roup. The seal and walrus hunters ..father also make it a place of and point of departure for the ...,rth- 
crn seas. A lar;., tra.L with Archanj^el, on the White Sea, in Russia 
■s als.. carried on. The vessels used in this trailic are peculiar, heinj, 
supphe.1 with three Jmost perpen.licular n.asts, each furnished with a 
larj^e three, ornered sail, ^^y these are exchan.^e.! the train oil an,: fish 
..I lh6 Northern Norwegians for the rye, meal and candles of the Kus- 
s,ans. A ship occasionally puts into Ilamn.erfest with a carj^o 
"f cal. an.l takes hack one of co.lfish, which constitutes the most im- 
jxTtant sn.-le article in the commerce of the town. 

Thou.d, so far north, the temperature is jjenerally mild enou.d. ,o 
permit the hanly fishermen t<. prosecute their labors through the fishin^ 
season. The number of cod annually taken is l>etween twenty an.l fifty 
nidhons, a lar^^e part of which are taken by the Russians as cau<.ht The 
remanuler is prepared for the markets of the worM and sc,ld^,s <lried 
codfish, Spain being the larjjest buyer, her annual purchases amountin.^ 
to over forty n,illion pounds. The winter is j,iven to n.erry-makin., and 
scarcely a night passes without a f.olic of some sort. The day when 
the sun reappears, is one of general rejoicing, and everybody ru. hes into 
the street to congratulate his neighbor. The summer is short ukI 
sometnnes cpnte oppressive for a little while; but the cool air from the 
snow-covered hillsi.les an.l ravhies, in some of which it always lies -uui 
tro,„ the soa, soon reduces the temperature. The chief subject of .'cMct 
is not tlK.t .( .s son.etimes hot, but that it is cold so \.ng. North C>c 
tlu. extreme n..rthern point of Europe, is only sixty miles from Ham- 
merfest, an.l is generally an object <,f great interest to sojourners or trav- 
elers n. those regions. This rocky promontory, a thousand feet in hei-^ht 
ahnts upon the sea, an.l is .HlHcult of ascent even at its most accessible' 
points m the rear. Ft is, hovyever, frequently visited, and n.. doubt am- 
ply repays the labor to persons who like to dream of the sublime, away 
from the busy haunts of men. 



' .-^'m 




Hul Icaviii;^ lliimmcrfest and North Cape, it is our duty to rctiuii to 
Captains Sabine and Claverin-,', and their "-rood ship," the (rriper, wliicli 
set sail tor Spitzherj^feii seas on the ^.^d of June, They encountered ice 
in latitude 75° ^\ off Cherry Island, on the 37th, and three days later 
reached the vicinity of Hakluyt Headland, the northwestern point of tiie 
Spitzberj^en Archipela<?o. On one of the smaller <rroup of islands, known 
as the Seven Sisters, they landed Capt. Sabine with his necessary equip- 
ments, and immediate attendants, while Capt. Claverin<>^ continued his 
course to the north. But having made about thirty miles in that direc- 
tion, he was driven back by the impassable ice-pack. Sabine was a,t,'-ain 
ready on the 24th of July, when they set sail for the east coast of Green- 
land, which they struck at a headland named by them Cape liorlase 
Warren. Here they discovered two islands which received the name of 
Pendulum Islands, because Sabine chose them as the tiehl of his experi- 
ments. Clavcrins^ proceeding northward, discovered and named Shan- 
non Island in latitude 75° 12'; and descried land as high as latitude 
76'^. They discovered Ardcncaplc Inlet, the coast-line of which they es- 
timated at about fifty mdes. The latter half of August was spent ashore 
by Clavering and nineteen others of his ship's company. 

The temperature was much milder than anticipated, falling at no time 
lower than 23° above zero. At a short distance inland, a circle of moun- 
tains almost surrounds this bay, rising at some points to a height of four 
to live thousand feet. They met a small tribe of twelve Esquimaux, 
with whi)m, however, they had l)ut little intercoin-se. On the 39th of 
August they returned to the ship, and on the last day of the month, hav- 
ing taken aboard Capt. Sabine and his party, they proceeded southward 
along the coast to Cape Parry, in latitude 72" zi' , longitude 32' 2'. 
The clilFs were here observed to he also several thousand feet high. 
Finding tlie coast-ice likely to prove troublesome, if not dangerous, they 
determined to return homeward. I^eaving the coast on tiie i :;th of Sep- 
tember tliev were driven southward in a gale, iiut succeeded in crossing 
the Atlantic in safety, reaciiing Christianscnd on the first of October. 
Here the sliip struck a rock, hut was got ofTat high water without seri- 
ous injury. Coasting to the northeast they arrived at Dronthcim or 




Tromlhjem, on the 6th, when Sahinc resumed his pendulum ex- 

Drontheimor Trondhjcm (Tronycm), the capital of the old monarchy 
and center of Norwegian literature, is situated in 63" 25' by 10" 33' east. 
The city looks as if it were only of yesterday, as its wooden houses have 
been frequently destroyed by fire and as often rebuilt of the same 
material. It presents a pleasinjj^ appearance, the houses being paimed in 
a variety of colors; and is a thriving place, with about 23,000 inhabi- 
tants. Its prosperity is mainly due to tlie risheries and the iron and 
copper mines in its vicinity. The lofty chimneys of its furnaces and 
foundries afford a cheering evidence modern industry with its inces- 
sant activities, has found its way t<; the ancient seat of tin; skalds. The 
bay, on the peninsula of which it stands, is remarkable for its beauty, 
and is dotted with numerous shipping. On its banks are the villas of its 
wealthy merchants, and on a small island is the fortress or stronghold of 
iMunkholm, facing the city, which is further graced by a magnificent 
cathedral of the eleventh centuiy, tiie most venerable ecclesiastical struc- 
ture in tlic kingdom. Ship-building is carried on to a considerable extent, 
and the vessels there constructed rank high for sailing qualities. The 
inner harbor is rather shallow, not admitting vessels which draw more 
than ten or twelve feet of water. 

ICdward .Salnne, the naturalist of several Arctic expeditions, is worthy 
of more than passing mention. He was born in 17S8, and entered the 
military service at ;\\\ early age. Having attained the rank of lieutenant 
he was commissii;-ied to accompany Sir John Ross and Sir Edward Parry 
on their fu'st voyages in search of the Northwest Passage, in 1S19-20, 
respectively. On his return from the latter he communicated the 
results of his magnetic observations to the Royal Society, and became so 
much interested in that and kindred topics of scientific investigation that 
lir devoted iiis whole time to the prosecution of researches and experi- 
ments. In 1821 he l)egan a series of xoyages to several points between 
the ICquator and the Pole, of which the one now under consideration 
ioi med. the last, making at each place visited a careful set of observations 
on the length of the seconds' pendulum — hence called pendulum experi- 




i J 




iiK'iils Oil (Ir; inU'iisilv of tenvstiial niaj^iu'tisin, the dip of tlio 111:1;^;- 
netic iiccdic, :i:i(l ivlalcd subjects. The results were puhhslied l)y him in 
1S25, iu a work cutitled " The I'eucUihun and Otiu-r ICxperiuients," and 
were refjarded as liitjflily valualile. With one hrief episodi; IjeloULjiiij^ lo 
his niihlarv profession, (huiu;^ whicii he served in Irelaml, liis liistory is 
that of a student and observer of llie hiws and phenomena of nature, 
cspeeiallv in tlie department of terrestrial ma<;uetisin. His labors ha\e 
led to tlio discovery of the laws of niatj^netie storms, tiie connection be- 
tween sun-spots and certain ma,<j^netic phenomena, and the maujuetic 
inllucncc of the snu and moon on the earth. To his edbrts have been 
largely i\\\c tiie establishment of inaLjnetic observatories all over the 
world, and the collation of the most important facts tlius obtained. lie 
filled the several otliccs of secretary, vice-president and president of the 
Roval Societv,and was successively promoted in his profession to captain. 

maior, aiu 

1 tin; 

illv, n 

1 iS:;^), to majoi-ti^eneral. In 1S69 he was created 

Kni"ht Commander of tlu- Uatii, whence his title, Sir lOdward Sabine. 


line havmiLi' prosecnti-d ins sen' 

iitilli' oliservations Ibi s<.'\i'ral weeks 

at Droiitheim, the (iriper set sail for ICiiL;:l;nid and arriwd safely at 
Deiitlbrd, near I^ondoii, on tlu> iijtli of Decc-mber, iSi3. 

\M -v. 


i.von's aiutic \'c)YA(;i.; howic's \vi.;i,( o.vii; - i.yon's imjayki! ioit 

lli;i,l'— SAI'IOI ^- — UK-ruH N to IC.VCJLANI), 

NotwithvtaiKliiiL,' llic poor sailiii^r f|ualitics of the (iripoi-, she was 
soon aj^aiii put to use for purposes of exploration in tlie Nortiiwest, he- 
uvj; \i\:wv(\ in ciiarj^'e of Capt. (Jeorj^re Francis Lyon, wiio had aeconi- 
])auie.l Parry in one of liis Northwest voya<,'cs. With forty-one ofTicers 
an.l men, Lyon set sail June 30, 1S34, with instructions to complete the 
sinvey or exploration of Melville Peninsula. He was to make for 
Wiv^cv River oil' Rovve's Welcome, whence he was to cross the peninsula 
and attempt to reach Franklin's Point Turna<,'ain. He was accom- 
panied by a small vessel named the Snap, with extra stores, which 
were (ransf erred to the (iriper as soon as they met cne ice in Hudson's 
Slrait, and the tender sent hack. This was successfully done, but the 
(iriper havinj; taken aboard the extra load, made slow progress, which, 
added to tlie lateness of their dejjarture from Enjifland, rendered failure 
almost inevitable from the outset. It was the end of Au;^aist before they 
were able to reach Rowe's Welcome, which they entered from Hudson's 
P.ay. Here they encountered storms and fo<,'s, while no trust could be 
placed in the compass, and the destruction of the ship became imininent. 
Tliey were obliged to Ijring her to "with three bowers and a stream 
anchor in succession," while she was all the lime pitching her bows un- 
der. The danger grew so menacing, that they loaded the l)oats with 
])r()visions and supplies, fearing they would have to take to them any 
monu-nt. Two of tiiem were almost sure to be destroyed as soon as low- 
iiid, and lots were cast, mainly to insure the safety of such as should 
have the good fortune to draw the most reliable of the boats, the unsuc- 
cessful ones accepting their fate with the magnanimity of true lierocs. 
Heavy seas 'swept the decks, and they were approaching a low beach, 









"whcit; IK) hiiinaii power,'' says Lyon, "could save us if drivi-n u]iom it," 
when the fo^' opportunely liftini;-, showed them tiie dani^-ei'. Uiil ihey 
were soon laee lo faee with anotlier. A -^reat wave lilted the vessel 
bodily, talviuj;- her apparently alonj,^ the \vh()K' lenj^th of her Ueel, and 
her hreakiui^-up was monientarily looked for, ])ul their alarm Ibrtunatcly 
proved i^noundless. 

"And now that everything;- in our [)ovver had been done," says 
Lyon, "1 ealli'd all hands aft, and to a niereiful (iod oU'ered pravers for 
our i)reservatiou, 1 tiianked every one for their excellent conduct, and 
cautioned them, as we siiould in all prohahility soon appeal" helbre our 
!Maker, to enter 1 lis presence as men, resijrncd to their fate. We then 
all sat down in j^roups, and sheltered from the wash of the sea by what- 
ever we could llnd, many of us en.leavoreil to obtain a little sleep." 
They hail been three nijj^hls without any, and exiiausted nature will 
snatch repose, even when in the verv jaws of death. "Never perhaps," 
continues Lyon, "was witnessed a luier scene tlian on the deck of mv lit- 
tle ship, wiien all hope of life hail left us. Noble as the characlei- of the 
British sailor i-s always allowed to be in cases of dan^-i-r, yet 1 did not be- 
lieve it to be i)ossibIe, that amouLj forty-one [icrsons not one repiniuLC 
word shouUl have been uttered. The ollicers sat al)out wherever thev 
could lind shelter from the sea, and the men lav down conversing,' with 
each other with the most perfect cabuness, b^ach was at peaci' with his 
neighbor and all the world; and I am firmly persuaded that the resi-;na- 
tion which was then shown to the will of the Almiij^htv, was the means 
of obtaining- His mercy. Ood was merciful to us; and the title almost 
miraculously fell no lower." The "three bowers and stream anchor, ' or 
some of them, had held the ship, and when the weather cleared thev 
found themselves in a bij^dit of Rowc's \VekH)ine, which they ,t,M-atefullv 
named the Hav of God's Mercy. 

On the I. Mb of September they reached the mouth of \\'aL,HM- 
R'ver, where they encountered a secoiul terrilic i^ale, in which the 
Griper could make no headway, but " remaineil actuallv i)itchin_<4- fore- 
castle under, with scarcely steera^-e way." .She was brouj^ht to liy ras!- 
iny her anchors, which fortunately held, while thick fallinu- sleet cov- 

m -x 

THE aiill'Jih' UNFIT FOli DUTY. 


crcd the deck to a (lei)th of several iiuhes. Tlie spray froze as it lell on 
the (leek; the iii^rhi ^as one of pileliy darkness; and to add to the 
danger, several ice streams drove down upon tiie ship, (jreat seas 
washed over them at short intervals, and their wet elothes were frtx/en 
stili; while they held to the ropes which were streteheil across the 
(leek to keep them fVcjm heinj,^ wasiied overhoard. As the morniii<^ 
dawned the dan<(er hecame appallin<,r, for all the cahles <(ave way, and 
the siiip was lyinj; <,n her hroadside. ikit each man did his dnty, and 
the captain's experience in northern latitndes, coinhined with the Tertility 
of resource learned in the school of Parry, thus reinforced, triumphed 
o\cr the dan-^-ers of the deep, and they were saved. 

When the storm had abated, after its two days' fury, Lyon held a 
consultation with his oHicers, and it was wisely determined to return lo 
Eni^land. The season was almost spent; the Griper was witiiout an- 
chors, and at the best was not adapted for battling- with the ice, as 
Parry iiad ascertained live years before. Nothing,' had been achieved, 
but tile heroism and courajife of ollicers and men rec(!ived, as they richly 
deserved, the hi<rhest praise. They did not winter in llepulsc IJav, as 
predetermined, Rowe's Welcome havin<,r proved suiliciently repulsive 
in the early autumn. 

Lyon survived his return only eiji^ht years, dyinjj^ at the early age of 
thirty-seven. His contribution to Arctic exploration was not notewor- 
thy, but the saving (jf his men and ship under such difficulties, leaves n(f 
room to doubt that under more favorable circumstances he would have 
achieved success, and is a notable illustration of the great value of i)er- 
fect discipline in all such expeditions. 

? .1 




William Fmloriciv Bccchcy ( 1796-1S56) had accompanied I'ranklin 
in iSiS, and ]>a.Ty in iSiy, and was now, in 1825, deemed a suitable 
commander for an expedition to tiie Arctic Ocean, tlie main purpose of 
whicli was to carry succor to both those celebrated ex])lorers, then en- 
gajred, as previously related, in pushin- their discoveries in North Amer- 
ica, by sea and land. It had occurred to the home authorities that if 
the expeditions of Parry Franklin had proved successful in reaching 
their respective destinations, and prosecutin- their intended researches", 
their stores w.nild be exhausted, or at least need replenishing, by the' 
time they reached the prearranged rendezvous at Chamisso Island, 
in Kotzebue Sound. Franklin, in any event, would need transportation' 
home, in a way that would obviate the exposure and hardship of simply 
retracing his overland journey. Bcechey, therefore, was intrusted with 
the comman<l of the ship-of-war Blossc >, of twenty-six guns, but carry- 
ing for this voyage only sixteen. A large boat or barge, decked .and 
rigged as a schooner, was added, to be used as a tender, and in narrow 
or shallow water where the large vessel could not venture. His instruc- 
tions were to survey the islands or coast of the North Pacific, if time 
would permit, but to use every effort to reach Chamisso Islan.l before 
July 10, 1S26. Should he find on liis arrival there that Franklin had 
not reached it before him, he was to procee.l north and east to and he- 
yond Icy Cape, in the hope of falling in with him somewhere along li.e 
coast of North America, west of the MacKenzie River. He was lu.t !o 
return through Beiiring's Strait until the cud of October, in the event of 

not meeting Franklin; and was to renew the ellbrt in the summer ol 
I Si' 

1837, after spending the winter 

in some more southern latitude. 






II |H 


jj II 1 ^H 





U Ul^^H 






' ^1 

H I^^^^^^^^^Hl ' 

' 1 



"' 1 


1 ^^^^IH 





The- Ulossom sailed tVoin Spithcad <„i U.c 19th of May, 1S25; 
but the earlier incidents of tiie voya-e do not come within the scope of 
this work. On tiie 2.1 of June, 1S36, she left the Samlwich, an.i 
on the 27th was becahued within six miles of Petropaulovsky, in Kam- 
chatka, \vhich, however, was reached on the next day. Here they full 
in with the Russian ship-of-war Modeste, commanded by Capt. 
Wran-ell of Arctic sledge-journey fame. Here Beechey learned of Par- 
ry's return to En-land, which reduced his mission to the siufrlc object of 
meeting Franklin, it being already too late to spend any time in explor- 
ing the islands of the North PaciHc. Here they had the opportunity of 
seeing the active volcano of Avatcha emitting huge, dark volumes of 
smoke, anil from the black spots seen on the snow, they judged that there 
had been a .piite recenc eruption. This peak is about 1 1,000 feet high, 
but farther inland, towers above it the Streloshnaia Sopka, 3,000 feet 
higher still; and the peninsula of Kamchatka has no less than twenty, 
eight active volcanoes, besides many that are extinct. Many of the]jeaks 
of this Alpine chain which traverses the whole length of the peninsula 
arc of the height indicated, and some as high as 16,500 feet, presenting 
a beautiful panorama of lofty, fantastic, snow-covered peaks of variou'^s 
outlines, interspersed with volcanic cones emitting their dark columns of 
smoke, like huge banners floating their waving folds high in air. 

Beechey left Petropaulovsky July ist, but did not get clear of ibo 
Bay of Avatcha until the 5th, when he proceeded north for Behring's 
Strait. " We approached," says Beechey, » the strait which separaL 
the two great continents of Asia and America, on one of those beautiful 
still nights well known to all who have visited the Arctic regions, when 
the sky is without a cloud, and when the midnight sun, scarcely his own 
diameter below the horizon, tinges with a bright hue all the northern 
cu-cle. Our ship, propelled by an increasing breeze, glided rapidly along 
a smooth sea, startling from her path flocks of aquatic birds, whose fliglit 
in the deep silence of the scene, could be traced by the car a great dis- 
tance." Approaching the American shore just beyond Cape Prince of 
Wales, they were visited by some Esquimaux from a small neighboring 
island, who were as usual quite noisy and energetic as well as <roocl- 


iiumorcd ami cheerful hi their eagerness to exchange their little 
coiniiiodities for the trinkets, heads and knives with whicii their visitors 
had supplied themselves hefoie leaving England. On the 23d of July 
tlicy anchored in Kotzehue Sound, and explored a .leep hay on its north- 
ern shore, which they named Ilothani Iidet. Three days later they 
arrived at Chamisso Islan.l, and not finding Frarddin, they set sail for 
tiie Icy Cai^c on the 30th, dispatching the harge with instructions to keep 
close to the shore to watch for Franklhi's overland party. The Blossnjn 
(louhled Cape Krusenstern and surveyed the coast to the north and east, 
successively passing Cape Thomson, Hope Point, Cape Lishurne, Cape 
JJeaufort and the Icy Cape— Captain Cook's « limit." Dreading the 
closing in of the ice ahead, they now sent forward the barge under Messrs. 
Elson and Smyth, and returned with the IJlossom to Chamisso Island- 
While on this return voyage on the night of the 35th of August, they 
saw an aurora borealis, which lieechey thus describes: "It first apjieared 
in an arch extending from west-by-north to northeasf; but the arch 
sliortly after its first appearance broke up and entirely disappeared. Soon 
nfter this, however, a new display began in the direction of the western 
foot of the first arch, preceded by a bright flame, from which emanated 
coruscations of a pale '^traw-color. Another simultaneous movement oc- 
curred at both extremities of the arch, until a complete segment was 
formed of wavering perpendicular radii. As soon as the arch was com- 
plete, the light became greatly increased, and the prismatic colors, which 
had before been faint, now shone forth in a brilliant manner. The 
strongest colors, which were also the outside ones, were pink and green, 
on the green side purple and pink, all of which were as imperceptibly 
blended as in the rainbow. The green was the color nearest the zenith. 
This magnificent display lasted a few minutes; and the light had nearly 
vanished, when the northeast quarter sent forth a vigorous display, and 
nearly at the same time a corresponding coruscation emanated from the 
opposite extremity. The western foot of the arch then disengaged itself 
from tiie horizon, crooked to the northward, anil the whole retired to 
the northeast quarter, where a bright spot blazed for a moment, and all 
was darkness. There was no noise audible during any part of our ob- 



■ u 


SI rxjilioris, iiiii- vvL'ii: the compasses pcicuptil)!)- allcctcd." They arrived 
at tluir immediate destination two (hivs later. 

MeamvhiU' ihe haiLje, wiiieh had set torwaid on llie 17th, made its 
way slow ly aloii^ I lie siiore, IClsoii laiuliii;^ at intervals to erect posts and 
deposit instructions for Franklin. On the jjiI an eflfective bar to their 
further pro<fress was presented hy the lon^ spit of land, tiie heail of 
which neechey afterward named I'oint IJarrow. The ice here closed 
in. to the siiore, and was seen extendinjf to the nortl?, as far as the eye 
could reach, without an opeuin;^. Hack of this point they now jjroposed 
to erect tlie last <^uidc-post for Franklin, hut were prevented hy the h )s- 
tile demonstrations of some Esquimaux. It was afterward ascertained 
thai they had reached within one hundred and forty-six miles of Return 
Reef, whence Franklin had set out on the iSth, to return to MacKen- 
/ie Ri\(. r, ahandonin<,r the hope of meetinj^ Heechey. Considerinjjf the 
immense dislance traversed hy both — -constituting^ in fact a circuit of the 
j^lohe — the wonder is that they should come so near meetinj^, not that 
they sho'dd fail to niak'C ;ni actual connection. The harj^e havin<^ hecu 
driven ashoie hy the ice, and the natives sh()win<^ an inifriendly spirit, 
Klson and his seven companions determined to set out on their return. 
Their alarm at the threatenin;j^ attitude of the Es(iuinianx and the 
uri^^ency of their need, stimulated their exertions, and thev succeeded in 
lloalin^ the hart^^e. They now hastened to return, but after procecdin<r 
some distance, they found th( ir way blocked hv the ice. Around a jut- 
ting point which they named Cape Smith, they were oblij^ed to haul the 
bar<4e thronnh a nairow lane, with tlie ice-Hoe monii'ularilv threatening^ 
to close in, and cut ofTtheir retreat. Thev, however, succeeded in leacli- 
iuLT Chamisso Island in safety on the yth of September, after an absence 
in all (if forty-one ilays, and twenty-three from the Hlossom. 

The ICsiiuimauK who visited Bcechey on the island, exhiliited their 
iiifijciniity by drawinLj a clia.t of the coast on the sand. The coast-line 
was InM marked out with a stick, and the distances rcij^nlatcd b\- davs' 
journeys. Tin liiils and mountains were shown bv little mounds of sand of 
varyinLi,- hcicfhts, and the islands by collections of pebbles of proportion- 
ate dnnensions. They were much surprised when Capt. IJeechey 

' Ji J- 


d.:in-c(I the position of one of the Diomcde Ishinds, hut soon came 
h. rcco<,Miize the correctness of the new location when tiiey hx.ked 
ill it from another point of view. Their wonder was none the less that 
the stran-cr could set them ri^rht. They then proceeded to desijrnate 
Hie location of die Esquimaux villages and Hshin- stations l,y hundk-s of 
sticks placed upri-ht; and altogether, the " map" elicited the admiration 
of tile visitors. 

It was MOW necessary to move south to avoid the dan-er of <,'etting 
frozen In, as also, hecausc their provisions were running l„w, andlt was 
determined hy a council of officers that, though the prescrihed period of 
their stay-thc end of Octoher-had not arrived, it was their duty to 
.Upa.l. A harrel of Hour and some other supplies were secretly huried 
fur the use of Franklin, should he reach the island, and the usual hottle 
inclosing instructions, was placed at the foot of a jjost or flag-stafF. They 
accordingly set sail for Hehring's Strait, and after a wint'er's cruise to 
California, the Sandwich Islands, the Houin Islands, the Loo-Chow 
Islands and others, they returned t„ Chamisso Island on the 5th of July, 
iS.'7, where they found the deposits of the previous year untouched. 

The barge was got in readiness and dispatched to the northward 
under Lieut. Belcher, and the ship soon followed. It was hoped they 
c.Mild extend the survey heyond the point reached hy Elson, and per- 
haps obtain tidings of Franklin. They found the posts and bottles as 
tluy had been left, and the state of the ice and weather more unfavorable 
than i,efore, and returned before arriving at Icy Cape. On the 9th of 
SLptcmber the Blossom got aground on a samlbar off Hotham Inlet, 
but came off at high wate. without injury, and arrived at Chamisso on 
the unh. Not finding the barge as expected, they carefully scanned the 
cast in all directions, when they noticed a Hag of distress flying from a 
peninsula of the sound. Ilastenmg to the rescue, they learned that the 
l.argc bad been wrecked and three of the men lost, au<l took the surviv- 
nrs aboard. On the 29th, an ,nifortunate collision with the natives 
resulted in the wounding of seven of the English, and the killing of one 

i>r thi 

^sqinmaux. In a thorough survey of the island they d 


iw- harbors<l by IJeechey Port Clarence and G 


rantley Harbor. 


yoUR^Er llOMEWAliD. 

Lcav.n^r the customary deposits for the ff„„ce of Franklin, not 
knowinj, that he was ah' safe in En^Maml, they finally took their 
departure from the Polar Sea on the 6th of Octoher, .8.7, narrowly 
escapn.^. disaster from breakers, on which they were unexpectedly driven 
by the wind. On the 29th they were off the coast of California, and 
proceeding southward, they touched successively at Monterey and S.n 
lilas, „. Mexico, and arrived at Valparaiso, Chili, on the .9th of April. 
1828. On the last day of June they crossed the meridian of Cape Horn 
m a snowstorm; and arrived at Rio de Janeiro July 31st, where they 
remau.ed until the 24th of Leaving, the coast of Brazil, they 
arnved at Spithead on the ,3th of Octoher, after an absence of three 
years anci live n.onths, less seven days. They now learned that Franklin 
had reached home more than twelve months before. 


^HSiJUi.^iiS ijl \ \ 

'1 i 

' '11^ 


.•A..UV ,V SKAKCM CK n,K .'OKK _ ,.,.A N KoK S,.Km;K J,Hr„NKVs_ 
UKATUKK-T„K » KNTKKP.USK " AM. " KN ...CAVOU "-_,„., suKMt 

Sir Edward Parry conceived the i.lea „f r.aciiinjr the North P„Ie I,y 
a cMuhination ,.f sledge and boat travel, alternately, over the ice and 
uater iane.s from such points as he should find impassable to his ship \s 
early as the month of April, ,8.6, he communicated this desi-n, to the 
Inst Lord of the Admiralty. Heinj. submitted to the Roval Sodety and 
rece.vm^rits approval, orders were jrive., .' its execution, which was 
...trusted to its author, his commission dating Nov. n, ,836. His old 
Hh.p, the Hecla, was to convey the expedition to the Spitzl^ergen 
feeas; and two boats were constructed for the more northern trip o„ .. 
specific plan, under the superintendence of the great navigator. Vhev 
were twenty feet long and seven wide, >^ having great flatness of floor, the extreme breadth carried well forward and aft,and possessin-Uhe 
utn^ost buoyancy, as well as capacity for stowage." The wood fhune 
was of the lightest an<l best material, and was covered with Macintosh's 
water-proof canvas, tarred on the outside. Over this, ,1,- p,a„k onlv 
three.s,xteenths of an inch thick, then a sheet of fblt, and finally oak 
plank of the same thickness as the fir, were fastened witl> screws 
from without. On each side of fl, . l-,., i i • • 

, , . '""- "^ *''- '^^'-'' '"»'• pi-ojectmg considerablv 

below .t, was attached a strong runner, sho.l with smooth steel for ice 
t.-avel. Two wheels, five feet in diameter, with a sn.aller swivel wheel 
aft, were also attached, but afterward rejected as unserviceable. There 
were also provided 

waste of time, attach th 

pes and collars whcrebv flii> m,>n ---..1 1 -i-i 

..nLiLi)_y rnc men Coukl, without 

emselves to the boat to d 


rag it over the 

ice or 


through water hiiics, when necessary. A locker at each end aiTorded 
storage tor iiistrinnents and some stores, and a slight framework along 
the side would liold bags ofljiscuil, pemmican, and clothing. A 1- mihoo 
mast nineteen feet long, a tanned duck sail, answering also the purpose 
of an awning, one boat hook, fourteen paddles, one for each of the boat's 
crew, and one steer-oar, completed I he equipment. To each boat were 
assigned two oflicers, and two sledges, weighing each twenty-six pounds. 
The aggregate weight of a boat, with its supplies and equipment, was 
3753 pounds, or 26S pounds to every one of the crew. 


All things heing in readiness, the Hecla was towed down the Thames 
March 35, 182, , and on the 4th of April left tlie Nore. With favorable 
winds they were ofF Hammerfest on the 17th, and reached its harbor 
early in the morning of the 19th, wliere they remained ten days. While 
Parry, assisted by Lieut. Foster, prosecuted magnetic and other scientific 
observations, Lieut. Crozier was dispatched to Alten, sixty miles away, 
to procure the eight reindeer p.eccssary for tiie sledges. " Nothing can 
be more iK^autiful," says Parry, " than the training of the Laplan.rrein- 
dcer. With a simple collar of skin round his neck, a single trace of the 
same material attached to the sledge and passing between his legs, and 
one rein fastened like a halter about liis neck, this intelligent and docile 

'H, i' 


anunal is perfectly under the eo.nman.I of an experienced dnver and 
performs astonishinj, journeys over the softest snow. When the rein is 
thrown over on the off side of the animal, he in.nediately sets off at -. 
full trot, and stops short the instant it is thrown hack to the near sidJ 
Shakn,., the rein over his back, is the only whip that is require.l. In a 
short time after setting off they appear to he gasping n>r breath, as [f 
qtnte exhausted; but, if not driven too fast at fbst, they soon recover and 
then go on without difficulty. The quantity of clean moss considered 
re,u,s.te for each deer per day, is four pounds; hut thev will go five or 
s.x days withot,t provender, and not sufler materiallv. ^Vs Ion-, as they 
can pick up snow as they go along, which thev like to eat q Jte cle-,n 
they requn-e no water; and ice is to them a comfortable bed " 

Having procured the reindeer, and some supplementarv Arctic enuip- 
nients, they set sail on tiie 29th of April. ()n the 5th of May, in 73" ,0' 
by r 3S' east, they met loose ice; and ,,0 miles further to the n.n-th- 
northwcst, in 74" 55', by a few miles east of the n.endian of Greenwich 
on the n.orning of the 7th, they encountered a continuous ice stream On' 
the toth they fell in with whalers, who were endeavoring to push to the 
n<.rth to atuude 7S", south of which they never expected to catch whales. 
1 he Hecla, accompanied by the whalers, made ilftv miles to northward 
chnutg the night, sometimes " boring " through with difficultv. 0>i the 
.4'lbpassmg Magdalena Bay, they arrived off Ilakluvt Headhnul and 
worked to the southeast to reach Snterenburg IL.rbor, which they fi,und 
c.nplctely fl-ozen in. Walruses, dovekies and eider-ducks were seen in 
great numbers, an<l four wild reindeer came near rhe ship on the ice 
rhey now endeavored to n.ake a deposit of provisions on the Headland! 
hu. were driven o(F by a high wind, which put the sh.p almost on her 
hcan. ends. As the safer alternative they drove the ship throu<.h the 
K-e, and at four in the morning of the 15th fbun.l themselves in a pJrfectly 
scene situation, hall a n.iie within the ice pack. On the 3.d Lieut 
J.nnes C. Ross, with a party of ofHcers and men, eflbcted a landing over 
the ,ce, and found on a hillock two graves with the dates 174, and ,762 
and a considetable quantity of ,i, driftwood, btit no harbor for the ship ' 
On the .7th an attempt svas made to proceed northward with the 





/'V.VA" WKATllER. 

s1c'(Il,'i'-1)();iIs on tlio ic-(j, which arouiul the ship ruscmblcd :i sloiu'-iiiasoii's 
yiinl, with the diirei-eiiee liiat ihe blocks were ten times t 
sioiis. The trial was made, Imt soon al)andone.l as 
hie, because of the hiti^li an i sharp anLjular 
tlie ''stone-mason's yard." On liie 29th and ^oth tiie -,M-ealer part of tin: 

)orionsl\' oeen- 

le iluui'ii- 

utterly impraetiea- 

masses ot ice liiat constituted 

siiip's company, under Lieuts. Foster and Cro/.ier, were lal 

pied in transporting,' a l)oat load of provisions over the ice to Red He 


six miles distant. On tiic 1st ol" 

ne P 

■ry was aDout to make a secoiK 

attempt to proceed to the north, wiien tlie Ilecla 1 
east witli tlu- l1oe in which she was eml)ed<led, and 

)e''-aii to move to tlie 

continued to dnlt 


itil the 6th, when she reached ^[ussel Hav, wiiere Parr' 

V, witii some 

)lHci'rs and men, landeil to make a smaU dt 

it of 

eposit ot proNisions, and seek a 

harbor for the ship, but failed in the latter object. The drift 
tinned until the evenin;^- of the Stli, when, under the innuei 



ice ot" a -outh- 

erl\- wiiu 
lour days 

1, they Ihially jjfot clear of tiie ice al'tcr a detention of t 



" I do not remember, 





ave experienced 111 these re 

ijions such a continuance of beautiful weather as we 



)een on the northern coast 

more than three weeks that we had 1 

ber^-en. Dav after dav we hail a clear and cloudless sk 



\', scarcel\' any 


1, and with the exception of :i few davs previous to the ix^A ol" M 

i\ , 

a warm temijerature in the sliade, and (piite a scorciiin;^ sun. On tlu' :;d 
of June we had a shower of" rain, and on the 6tii it raiiu'd i)rettv hard I'or 

two o 

r tlu 

ec I lours. 

But now the weather was t 


ami so con- 

tinued until the loth, when under a west-southeast wind Ii cleared 
thev made for i>randvwine iiav, with the islands Low and NVald 


en ni 

re-ice, extendni'. 

slight, but found every cove and harbor blocked with sin 
ill some places six or seven miles from land. I'lishin^- norlliwaid to So 
43' 32", the Seven Islands were seen to the east, and I. 
Little-Table Island, nine or t 



en miles to the east-northeast. 

ins Is a 


ere cvw-^^ rising about f^oo feet above sea-lc\el 

with a low isli-t o 

11" its 


northern exlri-mitv, 

"This isf 





,» 1 

icui''- the nortliernmost 

much of our curiosity ; and 

known land in the world, natnrallv excited 

bleak, and haneu, and rugged as it is, one could not helj) i,Mziii,L; at it 



with intense interest." At midnijrht on the 14th they were ;it Si 5' 
32" hy 19' 34' east, with n()thiii.t,r visihle to the north, hut loose (h-jft- 
iee. Doulilin- hack they tried to Imk! a harlwr on Walden Ishmd, l)ut 
railed, leavin.LC, however, a small deposit of provisions; then, on Little- 
Tahle Island, where they also failed to find an open harhor, l)nt left some 
provisions on one of tlio islets. Now sailinj^r sonth they found on the 
joth, a secure refu-e for the Ilecla in Treurenhur<,r Hay, near Verle<rcn 
IIo,)k— hoth so named by the Dutch— and named it Ilecla Cove, in lati- 
tude 79" 55' and lonjjfitude ir>" 49' cast. 

*^*¥g5j«jf^.« i^M^ft;,' 


i-eavin- the vessel in char-e of Licin. lM)ster, Parry now set 
nul Nsiih his two l.oals. which he named the 'd':nter])risc" and "I':n- 
dci.vor," himself in command .,f the one, with Mr. Beverly as compan- 
ion, and Lieutenant Koss in command of the otiier, with Mr. Hird as 
companion. Lieutenant Cro/.ier in one of the I lecia's hoats, accom- 
panied the parly to Walden Island witii part oftheir provisions, to^^elher 
with s,)me to he deposited on Low island. j^.ster was to make a simi- 
lar deposit near Ilecla Cove, to meet the contintrency of (indin>,r it neces- 
s;uv to iTct away with the ships, and to leave ore of the ship's boats on 
Walden Island for the use of Parry and his party, in tiie event of their. 
I'cni- compelled to retm-n without their own. All possible provision 


,' f. ' 



M I 



///(.// LATITUDE. 

haviiii,' lu'iMi llius iiKidc ill ;i(lv;iiu-i', tliL- <.'X|)l()rin<j^ ]);irt v scl out. on llie 
Jlftcniooii ()("(lu' -'I si, .111(1 took lliclr final (Icpartiin- for the Nortli Pole 
from tlicrii- inosl nortluTii (li-|)ot on tlic- isk'l alivady incntioiicd on the 
nijjht of tlic 2^1, at liall-pasi ten oVloek, roacliiii.<r hy iiii(hii.Lrht tlu- hiti- 
tiulc of 8o" 5! ' r^". Tims it had taken ei.jfhty days at sea, hesides six 
months of" j)re|)ai-at ion, l)eloi\' they loiild i^i.t fairly started for the Pole, 
whieli helps to show that, if that jxjiiit ean ever he reached, the starling 
jioiiit must he as far north as possihle. 15y noon of llie next day, at Si" 
'-' 5'"i>'i'^'y \\'>.'iv stopped h\ the ice and ii)a<k" tiieir fh-sl portage. To 
avoid as much as possihle the diseomfort of" ''snow lilindiu-ss," they trav- 
eled hy ni.<,'ht and rested hy day, that is, while the sun was lowest and 
highest, respectively, for they had constant daylight. The daily allow- 
ance of proxisions for each man \vas as follows: Hiseuit, ti-n ounces- 
peinmiean, nine; sweetened cocoa powder, one sullicient to make one 
pint; rum, one q-ill; and tohacco, threi- onnces a v/eek. The fuel was 
spirits of wine — two ])ints a liay lor the whole coiupanv. 

I'roin the natnre of the ice encountered, thcv had ,L,Mven up the idea 
of usiiio the reindeer; and so the men did the hauling-, while the ollicers 
acted as scouts or pioneers. It rciiuired an enthusiasm little short of fa- 
naticism or insanity to strnq-ijle as the\- did for the thirtv-three davs thcv 
spent in reachim^^ theii' utmost limit -Sj j.^'. Arriviiii,'- at a lane of 
water, they launcheil their hoats and paddled across to the luarLjiu of the 
floe. Landing' slowly and carefully -for the ice was iisuallv weak at the 
edt^e -they hauled them across the rid<j^es and hummocks, and rou^h ice 
until they L;ot to another lane. This process was usuallv reneated several 
times a day, and was so slow as well as lahorious, that at one sla'^e of 
their proi;i-ess they made only iM^hl miles in live davs. On the jj<1 of 
July they made their hest run of sevenieeii miles, and on the j ^d had 
reached the limit already mentioned -82' 45'. The\' continued their 
efforts for three days lonjj^er, i)ut the wind havin<; unforlunately veered 
to the north, the lloe was found to he driftint^ south faster than thcv 
could advance in the contrary direction. At noon on the 26th they ascer- 
tained that they were three miles south of the pcjint reached at midnight 
of the 22d. It was clearly useless to prosecute the attempt farther. 









Alilt/VAL AT 7/ EC LA COVE. 

Even the energy aiul enthusiasm, tliC "enterprise and endeavor," of Parry 
and liis men, could not but succuml) to such an untowanl ohstruction. 
Thou-h zealous to fanaticism in pursuit of the object of their ambition, 
neither commander nor men were without sterling common sense. The 
task was hopeless; and their duty was now to return. They were only 
173 miles from Ilecla Cove, in a northwest direction. " ; , .,plish 
this distance," says Parry, "we had traversed, by our re... .Mig, 392 
miles, of which about 100 were performed by water, previous to our 
entering the ice. As wc traveled by far the greater part of our distance 
on the ice, three, and not infrequently five times over, we may safely 
multiply the length of the road by two ami a half; so that our whole 
distance on a very moderate calculation, amounted to 5S0 geographical, 
or 668 statute miles, being nearly sufficient to have reached the'pole in a' 
direct line." Among the drawbacks of the season it was noticed that 
there had been "more rain than during the w'nole of seven previous sum- 
mers taken together, though passed in latitudes from 70 to 15" l.,wer 
than this." 

Devoting a whole day to rest, they set out to return to tlic siiip at 
half-past four in the afternoon of July 27th, and arrived at Ilecla Co\o 
August 2 1st, the drift materially facilitating their southward progress. 
For instance, on the 30th, though they had traveled but seven miles'they 
found themselves twelve and a half miles farther south tiian on the pre- 
ceding day; and on the 31st, though in eleven and a half hours they had 
made only two and a half miles, the traveling being very laborious, 
they had with the help o-f the drift, moved south tour miles more. Even 
when the wind again changed to the south, it did not entirely cut ofT, 
though it sensibly lessened, the gain by the drift. This help, iiowever^ 
in nowise lessened the labor and fatigue of the journey, only to thJ 
extent of shortening its duration. Every mile of the way actually made 
by the travelers was won in the same slow and distressing manner as „n 
the outward trip, by alternate paddling in the water and dragging over 
the ice. The constant wet and cold had also alFected sevend of the 
meivwith chilblains, and the tediousncss as well as fatigue of the weary 
journey iiad l)egun to tell on their strength and energy. 




The kdlino. „f a l,ear l.y I.ieut. lioss on the 24th, procuml then a 
LcnchcMl a.ui nnu-h apprcciaU.! change ,.f diet, thou-h, as usual in such 
rases, they sufllM-ed s.Mnewhat Ironi a too free use of the fresli meat 
On this trip they ohserve.l the phenomenon of re.l snow, .lescrihed in a 
pivcedin^r ehapter. Finally, on the mornin<,. of the 12th, they reached 
their depot off Little Tahle Island, where they found that the hears had 
<lcvo.n-e.l all the l,read, hut Lieut. Crozier had recently deposite.l some 
ant,-scorhutics and delicacies, whicli proved very seasonahle, as symp- 
toms of scm-vy had hcgun to appear in some of the men; and also an 
account hy Lieut. Foster of what had occurred at Ilecla Jove to fuly 
33d. From this it was learned tiiat the Hecla had l,een <lriven ashore 
hy the ice on the 7th of July, hut iia.l heen ^^ot off hy the exertions 
of ofHcers and men witiiout havin- sustaine<l any injurv. Taking the 
remaining stores ah(,ard, they next proceeded to Walden Island, wiierc 
they landed, after having "],een fifty-six hours without rest, and forty- 
eight at work in the hoats "-their lirst repose on land for iiftv-two days. 
A hla/Jng (ire of driftwood, a hot, ahundant supper, and a" few hou'rs' 
quiet rest, soon restore.l then. ,-,ec,n-ing the extra hoat and provisions 
tH^'t l.a<l iK-en left on the islan.l, they had hopes of soon rejoining the 
ship, hut adverse winds and had weatiier so delayed them, that it^took 
a week to make what had cost tiiem hut a day on the outgoing trip. 
Arming Ihially on hoard the Ilecla after an ahsence of sixty-on^days, 
they justly felt assured that if perseverance and energy could have won 
success, they \vould certainly have attained the ohject of their amlntion, 
and floated the union jack at the North Pole. 

O., the 28th they left Hecia Cove, and securing the provisions de- 
posited svith so lalx.r on Red Beach on the way, thev rounded 
Ilakluyt Headland on the ^otli, an.l stood south for England. On the 
.7th of Septemher they reached the Shetlan.l Islands, mul anchoring 
ill the Voe, enjoyed the welcome hospitality of tjie inhahitants. The 
Ilecla heing detained in the north hy contrary winds. Parry, on the 
25th, Nvent ahoanl the revenue cutter Chichester, which thev had fallen 
ii. with two days hefore at Long Hope, in the Orkneys, and was 
i.nuie.i at Inverness on the 26th. He proceeded overland to London, 



1 1 1 f 



■11 ;, '' 

.'MTivin- on the 39th „f ScpteinlH-r, ihc same day on which .lie.l ,,l,„anl 
the Ilecla his "Greenland master," vviio ha.l accompanied hi.n on live 
Arctic voyages. The vessel linally reached the Tiiames on the r,th <.f 
October, and with her arrival ended the career of Parry as an explorer, 
though he survived to .855. lie had contributed n.ore than his share' 
by effort and achievement toward the solution of the two great prob- 
lems—the Northwest Passage and the Discovery of the Pole; and it 
was through no fault of his that he did not solve both. His attention 
to every necessary detail, and his constant use of every i)recaution 
against mishap to his men and ships, was remarkable. In this last Po- 
lar voyage he gave-as Wrangell had done before in more eastern lon- 
gitudes—a clear conception of how uneven and almost impassable, and 
broken by water-lanes, is the ice of the Arctic Ocean, and Iiow entirely 
unlike any frozen surface with which the denizens of more southern 
climes are familiar. It was conjectured that around the Pole, and tar 
to the south, would be found a solid, uniform crust of ice, on \vhich, 
with the proper outfit, progress would be as easy an.: -apid as on one of 
the more southern frozen lakes. This illusion was rudely broken by 
the stern logic of very unwelcome and very obstructive facts. 

chapti:r wxvih. 


-NUM..:,, r.v run ick-zn wintku quautkks _ visirnn nv 


CMpt. John Ross, naturally desirous of vin.licatinj. his title to fame as 
an Arcfc explorer, which had been eloude.l, if not obliterate,! hy his 
so.newhat i,^nion,inious failure in nSiS, solicited the command of a fresh 
expedition in ,839, which was refused on the ,.ronnd of retrenchment in 
'ha. d,reo,ion. He was now in his fifty-second year, and as has been 
.nlMnate.1, had distinguished himself for bravery and skill in the French 
-ar ol .793-.S.5. Horn in ,777, he entered the navy while yet a boy 
served l.heen years as a, seven as a lieutenant, seven as com - 
nian.ler, and was promote,! to a captaincy in 1818, before proceedin-^ on 
1.S hrst Arctic voya.^^e. The government declining to defray the expense 
01 an exploring expedition where so many had proved imsatisfactory, Ross 
sought and found a patron in Felix I3ooth, a wealthy distiller, at that filling the ofiice of sherilF. IJooth was not unwilling to defray the 
expense, but as the parliamentary reward of $100,000 to whoever 
should discover the Northwest Passage might give a color of possible 
interest or tar-s.ghted speculation to Ifis support of the enterprise, " vdiat 
ni.gln be .ieemed by others," he said, « a mere mercantile speculation," 
he n.sisted on the withdrawal of the prize. Tliis being done, and the 
government being unwilling to be outdone, he was created a knight for 
his munificence. 

Capt. Ross-he was not yet Sir John-was now empowered by 
Booth to provide a vessel and the necessary equipment; and he soon 
proceeded to Liverpool, where he purchased a side-wheel steamer for 



F//fSr AliCTlC STEAM NAl/dAriON. 

the voyajjc. He i.^ therefore entitled to the credit of hcing the first to 
contcnipiate the use of steam power in Arctic naviffatioii. It was rather 
an unfortunate selection, as nothinjr more unpractical than paddle-boxes 
to encounter ice-floes and ice-packs, can well be conceived. He, how- 
ever, took the precaution to strengthen his ship, and added various im- 
provements to adapt her to the voyage upon which she was about to 
enter. The supply of provisions and stores was calculated on a liberal 
basis for twenty-eight men for i,ooo days, and cost, nicluding price of 
vessel, $85,000. When fitted she was of 150 tons burden, and received 
the name of the Victory. 

The second in command was the nephew of the Captain, James 
Clark Ross, now a commander only, afterward Sir James Ross, who, 
like his uncle, had entered the navy at the early age of twelve, and had 
served under him in the Baltic, the ^Vhite Sea, and the coast of Scotland, 
and his first voyage in search of the Northwest Passage, in iSiS, being 
then in his nineteenth year. He had since been with Pany in all his 
voyages from 1S19 to 1S27, and was now in his thirtieth year. It 
will be seen that his Arctic experience was large, and he p-n-ed an 
efficient aid to his uncle and chief 

As the government contiibution toward the success of the expedi- 
tion, the admiralty furnished a deck-boat of sixteen tons bunieii, called 
the Krusenstern, and two strong boats whicii had been used by Frank- 
lin, together with some books and instruments. The ship and outfit at- 
tracted considerable attention, and among a host of less distinguished 
persons was visited by Louis Philippe, the future king of the French, 
and many otiier notables. The Victory was to have been aecm- 
panied l)y a teiuler or store-ship to lighten her burden until they reached 
the ice, but a mutiny on tiiis vessel in Loch Ryan, at the entrance to 'he 
Firth of Clyde, broke up that arrangement; and she steamed off without 
a consort, from Woolwich, England, on the 23d of May, 1829. Her 
engines, however, proved a source of anxiety to Capt. Ross, and their 
use was soon aband(>ned. Steamships had as yet been but little used f.,r 
ocean voyages, and the timidity of inexperience was ready to take refuge 
in the old and tried method of sailing. It is true, Fitch and Rumsev, in 


Amurica, liad made experiments in tiie line f)f propelliii^f vessels by 
steam as early as 17S3; and in 17.SS Fitch ha<l launched a paddle steam- 
lioat in whicli he made a trip from MnrMn-^tdn to Philadelphia and re- 
turn, at the rate of foin- miles an hour. Symin<;ton, on the Clyde, had 
made his first trip the same year; an<l in 1S07 Fulton made the first real- 
ly successful voya;jfe by steam from New York to Albany, in the Cler- 
mont, makin<^ one hmidred and ten miles in twenty-four hours a<jainst 
wind and tide. In 180S Stevens made a short ocean voya<ife by steam 
Irom New York to Philadelphia. A steam voya<j;e from Glasj^ow to 
London followed in 1S15; and one from New York to New Orleans, in 
iSiS. The fust steam voyage across the Atlantic was made by the 
Savamiah from New York to Liverpool, in 1S19, but having ex- 
hausted her supply of coal, she was ol)liged to have recourse to her sails 
toward the close of the voyage. Indeed, it was not until 1S33 that the 
route was considered entirely prarficable for steam navigation. Now, 
when even whalers use steam power at least as an auxiliary, one 
is liable to wonder why Ross diil not carry forward his original concep- 
tion. It is, therefore, but justice to him to draw the reader's attention to 
the state of the (piestion in that day. 

While sailing up Davis' Strait, the Victory, having received some 
injury to her spars and rigging, put into llolsteinberg, on the Greenland 
coast, just within the Arctic Circle, for repairs. Leaving on the 26th of 
June, tiiey found clear sailing through Bafhn's Bay and Lancaster 
Sound, with the tiiermometer at about 40°, and the weather so mild and 
genial that the officers could dine without a fb'e, and even with the sky- 
ligiil jiartially open. They s;iw no ice or snow except on the mountain 
tops; and at the entrance to Harrow Strait, where Parry at one time en- 
countered such v)bstruction from the ice, there was seen neither iceberg 
nor ice-lloe. 

Passing Cape York on the loth of August, they entered Prince 
Regent Inlet, and making for tlie western shore they finallv fell in with 
impeding ice between Sepping and Elwin Hays, on the 1 3th. The en- 
suing day they arrived at the place where the Furv had been aban- 
doned, but could see no trace of the disabled vessel. Her supplies and 


(.V, : .. ^.^t^r 






provisions, which, it will bo iviniMuhcrcd, had been put ..shore pivpaia- 
toi V to heavin- her on the ice for repairs, were fouiul intact and unin- 
jured, and now rurnisiicd seasonai)Ie replenishin- to those of the Victory. 
They left some Cor tlie use of |„,ssil)le future navi-jators, and made 
their own stock <,'ood f„r lo.-o days from <\aW. On the i^th ihev 
reached Cape (Jarry, just beyond I'arry's " limit," but si;,r|„c-,l ;md 
named by him. Since leaving' IClwi!-. Ray they bad eneounlered almost 
constant obstruction from ice-floe :ind iceberj,rs, but not to the same extern 
as their predecessors, liavin.i,r arrived earlier, and the season provin- 
much more favorable. Like them, however, they were often con.pelled 
to make fast to the smaller iceber^js, or to ice-lloe, and drift with them, 
now backward, now forward, from the shore or toward it, as (he wind 
drove or the current ran, with hu-je towerinj,^ masses of iee plun-- 
\\vr around on every side. The Victory was at times sorely pressed 
and received several hard knocks and crushinj,' s(pieezes, besides be- 
injj carried out of her course on several occasions. Once she lost nine- 
teen miles in a few hours, the current si)ceding fast in a contrary direc- 
tion; yet no serious damajje was sufFered. 

" Ima-,nne," says Parry, " these mountains hurled throu^di a narrow 
strait by a rapid tide, meetin,ir with the noise of thunder, breakiii-- fn.m 
each other's precipices hu.i;e fraj,'ments, or rendin- each other asunder, 
till, losinjj their former ecpiililirium, they fall over heaillon- liftin- the 
sea around in breakers, and whirlinjr it in eddies. There is not a monuiii 
in which it can be conjectured what will happen in tlie next. The atten- 
tion is troubled to fix on anythin.i,' amid such confusion; still must it be 
alive that it may seize on the sin.L,'le moment of help or escape which 
may occur. Yet, with all this, and it is the hardest task of all, is 
nothi..- to be acted, no effort to be made. One must I)e patient, as if he 
were unconcerneil or careless, waitiuij as he best can for the fate, be it 
what it may, which he cannot influence or avoid." 

Despite all obstacles they continued to make sonn- proi,n-ess to the 
south, anil by the middle of September had explored loo leagues of 
previously undiscovered coast. They had discovered and named Ihent- 
ford Bay, thirty miles beyond Cape Garry, with several fhie harl)orN, 



whidi were named Ports Lo^r;,,,, FJizahetli, and Eclipse. Lan.Iinjr on 
tlu' cast they took possession of the connliy for the Uritish crown, and 
naimdil Hoothia Felix, in honor of tiie patron of the expedition, Sir 
I'chx Uooth, with Uellot Strait on tlic north, the Gulf of Huolhia on the 
east, and Franklin Strait on the northwest. 


In what they called hy the unpoetic name of Mary Jones Hay, they 
found a secure rcfu-e for the ship, on the 17th of Sepfemher, 1829, only 
I 1 S days out fro.u Woolwich. To re.-ich it, however, it was found neces- 
sary to cut through the ice, and this I)ein<r done, they made n-ady for win- 
ter. Tlie steam machinery was entirely removcil, the vessel housed, and 
every precaution adopted to secure the safety of the vessel and the 1 ealth 
of tlic men. They were al)undantly supplied with necessaries, and the 
iiarhor was exceptionally safe for those latitudes. Soon they were frozen 
in, with hu<,'e masses of ice surrounding,' them to «eaward, and the whole 
landscape covered with snow. The thermometer sank several de<rroes 
below zero, and liiey were fairly entered on an Arctic winter, hut full of 
hope and hrijjht anticipations of what could he done after the usual nine 
ur ten iiioiiths' detention. 

On the ytli of January, 1S30, they were visited hy an unusually lar^'e 
niheof Escpiimaux, who seemed to he cleaner and hrijrhter, as well as 
l)elter dressed, than the others of their race hitherto encountered. They 
were alile to draw for Ross, as others had done elsewhere for Parry and 
r.eeeliey, fairly accurate sketches of the land and sea for many miles Thonrs Harbor, now Felix Harbor, where they lay. As ten 
years before Parry had found the female Ili<,rliuk the most intelli<,'ent of 
the i:squiniaux on Winter Island, so here the woman Teriksin proved to 
have the clearest ideas of the contigurat'ion of the coast of Boothia, 
Felix an<l the nei-,'hborini,' lands, bays and inlets. With two of the Es- 
(luiinaux as j^aiides, Capt. Ross, accompanied hy Thomas Blanky, first 
mate, set out on the 5tli of April to explore a strait to the west, which it 
was lioped mi<,rht prove a channel to the Arctic Ocean. On this jour- 
ney, as was afterward learned, they had approached within ten mil 

vi i 

es ot 

, i^l-i^r^^i^j^SUStll^' 



the point which the younger Ross designated the ensuing year as the 
magnetic pole. But the present party were on an entirely different er- 
rand, and though they discovered a hii<e and bay, and surveyed the coast 
some sixty miles farther south, the expedition led to no important re- 
suits. The younger Ross set out on the ist of May, and from an emi- 
nence descried a large inlet, which promised an outlet to the Arctic 
Ocean. Returning, he fitted out an expedition to » consist of himself and 
three companions, with a sledge and eight dogs, and provisions for three 
weeks." These set out on the 17th of May, and encountering the lake 
already referred to, and the river-which thev na.ned Garry-Ross -.s 
cendc.l the hill which he had previously used for h,s o])servations and 
saw a chain of lakes lea.ling hack almost to the harbor he had' left 
Moving along tiie shore of the western inlet, which has since been 
named Sir James Ross' Strait, the party reached Matty Islan.l, and cross- 
ing a narrow strait to the west, landed on what they believed was the 
mandand, and called King William's Land, but which the exploration of 
Smipson has since shown to be an island, separated fron> the continent 
by the strait called by his name. 

Pushing north, their dogs became exhausted, and the men ha<l to 
depend mainly on their own exertions. MVhen all is ice," says Ross 
" and all one dazzling mass of white-when the sm-faee of 'the sea itself 
IS tossed up and fixed into rocks, while the land is on the contrarv very 
olten flat-it is not always so easy a problen. as it n.ight seen/ on . view, to deter.nine a f.ct which appears in w.nds to be ex 
tremely simple." Hut despite exhaustion of dogs and men he kept on 
to the north, and on the 39th reached the most northern point of Kin.. 
Wdham's Land, and named it Cape Felix. Here he beheld the wide 
expanse of sea now known as McClintock Channel, exten.lin . auav to 
the northwest, and to the southwest the narrower channel lo., ^,^ 
Victoria Strait. Proceeding along the latter thev arrived on the 30th .t 
a headland which Ross named Point Victory, and to another which he 
saw n, the distance, he gave the name of Cape Franklin. They were 
about two hundre<l miles distant from Felix Harbor, wit!, onlv a few 
days' provisions left, and it became necessary to return at once: The> 

'.'* '\. 


erected the usual cairn, depositin,. a ,ea„cl of their experience and procu- 
res, and turned their faces to the east, with son.e .nis,ivin,s that th^ 
iKul already gone too far for their resources. This proved to be the 
lor, though the men survived, they lost six of the dogs, and were them- 
selves ahnost exhausted and helpless, when they had the good fortune to 
tall .n with some Esquimaux on the 8th of June. Hospitably enter- and supplied with a store of by these poor children of the 
tro.en north, they rested one day among them, and reached the ship on 
the .3th, having been absent four weeks instead of three. Capt Ross 
had nu-anwhile stn-veyed Boothia Isthmus, and discovered another lar^e 
body ot fresh water, which he na.ned Lady Melville Lake. 

To Iheir surprise and disappointment they were unable 'to leave their 
w.nter quarters until the ve.y anniversary of their entrance therein it 
beu.g the 7th of Septen.i,er, 1S30, when they were set free. Advancin<. 
only three n.iles in six <lays, they were a^ain fro.en in on the 33d o^f 
.Septen.bcr; and the remainder of the month and the whole of October 
were consun.ed in getting her into secure quarters. Here another 
dreary winter had to be passed, and as a precautionary measure, it was 
decMued prudent by Capt. Ross to reduce the allowance of provisions 
I he wnuer proved exceptionally severe, the thermometer goin<. down 
on some occasions as low as 93° below the freezing point, .n- (Z^ below 
.ero. Son.e surveys and local explorations were made in the sprint 
01 .N^^., but the most important expedition was the one in relation to 
the Magnetic Pole. 


The scientists „,-E„„,,:,i„c,l by theory „„.l oxperi,„c„. 

'"' ""■ ■"■ ■■"•>'"-''i^- 1'"'^^ """I'l 1« f"....<l sontowhne in ,1,0 nci.*- 

".I,,.„.l or where the Vietoty „., ,„,„ ,„,, „„, .,, ,„, ,,,_; 

Kv <>S 30 west. The yo,„„e,. Ross, arterwanl k„ow„ „s Sh- |a,„es' 
I, ava, e.l hunselror.he „pp„,,.,„!ty now lurnishe.! hy their enforced 
*.y ... Lch. Ilarhor to otake the ol,se,va.i„„s a,„l eaIculatio„s oceessarv 

to (letermiiie its exact 1 



)f M; 

y. i^^^ii, It i 

expeilition set out toward tl 

lavmg been previously ascertained that they 

lie entl 

were not 

5 I 





far (Hstaiit from the desired point. The weatiier had turned stormy; hut 
their zeal took small notice of the chan<>e, and they hurried forward 
toward the place indicated hy Ross' calculations. On the 31st they were 
within ahout fourteen miles of it; and on the next moriiin;^% leavin<;- iheii- 
Inifjfjjfai^e and provisions on the heach wiiere they had camped, tiiey ar- 
rived at the spot at eight o'clock. "The place of the ohservation," says 
Ross, "was as near to the majjjnetic pole as the lir-iited means which I 
possessed enahled me to determine. The amount of the dip, as indi- 
cated hy my dipping-needle, was S9" 59', being thus within one mimite 
of the vertical; while the proximity at least of this pole, if not its actual 
existence where we stood, was turther confirmed hy the action, or rather 
by the total inaction of the several horizontal needles then in my pos- 
session. These were suspended in the most delicate manner possible, 
but there was not one which showed the slightest elfort to move from 
the position in which it was pfaced." The very force which attracts mil- 
lions of free compass-needles all over the northern hemisphere in its di- 
rection, was Iiere inactive. The corresponding South I'ole of terrestrial 
magnetism has been computed to be at 66' south latitude, and i.|6" 
east longitude — not diametrically opposite therefore, as the geograpliical 
2)olcs of the eartii are. The fimous (Jerman mathematician. Gauss, com- 
puted that the theoretic location of tiie north magnetic pole, in iSn 
should have been three degrees farther north; but the point determined 
by Ross ililTcred only eleven minutes from Parry's calculations. 

" As s(H)n," says Ross, "as I had satisfied my own mind 011 llie sub- 
ject, I made known to the party this gratifying result of our joint labors; 
and it was then that, amidst mutual congratulations, we lixed tiie Uritisli 
Hag on the spot and took possession of the North Magnetic Pole and its 
adjoining territory in the name of Great Britain and King ^V'illialn 1 \'. 
We had abundance of materials tor l)uilding, in the fragments of lime- 
stone that covered the beach, and we therefore erected a cairn of some 
magnitude, under which we buried a canister containing a record of the 
interesting fact, only regretting that we had no*^ 'he means of construct- 
ing a pyramid of more importance, and of strengtii sulHcient to with- 
stand the assaults ot time and of the Esquimaux. Had it been a pvia- 

1111(1 as lai 

-<e as that nf Cheops, I am >,ot .luitc- 

<loiic more than satisfy our ainhitio.i und 



(lay. The latitude of tl 

liiite sure that it would 
cr the feeliiiirs „f that excitin<' 


us spot is 70 ' 5' ,7", ;i„a it, lon,rit.,de (/, ■ 46' 


The laud at this plac 

:e is very I 

•y low near the coast, hut it 

♦)!• sixty feel hijrh, ahout 
wished that a plaee so iuiportaut had 

It was scarci 


a mile inland. W 
possessed more of mai- 

rrses into 

c could have 

k or note. 

censurahle lo rei^-ret that tli 

(licate a spot to which so much of interest 

(Diild (.'ven have [jardoned any on 

'>!• al.sunl as to expect that the Ma-.netic Pol 

iL-re was not a mountain to in- 
must ever he attached; and I 

•^ amoiii,' us who had 1 

)een so romantic 

innis mysterious as the fahled mountain of Sinhad 

lo v/as an ohject as conspic- 

a niounlani of iron, or a maj^net as 1 
had here erected n 

ii-f^e as Mont lil 

, that it was c-veii 
inc. Hut nature 

o moi 

IS the center of one of Ik 

lument to denote the spot which she had cl 
■I- .i,n-eat and dark powers, and wl 


do little ourselves toward this c\u\.'' 

.eavin- the ma-netic p(,le, and the abandoned 1 

which they had th 

1^ ili'i'nl fortune to find tl 

arrival, they set out for the si 

lie re ready f 

!iip. IJlinded h 

liere we could 

'^s(iinmaii\ hnis 
or use on their 

was slow and dilHcuIt, hut tl 

y snowstorms their ])ro;j^ress 

icy reached the harl 


scnce of twenty-ei-rht days. Tl 

'or m safety after an 

iiia'jiK'tic pol 

he reader should l)ear 

tile t 

poles are variahie points, not llxed positi(ms. 


ol the discov 

in mind that the 
was supposed at 

sliip, llic\- were detained 

;iii imprisonment of eleven niont 

cry o( the northern one by Ross. Arrived at thi 
some weeks loii-er in winter (piarters; hut after 


is since their futile atlcmnt t 

"• previous year, they succeeded on the 2Sth of Au-ust i,S 



to escape on 

,^aist, i.S,:5i,iii workiii<r 

■y into open water. On the 39th they set sail in tl 

cllort to push tiiroii-rh t 

le vam 

he ice, hut found the t 

continued exertions for a whol 

isk impracticahlc. Hv 

Ic month they had won only t 

and were a-ain frozen in on the ^ytli of Septeinl 

V loin- miles 

:'pi>iopiiatcly have named Infel 

ptemher, in what they miirht 


ix (Unhappy) Ilarhor. S 

I years 

was such hopeless pro.jrress that the di 

'(.'Veil miles in 

statu hills of th 

«'ir native 

'-'I nuist have seemed heyond their reach t^.rever. Hut the hrave min 
'""I- at the impossible as calmly as he may, and turns his attention else- 



I » J ' * 

where. It was therefore determinccl that on the return of spring their 
energies slionhl be directed to effecting their escape in another way. It 
was recollected that on the beach where the Fury had been abandoned 
by Parry, and where they had, it will be rcmeinliered, replenished their 
stores in 1839, there were, among the other supplies, several boats which 
belonged to that ill-fated vessel. It was now designed that they siiould 
make the best of their way to that point, and availing themselves of the 
boats, provisions and supplies there to be found, make an effort to reach 
the whaling grounds in BaiHn's Bay, and thus return, if it might be, to 
their native land. It was ;i great and arduous undertaking, but not (itiite 
as hopeless as the attempt to extricate the Victory had been. It was a 
chance for life and liberty, and was worth striving for. 

On the 2 ^(1 of April, 1S32, they entered on the task. Having collected 
the necessary supplies, they set out to remove them over the ice. " The 
loads being too iieavy to be carried at once, made it necessary to go 
backward and forward twice, and even oftener, the same day. They 
had to encounter dreadful tempests of snow and drit't, and to make sev- 
eral circuits in order to avoid impassable barriers. The result was that 
by the 12th of May they had traveled 339 miles to gain thirty in a 
direct line." This preliminary work having been laboriously executed, 
they returned to the ship, and on tiie 29th of May took their final leave 
of her. The colors of the Victory were formally hoisted and nailed to 
the mast; the officers and men left her, and last of all, the cominaniler 
bade her adieu. " It was," he says, " the first vessel that I had ever been 
obliged to abandon, after having served in thirty-six during a period of 
fbrlv-two years. It was like the last parting with an old friend, ami 1 
did not pass the point where she ceased to be visible without stopping to 
take a sketch of this melancholy desert, rendered more melancholy bv 
the solitary, abandoned, helpless home of our past years, fixed in immov- 
able .ce till time should perform on her his usual work.'' 

On the 9th of June James Ross, with two companions and provisions 
for two weeks, struck ahead of the main body to ascertain how matters 
then stood at Fury Heach. Fortunately, though some of the boats had 
been washed away since 1S39, ^'■'^''■^' were still enough left for their pur- 



pose, and the provisions had remained uninjured. Rejoining the main 
i)ody on the 35th they hastened forward an.l reached their immediate 
t(oal on the ist of July. They ^erected a hwge tent which they named 
Somerset House, and began to put the boats in readiness. 

On the 1st of August they took to the boats, a considerable expanse 
of open water being available for their northern progress. They, how- 
ever, as was expected, encountered many obstacles from the ice, but 
sL.wly a.ul cautiously they threaded their way amidst the dangerous floes 
and packs, reaching the northern entrance of Prince Regent Inlet ])y 
the close of the mo.Uh. Arrived there, further progress Jas barred by 
tlK- impenetrable masses of ice which encumbered its entrance and the 
adjoining portion of Barrow's Strait. They were obliged to haul their 
boats ashore and await a more flivorable opportunitv. The tents were 
pitched, and Barrow's Strait was scrutinized day by day, but it refused 
to yield tliem an opening. After watching nearly three weeks for the 
chance that it seemed would never come, with their provisions running 
low, and starvation staring them in the face should they remain, i* was 
■lecided to turn their backs once more on England, and go back to 
Fury Beach, where at least an abu.ulance of provisions for their small 
parly could still be found. They reached Batty Bav, about half way 
on the return voyage, in the boats, when their further progress l)y 
water was stopped by the ice. An overland trip to Somerset was 
a repetition of the labors „f the spring, but it was safely accomplished 
.-> twelve days, and on the 7th of October they were again housed in 
the eapai'ious tent on Fury Beach. 

To make tliis refuge tenantable during the approaching winter, 
tlH'V built a wall of snow four feet thick all arou.ul, an.l placed a board' 
roof overhea.l to receive a deep covering of the same. Stoves were 
l"""n.l among the abundant stores of the Fmy, and by their help this 
cxte,np.,ri/ed habitation was made fairly com(ortal)le. ' They got along 
verv well until the increasing severity of the weather an.l "th^e intense 
col.l n.nllne.I them in.loors, when sciuvy began to appear. On Feb. 
'"^ i^S^v Mr. Tiiomas, tiie carpenter, .lie.l, an.l two ..thers soon fol- 
i>'we.i. - Tiieir s,tuati.>n was becming truly awful, since, if thev were 



il i^; 


I Ii1ht;iU-(1 tin- I'lisuiiiir simiiiu-r, Iil(U> pn^spt'ct appoinvd of ll 

H'lr siir- 

viviiii; iiiiotluT yi-;ir. ll \v;is m\vss:irv lo mil 

;iiu\- (>r pivsoivi'd iiUMis; hivad \v;is soiiU'\vli;il d 

wiiu- and sjjirils was I'liliirlv i-\l);nisti'd. 1 lowcvi-r, as ll 


ki' a ivdiii-lioii III llu' 


I'liciiMil, and llu' slock ol 

u'v i'aii''lil 


s, wlui'li Wl'll- 

i-onsidfivd a dflii-ai-y, and iIil-iv was pU>nlv of Mom, 
suivar, soups and VLMVtal)k>s, a dii-t i-onld W t-asily anan-c-d siill'u-ii'nl |„ 
suppoil llu- parly." WliiU- llu- iir ivmaiiu-d Mini, il was di-mu-d ad\ isa- 


I- lo irinovt- siu-li provisions as llu-v wi-iv iiol lila-iv to lu-t-d to I: 


Hav, to 1)1- 

in n-adiiu-ss 

for I 

u- smnnu-r fxiji-diiion lo llu- norlli. Th 

distaiui- was hut thirl y-t wo inilos, yd il took 

a luonlli with tlu- irdiui'd 

foivi- to inaki- the Iranst 

or, most of llu-in .-j^oiiii,' oyer the ,L,n<)iind ci-dit 


Phoy left Sonu-rsot House onco more on the Slh of [uly, and on ll 
eiu-amped at l^atty Hay, only to repeat the tedious operal 

1 Jth wi-i-i 


ol" wateiuiij^ for the openintj;- of the wat 

eis, as on llu- previous year at 
was rewardi-d hy 

Harrow's Strait. Thirly-thn-e days' patient seruiiiiy 
the diseovery of a lane into w.ich they eould venture with 
reachino- the head of the inlet. On the istli of Au,<,nis| they |,„,l 
boats, and with patient skill and 

some hopt' (>f 

k to tlu 

ener-'v, t! 

*UL;Ii llu sea wa 

s lor tlu- most 

part eneumhered with iee, they reached Harrow's Stiait two days I 



ere an a-,n-eeahle surprise awaiteil them; for where t 

u- year hefore ll 


most tortuous e-^iess was fouiul impraetieahle, this year, tl 

, thonnh only Uyo 

ei\- side 

weeks earlier in tlu- season, an open sea greeted them on ev 
Pushin- east they approacheii Cape York, and a week later reached a 
safe harhor on the eastern shore of Na\y Hoard Inlet. 

On the mornin- of 'he ^()tii, at ( o'clock— none too early for such 
joyful news— they were awakened from their heavy and almost hopeless 
slumhcrs to learn that a ship was in si-ht. (^uick as men escapin- from 
imminent peril, they jumped to their oars, hut the vessel disappeared in 
the ha/e hefore they could reach her, or attract the attention of those on 
Itoard. Aiui now the revulsion of fcelint; was fast sinkiuj,' into desp;-ir, 
w-hoii a few hours later they had the <,'ood fortune to si^^Hit another vessrl 
lyiii.ij in a calm. Hurriedly and encrj,retically rowini,^ (..ward lur with 

their eyes fixed in a steady 

azc on 


e <>• 

ad vision, and their heaits 

m i. 



vvavc.rlMjrbdwccM, Iiope mul foar, thc-y soc.„ reached the stately sl,ip 
wimh proved (., he the Isahella .,f Hull, n..w a whaler, hut llfteeu years' 
iHlorc , the ship in whieli lt„ss uia.le his lirst Arctic voya^a^ 1 ler captain 
ai..i eiew c..ui<l with dilliculty he persua.led liiat tiieir ^^ucsts were what 
theyrepreseute<ltiiemselvest.,he-Capt. Rossaud his parly of Arctic 
explorers-fur had they not l.ecn reported dead two years hefore? It 
was a queer story, aud one with which it was useless to try f. deceive 
liie hoiie>.t whalers. 

lin-lish, they were, of course; any one could sec that, despite their 
uue-he-one and weather-heaten appearance, an<l the hospitality of the 
IsalKlla should he -ladly exten.led to them; hut Capt. Ross ami his 
party were <lead and -one, alas! never more to he seen in the llesh, on 
water or on land! With such .lenn.nstration as it was in their power t<, 
-ive, the new-comers soon dispelled the .louhts and misjrivin-s of their 
n.untrymen, and as soon as it hc-came clear to them that "they were 

^''■'' "'^" "'""^' "''"• ''••"• ''^•^■'> '....urned for in I':n;,dan.l as dea.I, the 

ri-Mn- was .p.ickly manne.i to do them honor, an<l with thiee hearty 

cheers Ross an, I his party were formally vvelcome.l on hoanl the Isahella. 

" Thou-1, ,ve ha<l not heen supported I,y our names and characters," 

says Ross, " we should not the less have claime.l from charitv tiie alten- 

li.H.sthat we received; for never were seen a more miserahle set of 

wretches. U.ishaven since I know not when, dirty, dressed in the ra-s 

<'!• u'ii.l Leasts, an.I starved to the very hones, our -aunt and .irrim looirs, 

whou contrasted with those of the well-dressed an<l well-fed men around 

.IN nia.le us all feel-I helieve for the Ih-st time-what we really were, as 

well as what we seemed to others. Hut the ludicrous soon took the place 

"I" all other feelin-s; in such a crowd and such confusion, all serious 

thought was impossihle, while the new huoyancy of our spirits made us 

al.-M.dantly willin- to he amused hy the scene which now opene.l. ICvery 

man was hungry, and was to he fed ; all were ra-r,,i, and were to he 

^■lothnl ; there was not one to whom washin- was not indispensahle, norone 

whom his heard did not .lepriveof all human semhlance. AU-everythin-, 

too. ' ' 

to l)e done at once; it 

was washin<;,dressiu<r,sl 

iiiteiinini^rjed. It was all th 

iavm<i,eatm'r. al 

e materials of each jumhled to-eth 

er, while 

"■/ f wiiffflff •'»^' 



; ! J 






in the midst of all there were iiUermiiiahle (jiiestions to be asked and 

answered on both sides; the adventnrcs of the Vietory, our own escapes, 

th,> politics of Enj,^land, ami the news which was now four years old. 

But all subsided into peace at last. The sick were acconiniodateil, the 

seamen disposed of, and all was done for us which care aiul kindness 

could perform. Night at len<,^th brou<,'ht quiet and serious thouj^ht, and 

I trust there was not a man among us who did not then exjjress where 

it was due, his gratitude for that interposition which had raised us all 

from a despair which none could now forget, and had brought us from 

the borders of a most distant grave, to life, and friends, and civilization. 

Long accustomed, however, to a cold bed on the hard snow, or the bare 

rocks, few could sleep amid the comforts of our new accommodations. 

I was myself compelled to leave the bed v/hich had been kindly assigned 

me, and take my abode in a chair for the night; nor ilid it fare much 

better with the rest. It was for time to reconcile us to this sudden change, 

to break through wliat IkuI become habit, and to inure us once more to 

the usages of our former days." 

The Isabella prosecuted her fishing for five weeks longer, and did 
not set out on her return until the 30th of September. They made the 
Orkneys on the i.'th, and Hull on the 18th of October, where the free- 
dom of the city was bestowed on Capt. Ross, and be and bis men were 
entertained at the jjublic expense. On the i<)th he set out for London to 
report to the admiralty, and was soon presented to the king at Windsor. 
London, Liverpool, and Bristol Jollowed the example of Hull in bestow- 
ing the freedom of tiie respective cities on Capt. Ross. The officers and 
men receixed the customary double pay allowed to Arctic explorers, up 
to the dale of abandoning the shij), and the regular pay thereafter. I?y 
a vote of parliament in 1S34, Capt. Ross received a grant of $^:;,o(XJ, 
and was raised ])y the king to the dignity of a Knigiit Companion of ihe 
I?ath. Other honoiv, followed from various quarters, foreign and domes- 
tic, and in 1S35 he published "Residence in Arctic Regions," -tc.,— an 
account of his second voyage. In 1851 he was created a rear-admiral, 
and (lied in 1856. James C. Ross was raised from the rank of com- 
mander ;o thai of captain, and was ^oon after engaged in the magnetic 



sn,^y of Great Britain an.l L-dan.!. ,n .836 he .nacie a,e to 
15aft„ s Lay ,„. the .eiieCof .he rn,.e>. whalers ,.f that yearra.ui in 
.S,S9-4,? was n, command of an Antaretie expUition, in whieh he reached 
-^'^'■> <"-' 'Hnuh-ed -.n.X sixty miles of the Soutl, Maf^netie Pole, an.l on 
the return from whieh he receive.! the honor of kni.^hthood. In iS^, he 
puhhshed his uVoyaije of Discovery in Southern Seas, .839.43" H, 
u-di aj^ain con,e hefbre the reader as one of the searchers A.r Sir John 
Franklin, in 1848. ^ 

i % ■ 





(;UKAT KISII inV|.;il_AN AKlTIf HKSII)KNt|.:-^AKAITlll()_A 

When Ross had been jroiir three years on his second voya<(e without 
any tidin-s leacliiu- linjrland, hi. coimtrynien hecame sohcitous alx.ul 
his fate. Dr. Riciiardson first called public attention to tlie matter, and 
volunteered his services. As tiie expedition of Ross was not under -ov- 
cnunent auspices, a sullklent justification of the expense to be incurred 
would be found in he proposed survey of a portion of the unexplored 
coast of North America. His project was to strike out from Hudson's 
Bay by the northwestern route to Coronation (nilf, where he was to 
connnence his search for the missuijr ship, proceedino- in an easterly di- 
rection to Melville PiMiinsula, thus completing,- the survey from the Re- 
turn Reef of Franklin, to the iMuy and Ilecla Strait, of I'arrv. 'j^ie 
proposition was favorably received by the authorities, but n.. action was 
taken, tlie ministry nf that i)eriod beint,- too much pre-oci'upied with the 
intense political activities which then prevailed in En<,dand. 

In November, I. S32, a public meetin,i,r was called at London, to set 
on foot a pojndar subscription to lit out a private exnedition for the re- 
lief of Ross. Twenty thousand dollars were thus raised, to which the 
,<,mvernment, at the sujrj,restion of Lord Goderich -afterward ICarl ol 
Ripon, at the time colonial Secietary of State— added ten thousand. 
Capt. Hack, who, it will be remend)ere(', .lad already made two.,\er- 
land journeys to the coast of North America in company with l■^•ald^lin 
and Kichanlson, oOered his services, which weri' pr<>mpt!v acrepted. 




IIcMU once set about his p.-eparatio,.s, and to n.cilita.. ,hc cxccutio,, of 
iHs plans, In- was formally commission^ hy the Ihulson's HayCon.pany, 
-. , instructions f^-o... ,1,. ..lonial oHicc. Accompanied l.y I),-. 
<-••'•"•;' K.n. as naturalist, and .hrcc- nu. wh,. ha.l l.ccn with hin. and 
I'-ankhn n. ,8.5, Mack left Liverpool f..,- N,w ^'ork on .he .7th of Feb- 
••->-y. .83,^, arriving in safety hy one of ,he regular packet ships ailer a 
^'<;nny voya... of thirty-ilve days. Procecdin,. to Montreal, he was 
.; 1^ tbnr volunteers Horn the royal artillery, and en.a^ed some 
!• rench Canadians as boatmen an<i porters. Th.y set out in two canoes 
•'•' the .5th of April, an,l lost .wo men by desertion on the Ottawa 
K.ver. '^-chin,. Norway II,, a post of the Hudson Hay Company, at 
the northern extremity of Lake Winnipf.,., nnule his llnal prepar.- 
..ons andset out from that point on the 3,Sth of Jm,e, .0 continue the 
--■-■'-"I trip to the northwest. A. l'i„e P,,,,., ,,, ,,,, ,, ,- ,^,,, ,,^. ^,_^ 
employe of the Hudson Hay Con.pany, .leputed bv ( lov. Simpson' for 
"- l-pose. His nan.e was A. R. McLeo.l, and he had jus. returned 
no.H Ihc River with a valuable car^., of fu,.. He was ac- 
-.npanie<l by his wi,b, three chihlren and a servant, all of whom were 
-- .1"--' to Hack's party. They arrived at Ft. Chipewvan, on the 
western end of Lake Athabasca, the 3oth of July; an.l at Ft. Resolution, 
"H (Meat Slave Lake, the Sth of Auj^ust. Hack thus describes his imn,e- 
diate siuToundn.-s in camp at Ft. Resolution: 

"At n,y feet was a rolle.l bundle in oil-cloth, containin-.^ some three 
M-nkets, called a bed; near it a piece of ,lried bullalo, fancifullv or- with lon^ black hairs, which no art, alas! can prevent h-om 
.ns.nuatin,,^ themselves between the teetl>, as von laboriously masticate 
tl- .ou,h,hanl ilesh; .1,.,, a tolerably clean napkin, spread by wav of 
•'''''-'""•' "-"-1 piece of canvas, au.I supporting a teapot, soniel-is- 
cmts,an<l a sah-cellar; near this a tin plate: close bv a square kind of 
iH.x or sa.e of the sam. .material, rich with a pale, <,reasy hair, tiie pro.l- 
uco o, tlK. colony at K..\ River; an,l the last, the tar renowned pcMiuni- 
c-an, ,nu,uestionably the best food of tiie country for such expeditions as 



^\\\d me were two boxes 

and a m xiani iviiiir on il 

containniLC astronomical instrument^ 


le .<(round, while the did'erent 

coi-ners of the tent 




|{ S ; i 




/1 7' I\nir HESOLUriON. 

were occupied I.y a washing apparatus, a <^m\, an Iiulian shot-pouch, 
l)a},'s, basins, and an unhappy Icokin;,' japanned, whose melancholy 
bumps and hollows seemed to rejjroach me for many a bruise endined 
upon the rocks and porta<,'cs between Montreal and Lake Wiimipefr. 
Nor were my crew less motley than the furniture of the tent. It in- 
sisted of an Kni^rjishman, a man from Stornaway, two Canadians, two 
metifs or half-breeds, and three Iroquois Indians. Habel could not have 
produced a worse confusion of inharmonious sounils I ban was the con- 
versation they kept uj)." 

Here Back separated from McLeod and his family, five of his men 
bciii;r detailed to accompany them, while with the other foin- he pushed 
forward to the northeast in search of the upper waters of the Thiew-ee- 
Choh, or Great Fish River of the North. On Au-. ly they be-an the 
ascent of the series of rapids and waterfalls which form the Hoar Frost 
River; and on the 27th— after eight days of weary stru-jrie with forests, 
swamps, portaj;es, streams, lakelets, rapids, aid cascades— Hack, from 
the summit of a hill, saw to liie northeast the v.ide expanse of water now 
known as Aylmer Lalvc. Scndiufr forward three men with a canoe (.. 
explore the eonnectinj,' river, Back proceeded to search the vicinity of 
the camp, and discovered the source of :iie oreat river he sou.yht, in 
Sand Hill, now Sussex Lake._ The men returned on the Jyth, liaviii- 
reached Aylmer Lake on the second day out ; and Bar'., eelehratediiis 
discovery with them. "For this occasion," i.e says, '^ I had reserved a 
little jrrous and need hardly say with what cheerfulness it was sIkiu,! 
amon<rthe crew, whose welcome tidin<,rs Iiad verified tiie notion of Dr 
Richardson and myself, and thus placed beyond doubt tlie cxisteiue of 
the Thlew-ee-Choh, or (ireat l''isii River." 

Attemptin>r t,, push on to the river proper on tlie 30th, thev found 
the rapids of Musk-ox Lake inipracticaiiie witli tiicir present e(|uipment, 
and concluded to return to (ireat Slavi' Lake for the winter. Tlicv 
struck the lakes Clinton-Colden and Artillery on {\\v retiuii trip, and 
abandoning,'- their canoe, set out across the \\v;^<^c(\ and broken eoinilrv 
for tile appointed rendezvous. Climbing- over precipices aiul picking- 
their w.iy through gorges and laNincs i-ncuinbered witli massi-K of 




ilc, tiK-y rcaclu-(l the exfrcinc northeast corner of Groat Slave Lake 
helore tl,e middle „f Septeini)er. Here they found McLcod and his 
party returned; and the framework of a comfortahle residence set up l.y 
ihcin. With the increased help, it projrresse.l rapidly; and here, on the 
■ "111, tl- y were joined l.y Dr. Kinjr, with two hateaux laden with sup- 
l.lifs. On the 5th of Novemher the house was ready f„r occupancy, 
.ui.i they -ladly exchanj^ed their tents f„r its welcome shelter. It was 
liliy feet lon;r I'v thirty wide, and was .livided into four rooms, besides a 
central hall, where they received their Indian visitors. To it was attached 
a ;nore rudely constrncte.l kitchen. It prove.l a very severe winter, th-j 
tlKimonieter .lescemlin- to 70 ' I.elow zero, an.l tiiey were surrounded 
l.y starvin- In.lians, whom they were hut little able to assist from their 
Innited stores. Iluntin-, their only resource, failed them, an.l they 
luiintc.l the camp of the whites for tiie occasional relief that could he 
^paivd llu-ni. "Famine, with her -aunt and bony arm," says Back, 
•• piesse.l them at every turn, withered their ener-ies, an.l strewed them' 
i-oM an.l lifeless on the bosom of the snow. Often .11.1 I share my 
own plate with the children, whose helpless state and piteous cries were 
[Kvuliarly .listressin-; compassion for the full -n.wn may ..r may not be 
IMI, but that heart must be cased in steel which is insensible to" the cry 
111' a rhil.l foi- food." 

Akaitcho, an Indian chief of the rejrion near Artillery Lake, now 
opportunely ma.le his appearance at F.,rt Reliance, the abode of Mack 
.ni^l Iiis party, with supplies of fresh provisions, which enabled them 
to -ive some aid to the starvin- Indians. They ..Iso reduced their 
own allowance, the otHcers contenting themselves with half a pound of 
pciuinican per .lay. The cold grew more intense, and the hunters could 
scarcely handle their weapons. It was found necessary to wrap the 
triggers in leather thongs, the pains arising from the touch of cold steel 
were s.. excruciating. " Such, indeed, was the abstraction .,f heat," says 
n.ick," that with eight large logs of dry wood on the tire, I could not 
get the thermometer higher than 12" below zero. Ink and paint froze. 
The sextant boxes and cases of seasoned wood, principally fir, all snlit. 


e skin of tiie hands bee; 

uue drv, cracked, and 

Oldened into unsightly 

..11. .^. . 





J?ashes, which wc were (,hli<.e.l to anoint with grease. On one occasion, 
alter washin- my face within tiiree feet of the Hre, niv iiair was actually 
clotted with ice before I liad time to ch-y it." The whites were now 
themselves in <Ian-er <,f perishing, their hunters hcin- unable to replen- 
ish their fast-dwindlin- stores; I„-t Akaitcho, with his more iiardy ,-,nd 
experienced Indians, succeeded in procuring considerable game, which 
he freely shared with the strangers. "The great chief trusts in u.s," bo 
sai<l, uand it is better that ten Indians shouhl perish, than that one wiiite 
man should perish through our negligence and breach (,t faith." 

On the .4th of February, iS,:;,., McLeod removed his famiiv nearer 
to the Indian hunting grounds in the hope of being better able to supply 


their wants. Six of the natives near his new camp died of st.uvation, 
and his party were for a time in some danger of meeting the same fate.' 
On the 25th of April a messenger arrived at 1< ort Reliance, to inform 
Hack of the arrival m lingland, <.f Capt. Ross an<I the survivors of his 
party. "In the fullness of our hearts we assembled together," .says 
JJack, "and humbly ofFered up our thanks to tnat merciful I'rov'idenee, 
who, in the beautiful language of Scripture, hath sai.l: ^Mine own will 
I bring again, as [ did sometime from the deeps of the sea.' The 
thoughts of so wonderful a i)rescrvation ovcrpowere.l for a time the com- 
mon occurrences of life. We had sat down to breakfast, but om- ap- 
petite was gone, and the day was passed in a. feverish state <>f excitement." 


Back, however, did not relax in his preparations for explorin.^^ the 
(ir...t Fish River, to which he could devote himself with the kj dis- 
irac-tion, now tliat he was relieved fro.n all apprehension ahout Ross, 
ilavin,!,^ sent McLeo.l .n<l his party ahea.l to hnnt, with instructions to deposits of provisions at proper intervals, and havin- hnried 
al Fort Reliance such stores as they desired to take along, Back set 
out on the 7th of June, accon^xinied hy Dr. King, four attendants, and 
an In.lian guide. At Artillery Lake he found the hoat builders he had 
di.patclied in advance, and the boats they had constructed. Taking the 
host of these, lie fitted it with runners after the niau.ier of Parry's boats 
in .Sj;. They took a fresh start on the 14th, with six dogs attacked to 
li,e boat-sle.lge, but encountering severe snowstorms and strong winds, 
I heir progress was slow. 0>i the 33d they found one of McLeod's de- 
ports containing a supply of deer and musk-ox flesh, and two days later, 
a second-in all, eleven animals. To overcome the squeamishness of the 
men, P.ack ordered that his own rations and those of the officers, sho.ild 
comprise a due share of the objectionable musk-ox flesh, and impressed 
upon them tlie necessity of combating their prejudices, and using with 
thankfulness such food as the country supplied. 

, Keaciiing Sand Hill Lake on the 37th, they found McLeod's party 
encamped there; and the next day, after a short portage of only a 
tcTofa mile, the boat was launched (m the upper -vaters of the Great 
iMsh River. They soon reached Back's limit of the preceding year, and 
haNing successfully accomplished the long portage of four miles beyond, 
iiaek made his llnal dispositions before proceeding to descend the river.' 
lie .lireeted MeLeod with ten men and fourteen dogs to return to Fort 
i^'solution to take charge of the supplies to be forwarded to that point 
U the Hudson's Bay Company; to select a permanent fishing station, 
and erect a suitable buil.ling; and to return by the middle of September 
t- the (ireat Fish River to aflford such assistance as might lie required by 
the exploring partv on its return fnim the north. The earpeuters, with 
a:. InH,,u,is gui.le, were sent a day or two later to join McLeod; a'n.l on 
the Sih of July Back, accompanie.l by ten persons, took his departure in 
the hoat, with 3,360 pouiuls of provisions for the round trip. 







Now began a series of remarkable feats of dexterity and courage. 
Rapid after rapid had to be passed, always with elements of danger, and 
often bristling with chances of disaster. For about a hundred miles they 
had the exciting alternations of cascades and rapids in quick succession. 
In many of these a slight miscalculation, or what in other circumstances 
would be a trifling negligence, would h.ive proved fatal; but the skill 
and quick dexterity of tlie men was never at faidt, and the boat was 
safely guided through the most precipitous rapids. Sometimes it was 
necessary to unload her, am! carry the provisions ahead to be again put 
aboard as soon as the plunge was successfully made. At one time, wliere 
the river trends to the south, it seemed as if it woukl conduct them to 
Chesterfield Inlet and Hudson's Hay, but soon it again turned to tiie 
north, and there remained no doubt that it was the Great Fisii River. 
After a time they reached the wide expansions which IJack successively 
named Lakes Felly, Garry, Macdougall and Franklin. On the 28th of 
July they fell in with a tribe of thirty-five Esquimaux, who proved of 
great service to them in making the last long portage, worn out as they 
were by their previous labors. Hack descried in the distance the head- 
land at the mouth, which he named Victoria, and concluded that he had 
at length reached the estuary of the river. 

"This, then," says he, "may be considered as the mouth of the 
Thlew-ee-Choh, which, after a violent antl tortuous course of 530 geo- 
graphical miles, running through an iron-ribbed country, witliout a single 
tree on the whole line of its banks, expanding into ^wc large lakes, with 
clear iiorizon, most embarrassing to the navigator, and broken into falls, 
cascades and rapids, to the numl)er of eighty-tiiree in the whole, pours its 
water into the Polar Sea, in latitmle 67" i i ' N., and longitude 9 4 ' ,^0' 
W., tliat is to .^ay, about thirty-seven miles more south than tiie Copper- 
mine River, and nineteen miles more south than Hack's River (of 
Franklin), at the lower extremity of Hathurst's Inlet," which opens 
south from^ Coronation Gulf. Ptishing forward along tlie eastern shore 
of the estuary with great dilliculty, without lire, and alm<.st witliout 
water, in cold, foggy weather, tramping through slush and snow, they 

reached, in ten days, 68' i^' k"" h\- a\" -S' 1" .^-1-.;--!-. P ■ -i- \ \ \ 

' j^ ' "-' M 3/ 'O y4 O'^ i ,%vnit_n l>ack eonelucied 

VOrAG£: IN THE TERHOli. 353 

to .nake the of his exploration. Across the estuary to the north- 
v.est he saw a headland at 68" 46' by ,6° 30', he „a..ed Cape Richard- 
son havn,. before Capes JJeaufort and Hay on the eastern side 
I ...nun,, nve weeks were cons„n.ed in ascendin, the river to 
band Ildl Lake, where they arrived Sept. .6, an<l fonnd McLeod await- 
|n. then, wuh n.uch needed supplies, as n.any of their provision depots 
ad been niled by the volves. Q, the .4th they fell in with son.e In- 
< -as, and soon after abandoned their boat because of the dilliculty of 
the ascent, taking, their provisions on their ],acks, about seventyl-e 
pounds to each. On the 37th they reached their old cjuartcrs at Ft Re- 
l.nnce, ^^ truly ^rateful for the nnunlbld n.ercies they had experienced in 
.he course ot their Ion,, and perilous journey," after an ai.ence of . . . 
.lays on the part of JJack and his in.mediate attendants. All but six were 
sot McLeod to the fishin<, station he had selected, and Parry's 
s.nall party settled A,r the winter, the monotony of which was relieved 
l>y lunun,,. an.l occasional visits from Akaitcho and other Indians 

On the 3.stof March, 1S35, loavin. Dr. Kin^ with instructions to 
proceed to York Factory, on Hudson Hay, when the season opened 
.here to take ship for England with his companions, i3ack set out to re^ 
trace the <werland route to Canada. He visited McLeod and party at 
the l.shery, and arrival at Norway House, on Lake Winnipc, on the 
-'.flh. Here h,s accounts with the Hudson's Hay Company were ad- 
justed, an<l he pushed forward throuoh Canada to New YoH., whence 
he sa.led to Ln.dand, arrivin,^ a, Liverpool on the Sth of September 
.N35, alter an absence of t^vo years and seven months, less nine davs V 
-nth later Dr. Ivinj, and the others of the party arrived in I^n.-huul by 
one oi the Hudson's IJay Con.pany's ships. Hack was awarded the ...Id 
uicdal ot the Koyal (Geographical Society, and promoted to the ra,>i of 
post-captain in the navy. The river he discovered wa. alterward called 
by h,s name, without, however, entuvly losing its older designation. 
At the instigat.on of the Royal Geographical Societv, Capt. Back 
undertook a voyage of exploration, or survey, mainly to supply some 

; J 




t \: 

mis^illo links in the chain of former discoveries ip North America. He 
was to malcc for \\Aagor River or Repulse Bay, as mij,'ht be found most 
practicable; and thence to dispatch exploring- parties to reach Franklin's 
Point Turna,<jain to the northwest, and Parry's Fury and Ilccla Strait 
to the north, along the western coast of Melville Peninsula. 

The Terror wa" made ready for sea with the proper equipment of 
men and supplies, and in nine months after his return Hack set sail for 
the northwest on the 14th of June, 1836. About the ist of Au-nst they 
encountered the ice in Davis' Strait— Back noticed one icel)er- u th^, j,^,,.. 
pendicular face of which was not less than 300 feet hic^h "— and soon be- 
came entangled in the ice-floe. Pushing through Hudson's Strait, tiiey 
reached Salisbury Islan 1 on the 14th of August, and made across the 
lower portion of Fox's Ciiannel, for the Frozen Strait, on tiu-ir way to 
Repulse Bay. On the 5th of September they had to force their way 
into open water, and Back thus describes the scene: " The liglit-iicarted 
fellows pulled [the obstructing masses of ice] in unison to a cheerful 
song, and laughed and joked with the unreflecting merriment of school- 
boys. Every now and tiien some luckless wight ])roke through the ice, 
and phniged up to his neck; another, endeavoring to remove a piece of 
ice by pushing against a larger ma^s, wouKl set himself adrift with it, and 
c\ci-\ such atlventure was followed l)y shouis of laughter and vocil'erous 

" On the 20th of September, shortly after 9 o'clock," says Baek, " a 
floe piece split in two, and the extreme violence of the pressure ciale.l 
and crumpled up the windward ice in an awful maimer, forcing itagain>t 
the beam fully eighteen feet high. The ship cracked, as it were, in agony, 
and strong as she was, must have been crushed had not some of 
the smaller masses l)een forced under her bottom, and so diminished 
the strain by actually lifting her bow nearly two feet out of the water 
In this perilous state steps were taken to have everything in readiness 
for hoisting out the barge; and, without creating ininecessarv alarm, the 
oflicersand men were called on tlie ([uarter-deek, and desin.l, in ease of 
emergency, to be active in the performance of their duties at tlie respec- 
tive stations tlien notliled to them. It was a serious monuiit for all, as 



un .s 


It of 


















the pressure still continued, nor could we expect much if any al)ateincnt 
until the wind chany^ed." The next day, after beinj^ more than twenty- 
four hours in iinminent peril of bein<j crushed by the pressure, " One 
mass of ponderous dimensions burst from its imprisonment below," and 
the staunch Terror, " after several astounding thumps untier water," 
regained iier upright position, substantially uninjured. They had now 
been a month beset, and had concluded to cut an ice-dock for the ship, 
when the ice-continent began to break up into detached masses and hum- 
mocks. For several days the ship was out of position, with her stern 
seven feet and a half too high, her bow correspondingly low, and 
her deck a slippery inclined plane. On the first of October the vessel 
righted, with a snug dock, just her size, ready made by tiie ice-kiiig. 
They now i^roceeded to surround the ship with snow-walls, and to erect 
an observatory on the floe, thus extemporizing winter quarters. 

On the 33d a masquerade party was held on lioard, and theatrical 
entertainments followed, to the great delight of the heterogeneous crew. 
A few of these were men-of-war's men; half a dozen, perhaps, had seen 
service in Greenland vessels; and the bulk of the remainder, seanuii 
only in name, had served in the coasting colliers of England. \\\(\. so 
the winter wore away with tiie Terror "securely locked in the ice, but 
with no guaranty against sudden and dangerous surprises, while she 
helplessly driited — slowly or rapidly, according to circumstances — liither 
and thither, under the iutluence of the wind and the movement of the 
surrounding ice. Christmas came and went; the first of Januarv, 1S37, 
followed; January gave way to February, and there was vet no change. 
As the 19th of that month passed the dividing line into the ^oth, a 
new danger arose. For three hours after midnight, the ice alteniatelv 
opened and shut, threatening to crush the stoutly-built Terror, like an 
egg-shell. At 4 o'clock great fissures appeared, and the ice began to 
move. After eight it grew more quiet, and at nine Back summoned the 
men to the quarter-deck to give them such exhortations and advice as 
the occasion required. He reminded them that as British seamen they 
were called upon to conduct themselves with coolness and fortitude, and 
that, independently of the obligations imposed by the Articles of War, 


every one ou-ht to he influenced by tlie still higher nature ol a eonscien- 
tious desire to do his duty. They were Ave to eight miles 'mm the north 
coastofSouthampt..n Island. Extra clothing was dealt to the me.i;i 
bales of blankets, bear-skins, provisions and fuel Nvere pilc.l on deck, to' 
Ik- in muliness at a moment's notice. At noon the floe began to drift to 
tlK. north. " Though T h.-.d seen," says Mack, '• vast bodied of ice from 
Spitsbergen to 150'' west longitude, under various aspects, some beauti- 
ful, and all more or less awe-inspirin^ I had never witnessed, nor even 
imagine.l, anything so fearfully magnificent as the moving towers and 
ramparts that now frowned on every side.' 

For three hours the ship remained unmolested, except by the usual 
pressure of the ice; but at 5 o'clock an extra nip was received by the 
opening and shutting of the floe in which she ^vas ,, n,bedde<l, and an- 
other an hour later seeme.l to make every plank groan in agony, while 
she was lifted up eighteen inches. A similar squeeze was experienced 
at seven from the closing of a narrow lane astern; an<l tlun for nine there was quiet. A movement of the ice at 4 o'clock released 
the ship, an.l she nxle once more in the water, only to be again lifted, an 
hour later, eighteen inches as before. At intervals, there was a jerk 
from the ice imderneath, and a squeak from the ship's timbers, but no 
iniix.rtant change till the 15th of March. Back thus records what then 
happene<l: "While we were gliding quickly along the land-which I 
uiav here remark had become more broken and rocky, though without 
attaining an altitude of more than perhaps one hundrJd to two hundred 
feet-Mt . =45 ,.. M., without the least warning, a heavy rush came upo.i 
the ship, and with a tremendous pressure on the larboard quarter, ])ore 
her over upon the heavy mass on her starboard quarter. The strain was 
severe in exx-ry part, though fro.n the forecastle she appeared to be mov- 
ing in the easiest manner towanl the land ice. Suddenlv, however, a 
loud crack was heard below the mainmast, as if the keel were broken or 
carried away ; and simultaneously the -niter stern-post from the ten-foot 
■nark was split down to an unknown extent, and projected to the lar- 
l"'ard side upward of three feet. The ship was thrown up by the stem 
to the seven and a half feet mark; and that da.nage had been done was' 


'•■ii' i. 






soon placed beyond doiilit hy llio increase of l<-ik;i,<,'e, which n(.\v 
amounted to three feet per hour." 

Extra pumps were worked; and tlie cutters with two whale- 
boats were loaded and hauled oil' to places of >rreater security. An 
ever-increasin<,r rush he<,'an about S o'clock; and at 10:1:5 it cann- 
on with a roar toward ihe slii)), upturnin'^ the ice in front, and rollin^■ 
layer upon layer to a heij^ht of twenty-live feet. This hu<,'e mass 
was pushed forward until it reached the stern, where it stopped, Inn-lin-f 
however, a considerable fraj^ment on the larboard quarter, creatiniL,^ a 
temporary leakajj^e by the strainin<^ of the stern. Two iiours later, a 
similar rush with a like consequence took place, with the a(klitional result 
of lifting the ship's stern, and breakinjif up their "cherished courtyard, its 
walls and arched tloors, j^allery, and well-trodden paths, which wrre 
rent, and in some parts jjlou.t,'-hed tip like dust. Within fifteen minutes 
another sur<rin<,r mass, thirty feet high, was driven toward the star- 
board (piarter, creating also a temporary leakage, but the main body 
falling short of the ship as before. The ship cracked and trembled and 
groaned violently; and the rushes continued at intervals, but with dimin- 
ished force until 4 o'clock in the morniiif^ of March 16, when it ""-rew 
still. They were only three miles from a spit of land, which was brist- 
ling vvith shore ice surmounted by a ridge of rolled-u[) ice perhaps sixtv 
feet in iieight, and which they named Point Terror. 

Now another season of comparative rejiose set in, lasting almost 
three months, the vessel still drifting with th( ice-several hundred miles 
from first to last- when, on the 1 ith of July, while the men were occii- 
l)ied with the labor of cutting her loose, they were startled by various 
crackings and noises underneath. Soon a loud rumbling was heard, and an 
instant later tlie ship at length floated free in her natural element, ha\ing 
finally burst the icy bonds which held her nine months. l)uring 
four of these sl;e was held out of the water in an ice-cradle, or Hoatiiig 
ice-dock; and tor weeks before being frozen in, she was so closely beset 
that she may be said to have been imprisoiiid for almost eleven months 
out of the thirteen that had passed since she left Englai.,1 They had 
cut the ice to within four feet of the steni-post before she broke Ioom , .wvX 



then slic was almost capsized l.y the upheaval of the loosened mass be- 
neath. She rijrhted on the 14th, l)ut there was nothinjr k-ft except to 
ivturn to Encrland, fortunate if, in her disabled condition she could make 
the voyage. Calkinj,r, patchin^r, and stannchin<,r her .t,^'ipinjr woimds 
as best Ihey could, they sailed for home, relin(iuishin<,' all attempt to ex- 
tend the scope of jreojrraphical knowledjre of North America. The Ter- 
ror not only nia.le the voya-c in safety, but will be a-ain heard of in a 
-croud encounter with Arctic daimcrs. 

^i: / 

* . 

i U 





son's i{i\-i;k — moxtukai. islaxd — MiDnKXDoin ix taimli{ 
PRXiNsui.A — nKsc-iixns the YKxisra — sAMovKns — ih ntixo 


Back's land jdiirncy and sea voyage Icfl the lircaks in tlic coast sur- 
vey of Nortli America unclosed, and the task of completin,<,r the explora- 
tion was intrusted hy the Hudson's Hay C(»mpany to t\, -of their ollirers, 
Peter Warren Dease and Thomas Simpson. At the very time when the 
Terror was floatin- helplessly in the ice of Frozen Strai; and Fox's 
Channel, these overland explorers, with a company of twelve men, were 
swiftly descendin.i,^ the MacKcnzie, and in July and August of that year 
(1837) they surveyed the 146 intervening miles between Franklin's Re- 
turn Reef and the spot just beyond Point Barrow, whence Elson returned 
to the Blossom in 1836, as stated in a preceding chapter. The groinid 
was found frozen to a depth of several inches, and the sprav froze on the 
oars and rigging of the boats. Two rivers, the Garry and the Colville, 
were discovered. The ice-floe from the north closing in to the shore ice, 
they were compelled to abandon their boats, when tiic hardier of the 
leaders, Simpson, with some of the more robust of the men, pushed for- 
w.-ird on foot, carrying their provisions on their backs, and on the 4th of 
August reached the goal already referred to. Thomas Simpson was 
well adapted to the arduous undertaking, having once performed tiie feat 
of marching in mid-winter from York Factory on Hudson's Bay to Ft. 
Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca, a distance of about 3,000 miles, with no 
protection against the cold but a cloth cloak. 



They now u.t..rnc<l to Fort Confulccc on (irc.t Mcar Lak. to spc-ml 
the winter, with instructions t<, .L-vote thc-nsuintj ,., ,so, to cxtcn<!l„.r 
the- survey from Fra.,klin's Point Tunuj^ain, of kS..,i,> ih, eastward 
until th.y met Hack's party expected in that re-^non, nvoriand from then- 
projected quarters at the head .f Hcpulse liay .,r Wa.L^er River, which, 
;is has heen sen,, they were unahle t<, reach. On the 6ii, ..f |i„R-. ,,S^s' 
ihcN left Fort Contidence, and ascended a river whici, emptied into . .reat 
r>ear Lake fnnn the north, and which they named Dease River in ho.u.r 
ol one of the leaders of the expechtion. Makin- thence for the Copper- 
mine, they descended that river to Coronation (inif, which th. reached 
on the 1st of July, after a dan-crous passa-e thnn.-h the rapids. The 
sho<,:in- throu<,^h Escape Rap 1 is thus descrii.ed hy Simpson: «A 
,^lan -e at the overflowing dilF told ns tha, here was no alternativ hut 
to run down u ith ,, full car-,,, h. an instant we were in • • vortex- 
and hefore vo were vare, my hoat was tovvani an isou.ed rock' 
which the ho,:„.^r sur-e almost oncealed. To clear it on the outside' 
was no \nxv^,v possihie; our only chance of sale.v was to run lu-tween it 
a..d the lofty eastern dim The word was passed, and every hreath was 
hushcl. A stream which dashed dow, upon us over the hn.w of the 
prccp.ce, more than a lumdred fc. t iu hei.^.ht, min<,ded with the spray 
that uhn-lcd u])ward from the rapid, formin,t: a .crrilic shower-imth The 
pass was ahout eight feet wide, and the error of a single f ,ot . cither 
side would havc< heen instant destruction. As,guidc<l by Sind-. V e. n 
stnnmatc skill, the boat shot safely through those jaws of .Icvnu an ui- 
vohuua cheer arose. Our next impulse was -o turn ,ound to view the 
fate of our comrades behind. Fhey had profited bs th. peril wc itt- 
currcd, aiKi kept without the t oacherous rock in time." 

Here they awaited the opening of the ice until the . 7th, n-hcn they 
proceclcd east, reaching Cape Harrow on the 29th. Un, . to cross 
Bathurst Inlet because of the ice-pack, they pushed northeast through 
Arctic Sound, doubling Cape Flind. -s__6S° 15' bv to,/ ..s'-inKc^it 
Penntsula, on the 9th of August. Here, in a little bav, which they 
named Hoat Haven, about three n.!, ^lu.t of Point n.nagain, their 
Hu-ther progress was blocked l>v the ice ; and here the, ,aited in vain 




m « 




IS :• 

, 1 Sti., 




Ji/a/AJWSOJV'6 liiVEii. 

for an opcnin- till the 2<.tl,, when Simpson, with seven men an.l uro- 
visions for ten .lays, set out ..n fool. They arrived at FrankUn's -limit" 
the first .lay, and ..., the 23,! they reached a hold, elevated headlan.l, ..f 
which Simpson says: "1 ascended the hei-ht, f,,,,,, whence a vas. an.! 
splendid prospect hnrst sn.ldenly upon me. The sea, as if Iransfonne.l 
by enchantment, rolle.l its fierce waves at my feet, and beyond the reach 
of vision to the eastward, islands of various shape and size .,versprea.l iu 
surface; and the northern land terminated to the eye in a bold and lofty 
cape, bearin- cast-northeast, thirty or f ,rty miles distant, u hile the con'- 
tinental coast trended away southeast. 1 stood, in fact, on a remarUahk. 
headland, at the eastern outlet of an ice-ohstructed strait. On the exten- 
sive land to the northward I hestovve.l the name of our most -racions 
sovcrei-n, Queen Victoria. Its eastern visible extremity I called Cape 
Pclly, in compliment to the -overnor of Hudson's Bay Company. 

Simps.M, now retraced his steps to IJoat Haven, which he reached on 
the 30th, havinjr surveyed one hundred and forty mdes of coast-line to 
the east of Point Turna-ain. Preparations were rapidly made for the 
return to Fort Confidence, an.l they he-an the ascent of the Copper- River on the 3d of September. Arrivin- at tiie m.)ulli of the Ken- 
dall River, they struck out across the country to the west-lea vin- the 
boats until they should need them in tiie spring-and reached their win- 
ter quarters on the 14th. 

SettingoutinJune,iS39, for their third expedtion, they devoted a 
week to exploring Richardson's River, which enters Coronation Gulf \n 
longitude 115° 56', and arrived at the gulf toward the end of the month. 
To their great surprise and delight they found it almost free ..f ice, and 
pushing rapidly east, they doui)led Cape Barrow on the 3d of July. 
Reaching Cape Franklin, Simpson's limit of tlie previous year, a m'uuih 
earlier than^on that occasion, they doubled Cape Alexander, at the 
eastern entrance of Dease's Strait, in latitude 68" 55' and lon-iiudc 
106^ 45', on the 3Sth. They now coasted the large bay or gulf extend- 
ing five or six hundred miles to the east, still unnamed," in.til tlie lolh of 
August, when they entered the narrow strait which separates the conti- 
nent from King William's Land-now proved to he an inland- and 

MUliDEli or S/MPHON, 

which has been named in honor of the i-xplorer, Simpson's Strait. On 
Ihf i.^th tiiey passed Richardson's Point and Point (J-le, on the estuary 
ol the- (iie.t Fish River—Uaclv's limit in i.S,vf. On the, *till foilovv- 
iii- the soiitiiern trend ..f tiie estuary, tliey reaciie.l Monfreal Islan.l, 
where Hack ha<l left a deposit of provisions. The pen.miean was 
r-'ind i.ndl for use, and the ciiocolate also for tiie most pari, l.iil they 
inaiK.-ed to scrape up enou^rh ,„ ,„;,lve a kettle full, and picked up a tin 
casr lui.i a few lish-hooks, "of which," says Simpson, "Mr. Dease and I 
took possession as memorials of ,„„• having' hreakfasted on the very spot 
where the tent ..f our -allant, thou-ii less successful precursor, had stood 
that very day live ^ ears before." 

Still pushin- eastward, tiiey reached Alierdeen Island four days later, 
and their li.nit ou the 25th. This was near Cape Ilerschel, and was 
ni.nked l>y the usual cairn and deposit of documents. From a monu- 
ment t..p three miles inland they . .held Boothia Felix to the north and 
SOPH, isla.uls in Boothia Gulf to the east, and were in fact on what is now 
known as Bootliia Isthmus, but which for a time was supposed to be a 
peninsula, atxi named after Simpson. They were about ninety miles 
south of the North Ma-netic Pole as ascertained by Ross ei-ht years 
bclure. Retracing their course a.ul makin.t,^ a digression to the t'lorth 
tliion-h Victoria Strait to explore the east coast of Victoria Land about 
150 miles, they reached the Coppermine on the i6th ..f September, and 
Fort Co.tlulence on the •24th, after a boat voya-e of .,600 miles and an 
absence of not ,pnte four niunlhs. Simpson, the hero of these expedi- 
tious, did not Ion- survive, bavin- been assassinated the ensuin- year, 
Mt the early a-e of thirty-six, by his Indian -uides, betwee.i the head' 
watets of the Red River a.,.1 the Mississippi, while on his way to 


On tl-.e 4tb. of April, 1S43, the academician, Th. Von Middendorf, 
aocompanied by a Danish forester tiamed Brandt, and a sin-le servant,' 
li:«l arrived on the Yenisei, below Turuchausk— 61 '' by 90^ V', oast—' 
with .:i commission from the Acadei.iy of Sciences at St. Petersbur.4- to 




cxplo, the northernmost peninsula of Asia, known as Taimin-. Tt has 
been stated in a precedinjr chapter how one of the lirothcrs Laptew had 
reached the mouth of the Taimur River, in 1741. It was now deemed 
desirable in the interests of science to ascertain the eflbct of summer in 
the most nortiiern continental climate of the <j^Iobe. Middendorf, an em- 
nient naturalist, volunteered his services, which were t^ladlv accepted. 
He was eminently (lualified for the undertakin.i,^ beini;- possessed of -real 
physical strenj^'th, manual dexierity and powers of endurance, besides his 
recognized intellectual ability, untirinj,- zeal for science, and indomitable 

Descendin-,^ the ^'enisei to the j^oint whence lie determined to strike 
across the country, he was joined by the topographer of llie expedition 
and three Cossacks, and some native Tun-usi o-uides. These prelimina- 
ries were scarcely adjusted when some of the company were taken 
down witli the measles. A primitive amlnilance was provided for them, 
m the shape of lioxes lined with skins, and placed on sledi^a's. Cleariiio- 
the forests on the i,>th, they struck tile open tundras with the thermom- 
eter 36 ' below zero. Pushiui,' to the northeast they crossed (he Pasina 
River, and fallin- in with one Samoyed horde after another— tiie tempo- 
rary and only residents of those cold re.i,n()ns_they reached Filipowskoi- 
Karonoi. in latitude 715', on the P.o-anida, which ilows south and 
joins the Cheta, an affluent of the Chatan-a. This flows northeast to the 
Polar Sea, on the eastern coast of the Taimur Peninstila, and Midden- 
dorf was anxious to reach it before the meltinLT "("the .now. Here, how- 
ever, he was compelled to lialt, as all of his party were sick witii the 
measles. Makiui,-- an excursion to the Chatanya to start tlie necessu'v 
preparations for his voyai,a> down that river, but lln<iin- the epidenn'c 
prevailing at Chatangskoi, he (luickly change<l his purpose, and deter- 
mined to proceed almost due north for Taimur River Returnin- to 
Filipowskoi-Koronvi, he (piickly procured tiie construction of the frame- 
work of a boat of twelve feet keel, and set out on tlie 19th of Mav, 
with the topographer, an interpreter ::nd two Cossacks, and sixty-ei-hl 
reindeer, in company witli some Samoyeds who were bound that way. 
Brandt and the others were left behind, with instructions to occui)y tlicm- 




selves, as soon as able, with making meteorolu«,ncal observations, ami col- 
lections of the fanna and flora of the country. 

Reaching the Novuya River, a tributary of the Taimur, the party 
suirered severely from a terriHc snowslorni from the 37th to the 3()th. 
Resuming tiieir journey on the 31st, they made slow jM-ogress over 
the fresh-fallen snow, and did not strike the Taimur until the 14th of 
jiuK, in lalilude 74^ Middendorf now i^itched his tents, and ],roceeded 
to complete his boat, which he named the Tundra, the ice began to 
break up on the 30th, and on the 5th of July siie was launched by the 
li-hl of the midnight sun. \orth winds delayed his progress to and 
through Taimur Lake, but beyond the increasetl rapidity of the current, 
hurried him on. On the 6th of August they had the Hrst frost, and on 
the 24th they reached the sea, in 75'' 40'. 

The statement of the eminent Swiss naturaliM, De Saussure, that the 
(lillerence l>etween light and shade is greatest in summer and in the 
higher latitudes, received conlirmation from the observations of Midden- 
dorf With Ihc thermometer at 37 ' below zero in the shade, the hill- 
sides exposed to the sun were dripping with wet, and toward the end of 
juue, Willi the mean temperature below the freezing point of water, the 
snow had already disappeared from the sunny side of the Taimur. Tor- 
lVllt^ swept down the hillsides, and the great rivers rose forty feet above 
tile winter level, sweeping the ice along to the sea. On the 3d of 
August, Middendoif, in ligju underclothes and barefooted, hunted Init- 
icrllie. iu latitude 7) 13', the thermometer rose to 68 \ and near the 
ground to So , while at a spot e\i)osed to the iiortlieast wind it fell to 27'. 
The moisture of tlie air was very great ; iu May thick snow fogs ob- 
scuivd the atmosphere; in June these changed to vapor fogs, which daily 
turned to light, intermittent showers, but toward midnight the atmos- 
l)heiv UMially grew clear and serene. Contrary to Aiago's opinion, it 
was tbund that thun.lerstorms occur within the Arctic, and winds rose 
very suddenly. Toward the eiul of August the south and lunth winds 
seemed to struggle awhile for the supremacy, but the north wind soon 
gained the ascendency. The fill of snow is comparatively light, and for 
the most part is swept by the licrce wintls into ravines, and to the great 



u,. i.ihftfifim4AK 


< ^ . ,!■ 




' ^' . |- 

'« '; 

i ' 1 

i ' ' 





ridt^resofsiiow-diift which tV.nn tlic tlividin;,' I 
deling- Sarnoycds do not pcactnitL-. Middendorf 
on the ttiiuh-a, toward the '.nd of wint 
and in tlie lakes and rivors only four t 

iiic ])cyou(l wiiich the wan- 

was astonislied to find 

er, onl\- two t 

<) SIX inches of snow 

I) eij^Wit feet of ice, accordinu" to tl 



quantity of snow wi'Ji which it was covered, as far north as 
land was found to c wsist of l)arren phiteaux, with occas 

<cant \x\iretation scaicelv concealc'<l the l)oul(i 



hciifhts, wiiere tlie 

sand whicii formed the underl 
)f th 

lonal uiKhnatni'. 

ers and 

VI n<. 

rust. A 

lirownisli ir.oss is tlie ehiel 

coverin-,^ ot the sod, except wiiere aloiio- the streams and in d 


rrass <rains the ascendency, and in speciallv fivorahl 


e situations at- 

tains a 'jfrowth of three 

e or four iiiclie- 

Ou tl 

and river, Middendorf found 

le ])r()tecte(l slopes of hike 

considerahie patches of ^rcen sward, will 

1 a 


I ,i;rowth of ;j^rass and llowers. If 

one wislK 

to see tl 

'T.l -■ 

},n-ow," he should visit the Taiinur, where the \n 
prol)ahIy the most rapid in the world. Thi 

O'TC • ol 


il* U 

e animal* ifnnid weir ti,e 

s as 111'. 

bume as are encountered in hoth hemisphere 
snow-hares, foxes, wolves, reindeer; hees, hornets, hutterti 
lars spiders, flies, i^niat'^; .ind last, tlion^'-h not lea4, tiie w, 

\otwith>landin,L,^ the cnerg-y and cjuickness of M 
mulated result of luimerous petty del:i\ -^ was, that he onl 

alitude 7=^ — 


les, calerpil- 
n-y ;;-uI! ami 

uldendorl, the accii- 

\- reached llie 


limur at a date when he sh 


ave heeii on liis wa\- had 


epidemic had iiul only struck 1 

lis own iinmedial 

e party, hut the iiiiiahi- 

tants of Cliatan-->k, whence he had oiii,Miially proposed to lak 
([nickel route hy ri\-er, and aUo the horde of Saiiio 
ance and aid he had relied. Deyotiiii;- a siii'^'le 
to the ')l)-,er\ation of the Polar S 


\'e(h, on wiiose 
the JStii of 



ea, he saw it fi 

ee ironi ice as lar a-- the 

eye could reach from an elevated point on the coast, and mi the i(\\\\ scl 

out oii) his reluni 

lie '-reat distance. 

111' sa\-: 

Iroiii aii\ luinian hah 

italioii, ihe rapid strea n. a.Miiist wJiicli he had imw Im loiitei 
ad\aiice(l sca-oii, with iN appioai'liiiii; dark ni^lil - and |V<>-!- 

1(1, ami 

made iiiir 

return an imperative nece'>>il\ 



Id 1 

law lui 

t litll 

e reliaiici' on mir 

remaiiiiiiL;- streii'^lh. The iiisujlicienl food and the fali'.'Ue^ of (Uir j.aii"- 
ne\-, often prolon^re(l to extreme evhausf ion, liad reduced our vin'or; ami 








\vc all began t(} feci the elleets of our frequeiU wading through cold 
water when, as often happened, our boat h:id grounded upon a siiallow, 
or when the Hat mud hanks of the river gave us no alternative for reach- 
ing the dry land. It was now the second month since we had not slept 
under a tent, having all the time passed the nights behind a screen, 
erected on tlie oars of the boat as a shelter against the wind." 

The north wind helped them forward, and with oars and sail they 
proceeded to the south, passing two rapids which they at first thought 
insurmountable. On the 31st a gust of wind drove them on a rock, di^- 
abling their rudder; and on the 5th of Septemlier another drove them on 
a sand bank in the northern end of Tainiur Lake. With the tempera- 
ture at only 37" at noon, tiieir clothes were covered with a solid ice- 
crust; and scarcely a day passed without sleet or snow. On the 8th they 
left the sand bank, the storm having at length subsided, but on the <jih 
were dismayed at linding the new ice tbrming in their rear. While 
putting tbrth every effort to reach the river, the boai was crushed be- 
tween two ice-Hoes, anil with dilKculty was got ashore, disabled and 
worthless. Making a hand-sledge they pushed forward on the loth; Inii 
on the morning of the nth, Micklendorf was unable to proceed. Hut 
with a heroism worthy of an Arctic explorer, he ordered his compan- 
ions forwanl to reach, if possible, the Sainoyeds hetbre the period „f 
their annual return to the south, and thus save themselves, and possibly 
him too, if they should fall 1,1 with the nomads soon. The scant su])ply 
of provisions, supplementetl by Middendorfs dog, was divided into live 
C([ual rations, and his tour cQmi)an;()ns set out, leaving the brave Mid- 
dendorf to struggle alone with his disease, and the surroundiu- 

"My companions had now left me twelve days," savs Middcndorf; 
"human assistance could no longer be expected; I was convinced that I 
had only myself to rely upon, that I was doomed, and as good as num- 
bered with the dead. And yet my courage did not forsaki^ me." Thus 
he lay three da>'s longer until his sail thoughts threatened m unseat his 
reason, when, as he says, a saving thought liashed upon him. "My hiM 
pieces of wood were quickly lighted, some water was thawed and 



wanned; I poured into it the spirits from a flask contaiuiufT a specimen 
ol natural history, and ih-ank. A new life seemed to awaken in me; my 
th()Ui,Hit^ returned a,i,rain to my family. Soon I fell into a profound sleep 
—how \oxv^ it iastetl 1 know not— hut on awakenin<r, \ felt HUe another 
ni;in, and my hreast was filled with gratitude. Appetite returned with 
recovery, and I was induced to eat leather and l)irch-hark, when a ptar- 
m'v^an fortunately came within reach of my .<run. IIavim< thus ohtained 
some food for the journey, I resolved, though still very feehle, to set out 
and seek the provisions we had h iried. Packing some articles of dress, 
my gun and ammunition, my journal, etc., on my small hand-sledge, I 
proceeded slowly, and frequently resting. At noon I saw, on a well- 
known declivity of the hills, three hlack spots which I had not previ- 
ously noticed, and as they changed their position, I at once altered my 
route to join them. We approached each other, and—judge of my de- 
light—it was Trischun, the Samoyed chieftain whom I had previously 
assisted in the prevailing epidemic, and who now, guided by one of my 
companions, had set out with three sledges to seek me. Eager to serve 
his benefactor, the grateful savage had made his reindeer wander with- 
out food over a space of one hundred and fifty versts (eighty-seven miles) 
where no moss grew. 

" I now lieard that my companions had fortunately reached the 
Samoyeds, f)ur days after our separation; but the dreadful snowstorms prevented the nomails from coming sooner to my assistance, and 
had even forced them twice to retrace tiieir steps. On September -^oth 
the Samoyeds brought me to my tent; and on October 9th we l)ade the 
Taimur an eternal firewell. After Wvc months we hailed with delight, 
on October ^o, the verge of the forest, anil on the following day we 
reached the smoky hut on the 'Joganida where we had left our friends." 

Middendorf fell short nearly t\^r,> Jeg-ees of reaching the north jjoint 
of the peninsula, and of Asia, called Cape Chelyuskin, in honor of a 
Russian explorer of that luu^ie who reached it by land in 1742. Six 
years earlier Prontsciiischev had reached within a few minutes of it, and 
one of the Laptews, in 1759, within 50', in their coasting vessels. But 
even had there been time to make the trip, Middendorf might have pre- 



ferml to s|,cn,l it in extending his observations on the fauna and 
flora, the meteorology and elimate of Taimur. It will be remembe-ed 
that these, and not geographical discovery, were the objects of his 


.r his 



^" 'Sfe 

" Oil the frozen decfs repose, 

' 7'A" a dark and dreadful Iiour, 
WJicn round the sJiip the ice-fields close. 

And the northern ni<s]it. clouds lo~,.vcr. 
But let the ice drift on! 

Let the cold blue desert spread, 
7 heir course zvith mast and flai;- is done — 

Even there sleep England\s- dead.'''' 



franklin's last voyagk— temerity ok franklin ano party— 


Surely "through desire, a man having separated himself, secketh auf'. 
intermcddlcth with all wisdom." 

When the wise man, three thousand years ago, made this profound 
deliverance concerning the investigating spirit of mankind, he certainly 
must have cast a prophetic eye down the ages, and anticipated the march 
of science and the coming tread of universal knowledge. Doubtless, he 
saw the New World discovered, and peopled with an enterprising race 
of beings, whose aims and intelligence were not restricted to the obser- 
vance of a few lifeless forms. He must have seen Bacon, who, as the dis- 
ciple of forgotten Aristotle, set in motion the now irresistible ball of in- 
ductive science, to be given a fresh impulse by its more modern expo- 
nent, J. Stuart Mill. Possibly, too, he descried the inventions of our re- 
cent times, and the crowning triumphs of Edison, iJell and Gvnv. At 
any rate, enough lias long ago been realized to justify the wise old sage's 
encomium upon human enterprise. Men, fov the sake of the truth, have 
separated themselves, not only in the sense of l^eing students of it, but in 
some cases this separation lias been literal and complete, involving total 
isolation from society and its advantages, and often a sacrifice of life itself. 

It is, perhaps, dilHcult for the average mind to appreciate the feeling 
which prompts men to suflTer in the cause of some favorite theory. It is 
easy to understand the mipulses which induce men to fall for che sake of 
their firesides, or to bleed for the honor of their native coimtry. The one 
feeling is the domestic or paternal instinct which naturally shields its 
own; and the other is the almost universal sentiment of patriotism. But 







TEMERrrr of frankltn and cue 


tf) walk fcrwanl into .k-atli or danfrcr i; 

)!• the sake of demonstral 

truth whose, very utility is n..t made wholly eertain, i.nplies a feeUn;!,' 
not so coininou, nor so easy to analyze. 

Such a spirit was tliat shown by Sir John Franklin ami his faithful 
followers, in their last eventful voyage, which, so far as the limited data 
wdl permit, we are now ahout to describe. It has already been related 
how Franklin, from the son of a poor freeholder, and the position of 
midshii)man, rose successively to the ranks of fJeutenanl and Captain, and 
finally, havin,i,r been chosen a member of the Royal Society, was knijrhted 
and became a rear-a.lmiral of the Royal Navy. I lis international renown 
appears from the ftct that the Frencli (xeo.i^raphical Societv awar.led 
him their j^^old medal, and at a subsequent time elected him Jorrespond- 
nig meml,er of the Institute of France. The (ireek nation, also, whom 
he had materially aided in their war of Iil,eration, gave hi.n formal an,! 
substantial token of their appreciation and gratitude. In 1S36 he was 
appointed Governor of Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land, as it was then 
called, and although political diiHcuIties disturbed his achninistration to 
someextent, his wise an.l moderate control secured for him the warm 
approbation of the government, and the lasting affection of his colonists 
The latter established a college and a philosophical societv in bi> honor- 
and years after they testified that the memorv of his' rule was still' 
cherished by subscribing €,,700 toward an expedition designe.l bv 
Lady Franklin for his rescue or diseovery. 

The ]>elief in a Northwest Passage, which had in the earlv part of 
the nineteenth century been merely vague or conjectural, had now ..,,,u,, 
u,to a.settled conviction. Franklin's own researches ha.l done much to 
ehmmate the mysteries which had hitherto enshrouded the northern 
of the New World, and only the last ^.sy links in the chain of discoverv 
were supposed to need forging before the long cherished project could rj- .ts ttdl reah.ation in the proof of a passage from Baffin's Bay to 
Behrmg's Strait. 

In 1845, acconlingly, the 15ritish Admiralty organized a new expedi- 
t.on to make another attempt at the Northwest Passa-e. The leulin.^ 
scientilk n.en <.f England had been urging the step fbr more than a yeai^ 





^ a 











:^ li^ 12.0 


L25 i 1.4 









jy .. <!S^ 

V»'°"-^ ' 



WEBSTER, N.Y. ]4S80 

(716) 872-4503 


'i } 


CHOSEN h'r rim admiralty 


!H s^ 

iiiid the necessary appropriation having finally been made, definite steps 
were soon taken tc; l)e,!^ri„ Uie enterprise. Durin<,r the time which tlie 
admiralty had taken to choose a commander, Sir John, who had lately 
arrived from Tasmania, was heard to remark that he thought it due t(^ 
him as the senior Arctic explorer of England. 

« As soon as i; was known that he would go if asked, the admiralty 
were of course only too glad to avail tliemselves of the experience of 
such a man; hut Lord Haddington, with that kindness whicii e%er dis- 
tinguished him, suggested that Franklin might well rest at home on his 
huirels. ' 1 might find a good excuse for not letting you go. Sir John, 
said the peer, 'in the telling record which informs me that you are sixty 
years old.' 'No, no, my lord,' was Franklin's rejoinder, 'I am only 
fifty-nine.' Jiefore such earnestness all scruples vanished. The offer 
was ollicially made and accepted. To Sir John Franklin was confided 
the Arctic expedition, consisting of H. M. S. Erebus, in which he hoisted 
his pennant, and II. M. S. Terror, commanded by Capt. Crozier, who 
had recently accompanied Sir James Ross in his wonderful voyage to the 
Antarctic Seas." 

The two vessels were thoroughly refitted and furnished with all that 
exi)erience could suggest as useful or necessary. Provisions for three 
years were made ready, and ;. crew of oser a hundred men were clioscn 
fi-om the very cream of the British navy. Among the officers were 
Lieuts. Gore and Fitzjames, whose genius and energy stamped them as 
no common ofiicers. 

The sliips left England in May, ami were known by the third of 
July to have reached a point near Disco, Greenland, where a small ship 
which had accompanied them, took on board the last letters of the 
officers and crews for home. They were afterward seen in the latter 
part (;f July I)y a whaler, who described them as " moored to an iceberg, 
M-aiting for a chance to enter Baffin's Bay." From that day till the 
present not one of tliat gallant band has ever been seen aiive, and not 
tdl years afterward was anything definite discovered concerning tiieir 
fate^ All tiiat historians can do is to follow the ships in Hie imagina- 
tion by file aid of the plans laid down beforehand for the guidance of the 



party; to conjecture as best they may cone.'niiii<,r tlie particular circum- 
stances of those last trying hours; and to relate the sad stories of those 
whose mournful discoveries complete the melancholy scene. 

From the instructions of the admiralty, and from the scanty record 
lea by the lost explorers, we are able to trace with comparative assur- 
ance the course of Franklin after he entered upon the special object of 
the expedition. We find that, after the last intelligence of Sir John 
Franklin was received, bearing date of July, 1845, from the whalers in 
Melville Bay, his expedition passed on to Lancaster Sound and entered 
Wellington Channel, of which the southern entrance had been discov- 
ered by Sir Edward Parry in 1S19. The Erebus and Terror sailed up 
that strait for 150 miles, and reached, in the autumn of 1S45, the same 
latitude that was attained eight years subsequently by II. M. S. Assist- 
ance and Pioneer. Whether Franklin intended to pursue this northern 
coin-se, antl was (vuly stopjicd by ice in the latitude of 77° N., or pur- 
posely relinquished a route which led so far away from the already 
known seas off the coast of America, must be a matter of speculation* 
but tile record assures us that the expedition having accomplished this 
examination, returned southward from latitude 77°, which is at the head 
of Wellington Channel, and re-entered Barrow's Strait by a new chan- 
nel between Bathurst and Cornwaliis Islands. 

It was a favorite theory of Franklin's that the best way of securino- 
a passage from the Atlantic to tlie Pacific was by following as nearly as 
possible the coast line of North America. Indeed, it was his opinion 
and subsequently that of McClintock, that no passage by a ship can ever 
be accomplished in a more northern direction. Since, therefore, when 
Franklin sailed in KS45, the discovery of a Northwest Passage was re- 
duced to the finding of a link between Parry's discoveries on the east 
and his own on the west, it is probable that, in obedience to orders, he 
steered for the southwest. Passing, as is thought, down Peel's Strait in 
1816, and reaching as far as latitude 70° 5' north, and longitude 98^ 33' 
west, whern the ships, as the record shows, were beset, it is clear that he, 
who with others had previously ascertained the existence of a channel 
along the coast of America, with which the sea wherein he met his,death 




had a direct communication, was the first real discoverer of a Northwest 
Passage. As will be seen in another place, the gallant McClure had 
worked out another passage long before the course of Franklin came to 
light. This fact, while it is a worthy source of honor to the adventu- 
rous Irishman, must not be allowed to detract from the fame of those 
who, as their epitaph fitly says, " Forged the last link with their lives." 
The account which it is possible to give of the last c'ays of Franklin 
is, of necessity, very limited. As the expedition was provisioned for 
three years, a year and a half elapsed before any anxiety was felt con- 
cerning its welfare; but after a council of naval ofiicers had been held, it 
was decided that, should no news arrive that summer, preparations should 
be made for its relief. As is generally known, the British Government 
afterward fitted and sent out a whole series of vessels, and spent immense 
amounts of money in prosecuting the search. Lady Franklin spent the 
greater part of her private fortune, and the United States came bravely 
to the front in the Grinnell expeditions. Aside from their importance in 
relation to the grand object, these expeditions added immensely to geo- 
graphical knowledge, and in general, were invaluable for their contrlbu- 
tions to science. 

An account, as extended as space will jDcrmit, will be given of each 
ot these daring ventures in their turn. 

The writer deems it proper at this point, to comment briefly upon 
the results to the world at large of the voyages of Franklin and others. 
The young student and 'he unthinking of any age, are apt to look upon 
tiiese discoveries as isolated in time and causal relations from the every- 
<lay knowledge which they jjossess on these subjects, and which they 
easily glean from the popular text-books. They should remember that 
the first certain knowledge of these regions was gained by these self-sac- 
rificing men, many of the now well-known individual facts were 
gathered by them under the trying circumstances which we have been 
describing. The result of Franklin's researches for example are not 
alone nor chiefly seen in the account of his voyages, but in the map, per- 
fected by his bravery and diligence, from which the school-boy of every 
nation cons his lesson. The conclusions on the subject of terrestrial 


ii. , 

i ;. 




magnetism are not alone found in the reporis to tine a.lmirally, hut the 
tacts chscoverec) and principles deduced form part of the physics and the 
astronomy of the common school and coUej^^e. Ohservations taken here 
upon the subject of botany have not their solo lodgin<,.-place in the arch- 
ivcs of the Royal Society. They :nay be formulated and pcriiaps veri- by Wood, Gray, an.l other modern d.sciples of Linnaeus; but it was 
the stron,^ faith ami daring of Kane an<l Richardson, that f.rst plucked 
the llowers, and made the tacts respecting them take their places amono- 
tiie vast assemblage of Nature's witnesses. The relatio.i between the 
lives of these men and the individual thought and action of the present 
time, is far more real and intimate than is commonly admitted. Hence 
the propriety of becoming acquainted with these heroes, in the story of 
their careers; enabling us to give them due homage, and stimulating us 
as they have done, to sacrifice something for the commcm brotheriiood. 






r that 













Tlic proloujrcd :il)suiicc of Fniiiklin, and the entire lack of knowled^^c 
rcj^arding his condition and exact vvhercal)outs, at last gave rise, as we 
have seen, to serious apprehensions on the part of the admiralty. It was 
true tile last letters received from tiie party were of the most hopeful, 
huoyant tone. The expedition, it will be rememliered, sailed from Eng- 
land on the I9tii of May, 1S45, and early in July had reached Whale- 
fish Island, near Disco, on the Greenland coast of Davis' Stra'ts, where, 
having found a convenient port, the transport which accompanied it was 
cleared and sent home to England, liringing the last letters that havelieen 
received from the oihcers or crew. The following extract of a letter 
from Lieul. Fairholme of the Erel)us, will serve to show the cheerful 
anticipation of success which prevailed througliout the party ami tiic 
happ'- terms on whicli they were with each other. 

" We have anchored in a narro\»^ channel between two of the islands 
protected on all sides by land, and in as convenient a place for our pin- 
pose as could be possibly found. Here we are, with the transport along- 
side, transferring most actively all her stores to the two shi])s. * * * 
" Of our prosj)ects we know little more than when we left Eiiirland. 
but look forward with anxiety to our reaching 73", where it seems we 
are likely to meet the iiist ol)structions, if any exist. On board we are 
as comfortable as it is possible to be. T need hardly tell you how much 
we are all delighted with our cajitain. lie lias, I am sure, won not only 
tne respect, but the love of every person on board by his amiable man- 
ner and kindness to all; and his iniluence is always employed for some 




i,roo(l purpose, both among the officers ami men. lie has been most suc- 
icsslul in his selection of officers, and a more a<,'reeable set could hardly 
lie found. Sir John is in much better health than when we left Enuland, 
and really looks ten years younger. He takes an active part in every- 
thing that goes on, and his long experience in such services as this makes 
him a most valuable adviser." 

Letters from most of the other offi.cers, written in a similar tone, 
were received in ICngland ;:'. the same time with the above. An extract 
of a letter from Franklin himself to Col. Sabine, deserves to be quoted, 
as expressing his own opinion of his resources, and also his intention of 
remaining out more than a second winter, should he not be successful be- 
fore. The letter is ckited from Whalefish Islands, July 9, 1845; -i"*^! 
after noticing that the Erebus and Terror had on board provisions, fuel, 
clothing, and stores for three years complete, from that date, he adds, "I 
\\o\K my dear wife and daughter will not be anxious if we should not 
return by the time they have fixed upon; and I must beg of you to give 
them the benefit of your advice anil experience when that time arrives, 
for you well know that, without success in our object, even after the sec- 
ond zvintcr, we should wish to try some othei- channel should the state 
of our provisions and the health of our crews justify it." 

The above extracts will give a fair idea of the prospects and hopes 
of the parties when heard from the last time before entering Barrow 
Strait. But nearly two years having elapsed without tidings, certain 
experienced navigators, among them Capt. John Ross, expressed a fear 
that the party had become entangled in the northwestern ice, whence 
they could not advance nor retreat. The Lords Commissioners of the 
Athniralty, though jndging that the second winter of Sir John's absence 
was too early a period to give rise to well-founded apprehensions for his 
safety, lost no time in calling for the opinions of several naval officers 
who were well acquainted with Arctic navigation, and in concerting 
plans of relief to be carried out when the proper time should arrive. 

It is impossible to give, in our limited space, even a synopsis of the 
opinions which were the response to this call on the part of the Lords 
of Admiralty. It must suffice to say that after weighing all suggestions 







\ 1 


; 1 




and fully consi.lonn- the- plans snhmittc.I to them, the a.hiu- 
ralty cl.tcrmincl that if no intelH-c-nce ,>f the missin- ships arrived l,y 
the close of autumn, 1847, they wo„I,i send ,.,„ three searehin- expe.H- 
tions: f )„e lo r.aneaster S..,,,.,!, another down the .MacKen/.ie River, and 
a tiiird to i}ehi-in',''s Strait. 

The distin^a,ishe,l serviees of Dr. John Richardson, in the expediti.nis 
made l.y Franklin in iS.y.j6, espeeially iiis a.lventures fr<,m the Mac- 
Ken;iictothe Coppermine, will not have I.een for-ottcn l.y the reader, 
and it is necessary only to say of him that he was a hrave an,l skillf„| 
voyager, an eminent and thorough naturalist, and an enthusiast in the 
project of <liscovering and perhaps rescuing his friend a.ul former com- 
panion. Sir John Franklin. lu him, therefore, the admiralty saw a per- 
son well fitted to take charge of one of the proposed expeditions. Rich- 
ardson was already familiar with the <letails of overland travel in Brit- 
ish America, and particularly in the region of ihe MacKen/.ie and the 
intricate maze of streams and lakes which diversify the face of America 
north of the 55th parallel. He was, therefore, wisely intrusted with the 
expedition destined for the descent of the MacKenzie. This appoint- 
ment was announced in the f >rmal instructions issued to him by the Lord 
Admiral, the opening paragraph of which is appended: 

" Whereas, we think you fit to he employed in an overlan<l expedition 
m search of Her Majesty's ships Erebus and Terror, under the comman.I 
of Capt. Sir John Franklin, which ships arc engaged in a vovage of dis- 
covery in the Arctic Seas, you are iiereby required and dirJctcnl to take 
under your orders Mr. Rae, who has been selected to accompany you, 
and to leave England on the 35th inst., by tlie mail steamer for Halifax,' 
in Nova Scc^ia, and New York; and on yocn- arrival at the latter place,' 
you are to proceed imme<liately to Montreal, for the p.n-pose of confer- 
ring with Sir Geo. Simpson, Governor of the Hudson's JJay Company's 
settlements, and making arrangements with him for your ft.ture supplies 
and communications." 

The general drift of the instructions was to the effect that from Can- 
ada, Richardson was to cross the country as rapidly as possible to the 
MacKenzie, which he was to descend in any way which had been pro- 

u . 



vidcd. lie was then to coast al 

oiijr the h;i 


•ays and sounds of the Arctic 
care not to extend the time of his search beyond the linuts 
prudence. The appointment of Mr. John Rae as .secon.i odk-er was the 
su,.est.on of Dr. Richardson, who him to be pecuharly .nahfed 
io.- 1 o sen.ce on which he was to be employed, lie had resided up- 
war. of fifteen years in Prince Rupert's Land, was thoroughly versed 
... a 1 the methods of developing and turning to advantage the natural 
IHoducts ot the country, a skillful hunter, expert in expedients fo.- tem- 
peru,^ the severity of the climate, an accurate observer with the sextant 
-.1 other instruments usually employed to deternnne the latitude and 
on,,,tude, or the variations and dip of the magnetic needle, and had just 
iMou.^U to a successful conclusion, under eircumstances of unusual priva- 
(.on, an expeditio.i of discovery fitted out by the Hudson's Bay Com 
pany for the purposes of exploration. The choice, then, seemed a wise 
one, and ,ts wisdom was confirmed by subsequent events. 

O.. the 35th of March, 1S4S, Richardson and Rae left Liverpool, and 
landed at New York on the mornin<, of the loth of April. From this 
P'-t they departed as soon as convenient, journeying by way of Lake 
Chan.p un, the St. Lawrence, and the chain of great lakes, until the 
C.unherland House, on the Saskatchewan, was reached. They ha.l been 
accompanied up to this point by an escort of French, Indians, and half- 
l^.ecds, procured in Canada, who had served as guides and had trans- 
ported then- goods. Their baggage included only their clothing, instru- 
ments and camping utensils, as provisions for the expedition were to be 

the Hudson's Bay Company. A party of boats under the supervision 
of Mr Bell had aheady preceded them, and was to co-operate in the 
cstahhshn,g of quarters, and the procuring of provisions. This party 

K>y hoped to overtake, so as to relieve the monotony of their journey' 

1 hen- journey, however, was not destined to be excessively monotonous, 
fo.- the v-aned scenery and the dangers of canoe navigation, soon be- 
cauK. suftciently enlivening. A thorough survey of the country through they passed was made by Dr. Richardson, both as to its botany 
-Hi geology, and so far as their limited means of conveyance would al- 

I i 

■ i 



low, specimens of the plai.ts and rocks were secured and placed in their 
little niuseum. 

Many thin-,'s, curious and unwonted, were noted by Ur. Richardson, 
who k'jpt a faitliful diary of each day's proceediuj^'s, and of each new oh- 
ject discovered and cxainiiud. ()rnithoioy[y as well as other branohes of 
science, received liis attention. 

"Constantly," says iiis journal, "since the 1st of June, the song of the 
Fn'norilla /cucop/in>s has been heard day and ni^^'ht, and so loudly, in 
the stillness of the latter season, as to deprive us at lirst of rest. It 
whistles the fn-st bar of 'Oh, dear! what can the matter be?' in a clear 
tone, as if played on a piccolo life; and, thou.i,di the distinctness of the 
notes rendered them at first very pleasinj,', yet, as they haunted u up to 
the Arctic circle, and were loudest at miduij^ht, we came to wish occa- 
sionally that the cheerful little son<,'ster would time his serenade better. 
It is a curious illustration of the indiflerence of the native population to 
almost every animal that does not yield food or fm-, or otherwise con- 
tribute to their comfort or discomfort, that none of the Iroquois or Chip- 
peways of our company knew the bird by :,irrht, and they all declared 
boldly that no one ever saw it. We were enabled, however, after a little 
trouble, to identify the son<^ster, his sonjj, and breedinj^-place." 

On the 27th of June the jxirty came to the vicinity of Methy Port- 
age referred to, as the reader will remember, in one of the first of 
Franklin's voyatres. An Indian had built a home at the mouth of the 
Methy River, and was in the habit of lettin-,^ horses to the Hudson's 
Bay Company for facilitating the portage of goods. Our parly 
of explorers, however, received from him the very unpleasant informa- 
tion that his horses had all died from murrain, and that the Companv's 
animals were also all disabled. This news was received by Richardson 
with great disappointment, for he had planned to reach the sea as soon as 
possible, so as to explore Wollaston Land (across the strait from tlic 
mouth of the Coppermine) thic season. This new circumstance seemed 
to represent a delay of several weeks, and his scheme was likclv to be 
thwarted. Coming up with Mr. Bell before the portage was reached, 
be found several of iiis (Bell's) men enfeebled and lame from previous 



'^''-••'"l>"rtaj,c.s,a,ul unlittcl fnr rculcrinj, any assistance. Rich„-.l- 
M>n s own voya,.crs, t.,o, ha.l hccn on<r,^.a with the- ,.n.l.rst..„ii„. that 
they were t<. return as soon as Hdl's hoats wnv overtaken. With a 
I' of extra pay, however, they were to stav an.l assist in 
.1.. conveying of the to the next attainable waler-a distance 
ol ahoiif Join-teeii miles. 

I" the e.,nal distribution of the ba;,jra.., each nun, bad live nieces of 
nM.etypoun<ls'weij,ht each, exclusive of his own bedding and clotbin-., 
-.1 ol the boats, with their nu.sts, sails, oars, anchors, etc., which coukl 
..... l>c transports in fewer than two journeys of ,he whole par.v The 
praccal Canadians could carry tw<. pieces of ninCv pounds a( Jacb Irip 

"^^'' '""- '""■'^'-^■^' '"•'• '■• ^'^o'-t-'- «>nes even a ;,rea,er load than .his 

''he I.nopeans, however, could carry only one piece, and .bus had to 
.nakc .rips with the 1.,^^.,.^ besides .,vo with .he boa.s. Tin., de 
laye,l, iU.le prospect was le.t of completing their sea-voyage this season 
\V..l. the usual quota of advemures the boa.s at last reached Point 
Separation -n.arkin^ the parting of the two principal u.outbs of the 
Mackenzie, on the .^.st of J„,y. , le.e, according to instructions .hey 
h:.lted to 1 ury a case of pcn.n.ican. The pit was .lu^ :a the distance of 
ten feet irom .he best-,,n-own tree on the point, and beside, the food the.-c 
was placed nv ,1 a bottle containing, a n^emorandun, of .he obiecls of the 
ovpeduiou, an.l such other information as i, was ,ho„.lu would be use 
"•' "• '"h.r parties, should they happen to reach this river. Thi, poi„t 
w.n be rcmen.bere.l as the place ..f separation ..f .he parties of Franklin 
^....1 K.cbardsonin ,8.6, when the former explore.l toward neb,in..\ 
S.ran, and Richar.lson esamine.l .he coast between the AlacKenxie an.l 
Coppermine. Apropos of performing bis duty at this time and place 
Richardson savs: ' 

''WV were .hen full of joyous anticipa.ion of .he discoveries .b >t lay 
... -nr several pa.hs,an.l our crews were elated with .be hope of n.akin-". 
then l.rtunes by .he parlianuMuary rewar.l pronnse.l .,. those wb,. should 
..av.^ate the Arctic' Seas up .o eer.ain -neri.lians. \Vi,en we pushed olt 
the beach .,n .he m..rnin,,,. of .he p h of July, .S.o, ,o follow onrseparate 
routes^we cheered each .>ther with hearty ^ood will, and no misc^ivim^s 

. s 



Sir JdIim's party fell sonie miles siioit of the parliamentary distaiioe, ami 
he made no elaim. N[y party accomplished the whole space between the 
assiijned meridians, Iml llie authorities deeided tiiaf the reward was not 
meant for hmtts^ Imt ships." 

IIavin<,r Innsiu'd operations at the cdr/u., tiie voyaj^e was rcsumeil, 
and tlic lioats passi'd down tlie eastern branch of tiic MacKen/ie. 
W^iti'ii now bejfan to be Uept fur ICsquimaux, for Kiehardson's previous 
experience lauj^hl him tliat tlii-v were in tin- liabil of frei|nentinLj the 
coast at this tinu- of year. AI)omI Iwd hinidrrd natives were soon seen 



pa(l(llin^• out nitiieii- kavacks and ooniiaks. The boalmi'n were i-autioncd 
to keep :loNt' loj^ether so as not to allow thi' I''s(|uiniau\ to o\L'rpowcr 
\\\\\ out- if tlie\- should s"eiu '>o disposed. A lively barter was carried 
on with ihcni li\- Richardson and Rat', who traded all manner of iron 
implcnunis for the ruiU- productions of the iiati\c's. Tliesi- were of no 
use to the whites, but it had been foinid a plan of poucy to make no ^ifi 
to the ICsipiimaux, as the American tribes rei^rarded it as a mark of inferi- 
orit\' to recei\i' a '^\\\. 

The innuiries of the party were of course chieily directed to ob'.ain- 
inj^ inforn-.ation of th'; missin;j^ \esseb,, but the Esquimaux, one and all, 
denied L'ver having seen any whites, or heard of any ships aloiiL; the 



CO,,,. V„„, „f ,„„^ ,„„„, ,,„„„^,„,,,„ ,,^.,_^, ^__.^,^_^^^^^ _^^ _^_^ _ 
whcnthc utecnp, wa, ma,|c t,. ,,l„„,lcr I.Vanklin', I,,,,,,, i„ ,,S^rti ,,„h „, 
^IK- . :.,c,„„„ancc, of .ha. .„co„„.„ „revc„.o,l .l,.,,, ,V,„„ c.n Ji„. 'L 

-n,cc.,o,, ,,, ,l,c.„,,elvc,o,. ,l,c.i,. ,vla.ivc. with .ha, ,,,,co,nplc..c.,l ,ra.;,iy 
... ...a., ... a,„„e,. ,„ ,h. i,„,ui,,v r,.,- whi.c „„.,„ , , „„i,„i„; I 

":"""f ';'""■- -" ■^'^■' .i-' ■" 'he .n„„.h ,.r .h. m!,.Kc.„1._ 

A |>arty of „.h„c. ,„cn arc livi„i, .hcc." Thin was k„ow„ „, l„. ,, 

alsd,o,x , a, ,h. c„„„„, „ ha.l la,,,!..! .here .ho day prcvio„s „i,h„„. 

i.av„„ .„covcrc,. any .race. The sava,c-, ,„...ive wa,, .,vl,,c„„v ,„ 

....1..CC .he,„ .„ h„„l, which .hey ha,l hoc, r,,„„ .he f,.. „f 

.he,.- ,„.e,v,cw. wi.h ,ho aative,. Accordi,,. ,„ Ri.hanl,,,,,, „ei,he,. .he 

"'';"""""• ""'•,"■'■'" '■ "- '"■-■■■ 'ril.c, of A, ..;. A,n..lea feel .he 

-'■„ (itttctcd 111 a falsehood, ;,n<! uivaiiahly practice it 

." ":' "" .'^"' '""^".V "-y -" .a y or .hei,. pe..y 11. Z, 

' he- ,„„ ha,- „„ereo„r,e „i.h each o.he,- .he r„,lia„, ,eld,„„ .ell .h„ 
-."... H1.C hr,., .,„„„ce,a„d if .hey, „coee,l i,.,,, a.l,„i,.a.i„„ or 
..*....shn.c„.. ,hc„- i„ve„.i„„ ,.„,„ „„ wi.ho„. c„d. !.>„„ .he ,na„„e, .,f 
.l..-,.cal<c,-, ,a.he,- ,ha„ hy hi, woni,, i, hi, .r„.h or falsehood arrived a.- 
-.1 ..I.e., a eo,„i„,,„„, c|„e„i„„h,. i, „ece„ary .o elici. .he facts. 

Mo ,a.„fac.o,y i„,-„r,„a.i„„ having bee,, jja.herc.l fro,,, .he „a.ives 
.1.. ,o,.r,,cy ea,.ward alo„, .he coas. wa, co„.i„„e,l ; ,a„di„,„ ,,ei„: 

; ;' " ''":,""^ "'"■' '" ™^>-' ™'"l"<-e -.1 .hor„,..h h„.h ,he ,,ca,eh 

I"' .l.c losl llec, a„d ,hc ,cie„.i,ic exa,ni„,,.i„„ of the c,.„„try. 

1 1 :";■!! 



■li , k 









As has already '.;jen intimated, Dr. Richardson's account of his jour- 
ney abounds with vivid jjicturcs of the natural features, productions, and 
people, of the re<jions through which he passed. Rocks, Howers, trees 
anil natives were all carefully studied, and their habits, peculiarities and 
anomalies faithfully jjortrayed. In fact, most Arctic navigators have 
done the sam:;, and it is to their energy, zeal and ability that Arctic sci- 
ence, in its various branches, owes its jiresent advanced status. As the 
2Kirpose of the present volume, however, is not to treat of natural history, 
nor geology, as such, an incidental mention of the facts relative to these 
sciences must suffice. 

Dr. Richardso>\ had hoped to reach the Coppermine River, and from 
there to cross over and explore WoUaston Land the first summer. lie 
was disappointed to find that the new ice began to form early in Septem- 
ber, so as not only to impede his progress by its own resistance, but by 
cct.ienting together in impenetrable solidity the immense floes of pack- 
ice, which hiia not succeeded in forcing their way through the narrow 
channel between the continent of America and the islands, or lands on 
the north. The unavoidable conclusion of the sea-voyage, while still at 
some distance from the Coppermine TUver, was contemplated by the 
commander and the entire crew with the deepest regret. It had been 
hoped, that even if no time was left to exjolore Wollaston Land, the Cop- 
permine, at least, could be reached, and the boats left somewhere along 



its banks, where they wouhl he available f..r another s.nn.ner's use But 
.f they were n.,w ahandoned „m the eoast, it eouhl net l,e expeeted that 
they would escape the searches of the htuuin.,. parties who would follow 
up the explorers' Ibotmarks, an.l uho were certain to ],reak up the IkkUs 
"•>■ tlu. copper fosteni„c,s. The unusual lateness of the sprin<,, an.l the 
unexpected delay at Methy Portaj^e, had n.ade the arrival at the sea latc-r 
t'^^'u had been anticipated, and in a region where summer holds swuv 
only SIX weeks, even a few days are often of the utmost importance 
Notwithstanding, the brevity of the, neither that, nor the late- 
ness of their arrival, would have prevented the party fron. crossin<. to 
Wollaston Land, ha,l it been possible to effect such a crossing. The 
only hmdrance was the unnavijrable condition of the close-packed ice- 
<l.dt. A Hat, smooth floe is often of assistance in protectin<. a vessel 
i.-um pressure, and, in case of extreme necessity, a boat can be drao-.ed 
over.ts surface with good headway; but the ice that obstructecr U.e 
progress of our explorers at this time, was composed of hummock v pieces 
of n-regular shape, and consequently ready to tur.i over and crush boat 
or person u]K)n the least disturbance. 

Richardson plainly remembered th.t on both of his former voya-es 
to these seas, .leither he nor Franklin had found this condition present 
■" the channels under consideration. Oti those occasions onlv small 
packs were visible here and there, the general openness of the sea alTonl. 
ing a.nple opportunity for passage up to a later period than the ist of 
September. In seeking a reason for the existing state of affairs, Rich- 
ardson f<,un<l himself able to establish a reasonable conjecture regarding 
the prolonged absence of the missing crew. 

The theory of a cycle of good bad years had alreadv been 
■nooled by several meteorologists, and observations on the temperature of 
a series of years had seemed to confirm its reasonableness. Ei-hty years' 
observation at London showed that groups of warm years altrrnate with 
groups of cold ones in such :, way as to render it most probable that the 
mean annual temperatures rise and fall ;„ ^uch a manner as may be 
represented by a series of elliptical curves, corresponding to periods of 
irom twelve to fifteen years; although local or casual circumstances 



1 u 

i I' 


cause tht! means t<j change in particular years, and, indeed, in particular 
places also. 

The conjecture, then, was that Franklin entered Lancaster Sound at 
the close of a group of favorable years, when the ice ^vas in the greatest 
state of (limituition, and that, having boldly pushed on in one of the clos- 
uig years of the favorable cycle, unexpected ice was produced during 
tlie unfavorable years following, and thus an insurmountable barrier to 
his return was made. 

This conjecture, while it could not, of course, descend to detail in 
this particular case, seems to have been the correct one; for (to anticipate 
our narrative) it \v;is afterward found tliat Franklin's vessels actually 
were beset ])y ice in .September, 1S46, and that too in a much lower lati- 
tude than was at this time reached l)y Richardson. It will he found, 
also, that the explorers for the next few years, from 1S4S-57, found the 
s])rings very biekward, and tiie winters exceedingly long and severe. 
The experiences of Kane in northern latitudes for three difTerent winters 
may be hereafter cited as cases in jjoint. We have here to do, however, 
not with theories, but with facts, and the practical problem of how to 
luid Franklin and convey relief to him, was the all important question 
which presented itself to the admiralty and those representing thcni 
upon the seas. 

As we have seen, circumstances compelled the party to desist from 
further undertakings this fall, and preparations were made to journev by 
land back to Ft. Confidence, where Mr. Bell was supposed to be pre- 
paring winter quarters for the voyagers. Burying a quantity of pem- 
mican, and also of ammunition, near the places where the boats were to 
be left, they started on the third of September, carrying evcrythino- 
which their strength would permit. After a tedious journey, made more 
so by the heavy burdens which they bore, they arrived at Ft. Confidence 
on the 15th. Here they found Mr. Bell, who had reached the site on 
the 17th of August, and hail immediately set to work. Since that time 
he had Iniilt an ample storehouse, two houses for the men, and a dwell- 
ing house for the officers, consisting of a hall, three sleeping apartments, 
and a storeroom. Dispatches and letters were now made readv, m\<.\ on 




tlic 1 8th wore taken in eharse by men chosen for the purpose, to be 
conveyed to the British settlements. 

Here, then, at Ft. Confidence, the winter of 1S4S-9 was passed; 
nothing of striking importance occurring to break the monotony of a 
characteristic season in the wilds of North America. 

Tile return of summer brought with it the necessity of deciding upon 
some course of action for the further prosecution of the search. It was still 
thought best to visit Wollaston Land, but in the absence of their boats, 
the method of procedure grew into a perplexing problem. Had they 
succeeded in taking their boats up the Coppermine, beyond the reach of 
tiie Esquimaux, according to their expectations when the plan of search 
was formed, the voyage might have been resumed in the summer of 1S49, 
with two or three boats; and in that case, the whole party might have 
gone, and so have aided one another among the floes. But as they had 
been compelled to leave their craft in September, without the smallest 
liope of its being found again in a seaworthy condition, and having only 
one boat remaining that could be employed on the service, it became nec- 
essary to determine which of the two leading officers. Dr. Richardson or 
Mr. Rae, should take charge of tliat vessel and the small jjarty it could 
contain. Setting aside personal considerations, and looking only to the 
means if providing for the examination of as large a portion of the Arctic 
Sea as could be accomplished, Dr. Richardson had not much hesitation in 
deciding in tavor of Mr. Rae. His ability and zeal were unquestiona- 
ble; he was in the prime of life, and his personal activity, and his skill as 
a hunter, fitted him peculiarly for such an enterprise. 

Mr. Rae had already during the winter explored the country be- 
tween Ft. Confidence and the Coppermine River, in order to select the 
best route for dragging the boat over in the spring. In April he con- 
veyed provisions, boat-stores, and other necessaries across the country to 
one of the streams tributary to the Coppermine, and a convenient jolace 
for landing, in tlie event of the ice breaking up. These he left in charge 
of two of his men and two Indian hunters, who were to be engaged in 
the meanlime, in obtaining and curing the flesh of the reindeer and 
musk-ox, for summer use. Having to wait many weeks for the opening 




of Ihe nvers, it was ,1. .ni.ldlc of J..,, ,„,,,, ,„. sea was rcachccl, and 
asth.K-cin tho channels was s.ill>Ie, suv.ra! weeks n.ore 
were occnpied in exploring the various rivers which had their n.ouths 
near the ponit where the Coppermine llncls an outlet. 

Their advance along the coast, when once it l.egan, was verv slow 
own,g to the still comparatively in>penetrahle condition of the ice- uul 
the place where the boats were left the prece.ling autumn, was' not 
reached until the 34th of July. The boats were found broken up 
by the action of the ice, which had invaded the inlet where thev were 
left, and also Iw the Esquima.,x, who had dismantled them of hin^e por 
tions of ^voodwork, that they n.ight obtain the iron an<l copper used in 
then- construction. The tents, oil-cloths, and part of the sails still re- 
mamed unmjure.l, and were made extremely useful to Mr. Rae who 
was dl supplied wi,' these articles. The r«r/}. of pemmican and pow- 
der was also unt.>uched, its covering of snow probably causing it to es- 
cape detection. 

Passing on to the west, they soon came to the point where the search 
had ],ecn concluded the previous season, being also the most convenient 
though not the nearest point from which Wollaston Land could be 
reached. Indeed, it ^vas not only unnecessary to go further, but also im- 
possd^le; ior the junction here of the rough hummocks on one side and 
the steep clifl^ on the other, made further thought of passage useless. 
They p.tchecl their tents on the top of a clilT and waited for the first 
favorable change in tlie sea. 

A fesv days after this the Esquimaux interpreter and one of the men 
when some distance inland lookitig for game, overtook live Esquimaux' 
who were traveling toward the interior with a lo.ul of iish. From these' 
It was lound that the sea-ice had begun breaking up onlv the day before 
the party had arrive.l at the mouth of the Coppermine. These natives 
also testified that they had been, dming the winter, in company with the 
Esqun.iaux of Wollaston Land, and that the latter had never ^een Euro- 
peans, large ships, or boats. 

Their detention here was very long and tedious. Several <rales of 
wind occurred from the south, but the space of open water was so s.nall 






I - 

that little cnTect upon the ice was ohservahle. The situation was tanta- 
lizin- in the extreme to all the party. Occasionally at tiie time ..C tlu- 
tide a lead of water would appear, a mile or so in length, and wide 
cnoufrh to admit of the passa<,'e of a boat. Everything would be ;,t 
once prepared for launching; when suddenly, some adverse circumsiant-e 
would cause the opening tcj grow narrow, until no longer safe for boat 
or man to venture in. 

The ice continued drifting to and fro with the tides, without separat- 
ing sufficiently to allow of passing among it, till the 19th of August, 
when there seemed to he more oix;n water to seaward than liatl yet bet'n 
seen. After waiting for some hours for a troublesome pack near the 
shore, to disperse, they at hist pushed off; and after many narrow escapes 
from being squeezed, they at last reached comparatively open water-, 
where they had soon to use their oars. They had pulled more tliaii 
seven miles, when they came to a stream of ice, so close packed and so 
rough that they could neither pass over nor through it. Under thoc 
circumstances it was thougiit advisable to return to the mam shoiv, 
where tiiey landed the next day. On the very next day wind began to 
blow from the northeast, and in four hours not a perch of open water 
was to l)e seen— nothing but a continuous sheet of white, solid drift ice. 
As the fine weather had now evidently broken uj), no course remained 
but to retreat to tlie Coppermine and Ft. Confidence. An accident oc- 
curred in ascending the Coppermine wiiich had even more effect in 
dampening the spirits of the party than the failure to reach Wollaston 
Land. They liad successfully ascended the river to what wa^ known as 
the "Bloody Falls," marking the beginning of a series of intricate an.l 
dangerous rapids. It had been the custom, in former ascents of these 
rapids, to draw the boats along the bank, till the most dilHcult portion was 
23assed,and then to launch the boat and tow it up over the remainder of the 
distance. As the boat of our voyagers was exceedingly woin am! unsul)-* 
stantial,it was thought best to do the same in this case. All that appeaiv.l 
to be of any difficulty was easily accomplished, and there was only .me 
short place to be ascended, which was so smooth that a loaded ])oat mi^ht 
have passed it; here, liowevcr, from some unaccountable cause, the 



steersman was seized with a sudden panic, and called to those towin- 
the boat to slack the line. This was no sooner done suiHcientlv to allovv 
iiun to get llrm footing, than he leaped on shore, followed by the Ix.w- 
man, and allowed the boat to sheer into the cnrrent, when the line broke, 
and the boat was hurried down stream into an eddy. To this point Rae' 
and Albert, the i.iterpreter, ran, and stationed themselves at two points of 
rock near which the wreck would pass. Misunderstanding an order of 
the commander, the Esquimaux leaped into the boat when it was near 
enough, and both were swept away together. The native was finally 
thrown out and sank, not to appear again. The occurrence was much 
regretted, as the young man was greatly liked for his activity, lively and 
amiable disposition, and extreme goodness. 

Rae's failure to cross to Wollaston Land, is attributable, not at all to 
lackof skillorbravery-buttothe impassable condition of the ice in 
the strait which it was necessary for him to traverse. His mortifica- 
tion from his failure was very keen, and much more severe than he saw 
fit to <lisplay in his official report. lie was, in realitv, a vcrv brave an<I 
intelligent man, and received, as he deserved, the approbation of the 
Ihitisli Government. 

Having now finished the story cf Mr. Rae's search vovagc, we 
revert to the experiences of Dr. Richardson, and the remainder\.f the 
party, during the summer of 1849. On the 7th of May they took their 
leave of Rae, who had not yet left Ft. Confidence to descend the Cop- 
permine, and proceeded to Ft. Franklin, on the opposite side of Great 
Hear Lake. As they anticipated some difficulty in na.vigating Bear Lake 
River, which flows out of Great Bear Lake into the MacKenzie, a few 
miles below Ft. Norman, a barge had been ordered which was to meet 
them at the head of the river. They waited over a month for the barge 
when some men appeared who reported that the river was not yet open. 
They now decided to descend the river at once, and send the barge, 
back for the stores. Most of the expedition started in a fishing-boat'; 
l)ut two of them were instructed to follow along the bank of the river 
on foot, each carrying with him his own bedding and provision. One 


the men, named Brodie, struck into the inter 

ior to avail himself of a 

!1 ! 

' a 




short c-ut, and iiol soon lejoiniii-j^ tlu- party, was supposed to i.c lost, ami 
consuierahlc apprehension was fl-U lor his safety. It was afterward 
found that, wiien lie detected the faet of his wailvin- in the wron- di- 
rection, he he.t,'an to run, as is nsnal in snch eases, till he came to the 
bank of a tortuous stream, and bein<if a fearless swimmer, swam aeross It, 
carryin<j his clothes on his head. The river comin<,' a.Lcain in his wav, 
he crossed it a second time in like manner, hut on the last occasion hi^ 
Inmdle slipped away from him, and lloated oil", while he re,i,Mined the 
bank in a state of perfect nudity. After a few moments' reflection he 
came to the conclusion that without clothes he must jjerish, and that hi- 
mi<,dit as well he drowned in tryin<r to recover them, as to attempt pn.- 
ceedinjj: naked. On this he plun<,n;d in aj^ain, and this time succeeded in 
landinjr safely his habiliments. He soon discovered his whereabouts, 
and rejoined tlie partv. 

This adventure is related to illustrate what a traveler in these wilds 
was liable to encounter, and as an example of what happened to all ,.| 
the seamju of this expedition. None of them could be tau<rht that they 
were liable to such accidents, till they learned it })y experience. One 
man who thus strayed wa^, wh^n found, c(mtentedly steenn<,r f,,r the 
moon, which l)ein<,r near the horizon, and streaminj,^ red throu<rii the for- 
est, was mistaken l)y him for the fire of the men'^ bivouac. 

The ascent of the MacKen/ie, and the subsequent journey to Can- 
ada, and finally back to (ireat Britain, was not attended with any inci- 
dent worthy of note, and the party of Richardson landed at Liverpool 
on the 6th of November, after an absence of nineteen months, twelve of 
them passed in incessant travelinjr. Richardson made no delay in pre- 
sentin;^- himself to the admiralty, and makin- a full report of his pn.- 
cecdin<4-s, which elicited from their lordships a uniform expression ,,f 
approbation. His narrative was afterward published in book form, 
which volume, with its rich fund of incident and adventure, and thor- 
ough analysis of all observed phenomena, stands among the classics of 
Arctic literature. 



I',c..l anion- those who en-a-cd in tlic discussion cnccrning 
llu. probable whereabouts of Frankh-n, and in the eventual efforts made 
I., relieve that distin-uislied navi-ator, was Sir James C. Ross, of whom 
special mention has already been made. The three expeditions planned 
in ..S47,an.l execute.l in 1S4S, have been referred to in a preceding 
chapter. They were based mainly upon tb.e instructions under which 
!• ranklin sailed, upon known conditions existing in the northern seas, 
and upon the conjectured course of Franklin, in case of failure or 

The expedition which was regarded at the time as of most impor- 
tancc, was the one destined to Lancaster Sound. It had for its object to 
take up the route followed by Franklin, and by diligently searching 
for any signal-posts he might have erected, to trace him out and carry 
the required relief to his exhausted crews. For such an enterprise as this, 
none were thought to be better fitted by ability and experience than the' 
<laring commander whose name heads the chapter. In company with 
hi. distinguished uncle, he had already traversed many portions of the 
globe, and iiad acquainted himself extensively and m a practical manner 
witli all branches of the nautical science. Pertinent to this particular 
undertaking, he had planted the British Hag upon the magnetic pole, and 
iK'ul learned by experience the peculiarities of Arctic sailing, and the 

:iarriers of the north. Considt 








these ciiijilillcjitions, as well as the practical wisdom exhihitcrl in Ross' 
discussion of the then alUnhsorbinf,' questit .1, the admiralty had no ht-si- 
tation in piacinj^ him at the head of this important expedition. 

The facts upon which his plan was based will siiiliciently appear from 
the followiiifj ((notations, drawn from his letter of advice to the admi- 
ralty: "As vessels destined to f)l!ow the track of the expedition must 
necessarily encounter the same diiKcultics, and he liable to the samo se- 
vere pressure from the great body of ice they must pass throu<,'h in their 
way to Lancaster Sound, it is desirable that two ships of not less tliaii 
500 tons ])e purchased for this service, and fortified and eciuipped in every 
respect as were the Erebus and Terror for v\ntarctic seas. 

" Each ship should, in addition, be supplied with a small vessel or 
launch of about twenty tons, which she could hoist in, to be fitted with a 
steam engine and boiler of ten-horse power, for a purpose to be hereafter 

"The ships should sail at the close of April, 184S, and proceed to 
Lancaster Sound with as little delay as possible, carefully searching Ix.ih 
shores of that extensive inlet, and of Barrow's Strait, and then progress 
to the westward. 

"As soon as the formation of water along the coast between the land 
and the main hody f)f the ice admitted, the small steam launch should 
be .lispatched into Lancaster Souutl, to communicate with the whale 
ships at the usual time of their arrival in those regions, by which nieaiis 
infonnation of the safety or return of Sir John Franklin might be eon- 
veyed to the ships before their liberation from their winter quarters, as 
well ;;s any further Instructions the Lords Commissioners might he 
pleased to send for their future guidance. 

" The easternmost ship having been safely secured in winter quarters, 
the other ship should proceed alone to the westward, and endeavor to 
reach \Vintcr Harbor, in Melville Island, or some convenient port in 
Bank's Land, in which to pass the winter. 

« From this point, also, parties should be dispatched early in sprin<T, 
before the breaking up of the ice. The first should trace the western 
coast of Bank's Land, and, proceeding to Cape Bathurst, or some other 



ronspuv,.o,.s point on tlu- continn.t, previously asrcc.l on with Sir [ohn 
K.c-hanlson, .vach .1,. Ihuison's May Cnipany's settlement of Ft. (Jood 
Hope, on the MacKen/.ie, whence they may travel sonthwar.l I,v the route of ,!,. tra.lers to York Factory, an.l thence to Kuj^laml, as 
soon as convenient. 

" The second party should explore the eastern shore of Hank's I... 
a.Kl inakin- lor Cape Krusenstern, communicate with Sir [ohn Rich- 
.r.ison's party on ils dcscen.linjr the Coppermine River, and 'either assist 
l>i.n m cnmpletin^^ the examination of Wollaston and Victoria Land, or 
return to Hn.^dand hy any route he should direct. 

"These two parties would pass over that space in which most proba- 
bly tin. ships have become involved, if a. all, and would, therefore, have 
the iK-st chance of communicatin- to Sir Job., Fra.ddin information of 
the measures that have been adopted for his relief, and of .lirectino- him 
to Ihc hcst point to proceed, if he should consider it i,ccessary to abandon 
hi-- ships. 

"OlIuT may be .hspatched, as mi-ht appear desirable to the 
connnan.lcr of the expedition, accor.lin- to circumstances; but the steam 
hnnuhcs should certainly be employed to keep up the communication 
^cl^^cen the ships, ,o transmit such information for the -uiuance of each 
elhcr as n.i^ht be necessary Ibr the safety and success of the u.uler- 

This plan has been ^iven thus fully, partly because it foreshadows 
and exphnns the voyage about to be describe, and partly because it 
shmvs with what completeness of detail and j^n-asp of the subject these 
.•..te.pnsm- statesmen were wont to project their schemes. Owing to 
varyin.^- circumstances all the details of this scheme could not be tt.ily 
^■='nird nut; for, as we have seen already, Richardson did not be-in he 
csploration of Wollaston Land, nor di<l he have opportunitv to conv 
ninnicate with Ross' vessels at all, it was not until after his retur.i to 
I'-.'.-l.MHl that he became fully apprised of the proceedings of that otHccr, 
and of the state of the search. 

The xvork of fitting up vessels for the use of the expedition becran 
eany ,n the season of ,848; but as very elaborate preparations were 

i t (tl I'i 


' i 

(|>> ' ' ' 1 iBi H 





* 9 




ff f ' ' 

1 k 


/A^ t I'ACh 

(Ir, ll 

ni.KU-, liic iiiiiiiiiLjcMmMiK wciv 11..1 rom|)<l mitit )mu-. Tlic vi«sm-I> 
clioscii wi'iv 111, lliit. rprisc, ..r |v Inns, m.l ih.' Iiivt-sli-;,t,,i , ..f |,S(, 

I'ls mimlicii'il 1^:^ MiiiK, 
|'^iiii;inl ill \\\v |';Mli'r|iri«,t'; mikI with him sviTc Liciils. 

Ions luiilluii, ;itiil III.- ( (iiiiliitu'd iifus .iihI .>lli 


«>ss |;||St(l III- 

M'C'liiiv, M'C'liiihHk .iikI li 

lowiu', 111' ilu- riMMici iwii (>r whom iiinri 


ill In- lu-;ii(l luiiMrUr. IMic Iiivi-sli'Ml 

or \v 

!•:. ). Uinl. 

;is loinm.iniird hy C';i|)t. 

Thi' i'\|u-(lilioii Misc! sail Mil ihi- iJlh ..riimc, ;m<l iiMdic.l the Dan 
prniav iU, siiiiaii'd dii oiicuriJu- -_;r,)n|) ol' Wniiiair 

isji M'llli'iiun 

I Ml' I 

IsiaiKJs, oil thi' wi'sU-iii shoif of lialliiiV r.a\, <iii llu- hih ,.1' )iiU. |' 
iii'4 liiioii-h ihis iiia/c t.r islands and ii <• lhc\ wcic made I'asi 
jolh to an ii-riuT- a'^iomid ol' C'api' SharkK^lon. Dmiii- ihc nr\l I 
(liiys M'ssids wiMr lowed l.\ llinr lamuhrs ihroii-h sIhmiiis ol" 
iiiid oil Ihc .'Olh of |iil\ had rcaclud the llncc isjan 

on .111' 


loose lee 

(Is (.1 |>alliii, III Jali- 

liidi' 71 

\. r 

u- season liad now iieeonu'sd lai ad\ aneed, and 



as so malerially impi'ded liy lahns and li-iil winds, 1 jial Ixipe oC 

;U( oiii- 

plishiii'^ mik-h lielore winUT should sc>| in, was preehidi 


o jiains were spaii-d, liowi'\-er, lo use eveiv opporiimii v of piishin. 

lu'a\ \- hrt'e/.e arose wh 


forward; and liiiall\, on ilu' joth ol" An^iisi, 

drovi' the ships thi-ou-h a ihiik pack of iee, in llu- midsl of whieh, had 

tlu'\ l.ei'ii eompelli'.i to stoj), Itoth ships wonid ha\c hei-ii iiie\ilahl\' 


As il was, some daniaLTr was nei'ivi li)v llu-ni, lhon"li I 


tunaleU lu-illuT was disahlcHl. lIa\in->- n 

ow i Tossed Uallm 

liav. the 

Uiips slood ill lo Pond's Inlet; lint lhou;^h they ki-i)t close to shore, and 
nade ii-|)(.-aled signals, no vt'sli;4e of ICstpmn iii\ or other 1 

could hi' seen. On ihe jhth lhe\- arrived oil" 1 

imnan iieni^s 

ossi--sion I5ay, and a paitv 

:iriv, on that mmv 

was sent on shoit.' to seanh for any Irai'i's ol" ihe evpedilioii having- 
touched at this general ])()inl ol" rc-iidczvoiis. NothiiiL;- was found liere 
oxci pt Ihe paper iiH-orditi^- tlu' visit of Sir lalward 1' 
day (the :;()th) in iSk). Thoy examined the coast wi-slward l"rom this 
point with -n-al care, and on (i.c ' : ' ol" Septcmhcr arrived oil" f 
\'oik (on Lancaster Sound), !ca\ :;•. iien abtuidant land 


marks toi 1 he 

l)ciiolit of anv vvlio niitrht folio 

IV : ,I.J i' I. 


c now," says Koss, "stood over toward Northeast Cajjc, until wi 




ill' ,l'« 






came in with the edge of a pack too dense for iis to penetrate, lying' be- 
tween us and Leopold Island, about fourteen miles broad ; we therefore 
coasted the north shore of Harrow's Strait, to seek a harlx). further to 
the westward, and to examine the numerous inlets of that shore. Max- 
Aveil Hay and several smaller indentations, were thoroughly explored, 
and, although we got near the entrance of Wellington Channel, the firm 
barrier t.f ice which stretched across and had not ])roken away this sea- 
son, convinced us that all was impracticable in that direction. We now 
stood to the southwest to seek for a harbor near Cape Rennell, but found 
a heavy body of ice extending from the west of Cornwallis Land in a 
compact mass, to Leopold Island. Coasting along the pack durin;-- 
stormy and foggy weather, we had ditliculty in keeping the ships free 
during the night, for I believe so great a quantity of ice was never before 
seen in P>arrow's Strait at this period of the season." 

Fortune at last smiled upon them, and the pack was passed in safety. 

The ships were secured in Leopokl Harbor on the nth of September 

a most desirable situation, being at the junction of the four great chan- 
nels of Barrow's Strait, Lancaster Sound, Prince Regent Inlet, and 
Wellington Channel. In case Franklin, having abandoned his ships, 
should attempt a retreat through any one of the above-mentioned chan- 
nels, it was plain that he must be apprised of the presence of these ships 
in the vicinity. 

On the very day following this fortunate occurrence, the main pack 
closed in with the land, and completely sealed the mouth of the liarbor. 
As the beginning of the long Arctic night was near at hand, haste was 
now matle to complete tKe preparations for the winter. This was acconi- 
l)lishcd on the i3th of October, about the time when the sun sank out of 
sight for his long period of alienation. The winter was usefully spent in 
exploring on foot all the iidets and unknown points in reach, both witii 
reference to discovering traces of Franklin, and also in order to promote 
the accuracy of the British charts. A novel expedient was adojjted for 
the 25urpose of extending to the lost navigators knowledge of the prox- 
imity of assistance. Ross caught large numbers of white foxes, and, 
after inscribing copper collars with information concerning the where- 


abouts of the ships and the depot of provisions, and clinching them about 
.he ncci<s of the animals, released them. It was known that a party, in 
case oclearth of food, would naturally seek much after these animals," and 
■t was hoped that the four-footed naessengers mij,ht be of service in trans- 
.n.ttn.g the desir.' intelligence. The same idea was used by Parry 
years befbre. He had left medals with the Esquimaux on the shori he v,s,te,l,so that in case a rescue party was necessary, they nught 
the more readdy come upon the desired data. 

The months of April and May ue.e occupied by Capt. Ross, Lieut. 
MChntockand a party of twelve n.en, in examining and thoro.^h,. 
explonug all the inlets and smaller indentations of the northern^nd 
western coasts of Boothia Peninsula, in which any ships nnght have 
-und shelter From the high land in the neighborhood of Cape Bunnv, 
Capt. Ross obtained a xery extensive view, and observed that the whole 
space between it and Cape Walker to the west, and Wellington Chan- 
nel to the north, svas occupied by very heavy, bummocky ice' 

" The examination of the coast," says Sir James, "was pursued until 
the 5th of ]..n., when, having consumed n.ore than half our provisions 
an.l the strength <,f the party being n.uch reduce.l, I was reluctantly' 
con,pelled to abandon An-ther operations, as it was, moreover, necessary 
to the men the day of rest. But that the time n.ight not be wholly 
lo.< I proceecled with two hands to the extreme south point in si-dnt 
I'o.n our encampment, distant about eight or nine miles " 

This extren.e poh. is situate.1 in latitude 7- 38' N., and longitude 
9. 40 ^^--' -on the west face of a small elevated peninsula.' The 
state o, the atmosphere being, at the tin.e of Ross' observation, peculiarly 
avnahle for d,stn,ctness of vision, land of any great elevat.on n^LdU 
have oeen seen at the distance of .00 n.iles. Bearing nearly <U,e so^th 
.|-n here, about fifty ndles away, Ross discovered the highest cape on 
the coast. Prince Regent's Inlet was fbund to be separated from the 
western seas by a narrow neck of land. Upon examination the ice in 
th.s <,uarter proved to be eight feet thick. A conspicuous cairn of stones 
u-..,s erecte<! n, the vicinity, and on the 6th of June they began their re 
t-" to the ships. Here they arrived after a journey of seCenteen days 







SO completely worn out ])y fatigue that for several weeks every man was, 
for some cause or other, in the doctor's hands. Upon their arrival 
they found that during their alisence Mr. Matthias, the assistant surgeon 
of llu' ICnterprisc, had died of consumption, and that the health of many 
mori' was declining. 

While iioss was alisent Commander Bird hatl dispatched several sur- 
veying parties in dilFerent directions. Lieut. Barnard took charge of the 
first, which proceeded along the north coast of Barrow vStrait, cross- 
ing the ice to Cape Ilurd; Lieut. Browne led a second to the extreme 
shore of i'rince Regent's Inlet; and a third party of six men, conducted 
hy Lieut. Rohinson along the western shore of the inlet, extended their 
examination of the coast as far as Creswell Bay, several miles to the 
southward of Fury Beach. The house in wliich Sir John Ross had 
wintered in 1833-3, was found still standing, together with a quantitv of 
stores and provisions of one of the ships lost in 1S27. On opening some 
of the packages, their contents of flour, peas, and meat were found in a 
state of excellent preservation, and the portable souj) as wholesome as 
when first manufactured. The labors of all these parties were curtailed 
and hindered by the sufFerings of the individuals from snow-blindness, 
sprained ankles, and debility. 

By these excursions taken in connection with the expedition incident- 
ally referred to of Mr. Rae in 1S47, t'^'^ whole of Prince Regent's Inlet 
and the Gulf of Boothia was examined, with the exception of 160 miles 
between l'"ur\' Beach and Lord Mayor's Bay, and as there were no indi- 
cations of the ships having touched on any part of the coast so narrowly 
traced, il seemed to Commander Ross certain that they had not attempted 
to fnid a passage in that direction. 

On this accoiuit he decided that it was hest to press on to the wc^t 
as soon as his ships should become liberated. The chief hope now cen- 
tered in the efforts of Sir John Richardson; for he concluded that Sir 
John I'ranklin's ships must have penetrated so far beyond Melville 
Island as to induce him to prefer to make for the continent of America, 
rather than to seek for aid from the whalers in Baffin's Bay. The crews, 
weakened hy excessive exertion, were now in a very unlit state to 



accomphsl. the heavy lal^or which they were obliged ,o undertake, 
'•"t all hands wh., were strong enough to use an ax or a saw, were set to 
uork to cut a channel towanl the point of the harbor, a distance of son,e. 
what n.ore than two nules. ^^y dint of extra exertion the passa-^e was 
completed, and the ships cleared <,n the .8th of August. Jie^.re '^akin.. 
Ilnal leave of the harbor, however, a house was built and covere.l with 
such of the ship's housing material as coul.l be dispensed uith. fn the 
h<.use were left provisions, fuel, etc., for the twelvemonth's supply of a 
large party, an<l in a convenient place was n^oored the steam humeh 
helonging to the Investigator. This being seven feet longer than the 
other, made a fine vessel, capable, if necessary, of convevh.g Sir John 
Prankhn's whole party to safe quarters with the whalers in JJanin's"liay 
U was now decided to proceed to the north side of Barrow's Strait 
t.T the purpose of examining Wellington Channel, and of penetrat' 
.n,.,d possible, as tar west as Alelville Island; but when about twelve 
n..Ics Iron, the shore the ships came upon the land ice, an<l it was 
nnposs.ble to proceed further. As they were struggli:g through the ice- 
packs and endeavoring to proceed westward, a heavy gale brought upon 
then, the loose ice through which they had been making their way and 
th:s close beset them for several days. The vessels sustained severe' nips 
tor son,e time, and were also endangered by the piling up around them 
01 great hummocks, which threatened at times to cover an.l overwhelm 
then,. The temperature at last fell to zero, and the pack froze around 
llK'.n nuo a solid mass. The experiences of the next weeks are thus 
described by Ross: 

" We were so circtnnstance.l that for some days we could not unship 
the .udder, an.l ^vhen by the laborious operation of sawing and ren.ovinl 
tlH' hummocks from under the stem, we were able to do so, we fcnnul i'^ 
tw.stcl and .lauK.ged; and the ship was so strained as to in- 
crease the leakage iVom three inches in a tV,rtnight, to fourteen ,laily 
IhcKv was stationary fbr a lew days; the pressure had so tokled ti,e 
l.^ht.r pieces over each other and they were so interlaced as to form 
•H.c cntn-e sheet, extending from slmre to shore of -Barrow's Strait uuX 
a^ lar to the east and west as the eye could discern from the mast-lUul 






while the extreme seventy of the temperature had cemented the whole 
so firmly together thai it appeared hi-hly improhahle that it could breaic 
up again this summer. In the space which had been cleared away for 
unshipping tlie rudder, the newly formed ice was fifteen inches thici<, 
and n some places along the ship's side, the thirteen. feet screws were 
too sliort to work. We had now fully made up our minds that the ships 
were fixed for the winter, and dismal as tne prospect appeared, it was far 
preferable to l)eing carried along the west coast of Baffin's Hay, where 
grounded bergs are in such lunnbers upon the shallow bank., of that 
shore as to render it next to impossible for ships involved in a pack to 
escape destruction. It was therefore, with a mixture of hope and anxiety 
that, on the wind shifting to the westward, we perceived the whole bodv 
of ice begin to drive to the eastward, at the rate of eight to ten miles 
per day. Every effoil on our part was totally unavailing, for no human 
Ijower could have moved either of the ships a single inch; they were 
thus completely taken out of our hands, and in the center of a field of 
ice more than fifty miles in circumference, were carried along the south- 
ern shore of Lancaster Sound. 

".After passing its entrance, the ice drifted in a more southerly direc- 
tion along the western shores of Baffin's Bay, until we were almost 
abreast of Pond's Bay, to the southward of which, we observed 
a great number of icebergs stretching across our path, and pre- 
senting the fearfi.! prospect of our worst anticipations. But when least 
expected by us, our release was almost miraculously brought about. 
The great field of ice was rent into innumerable fnigments, as if bv 
some unseen power." 

Every resource was immediately brought into active use, and hy 
packing, \/arping, and sailing, the ice was cleared, and the ships reached 
an open space of water on the 35th of September. 

"It is impossible," says Sir James, "to convey any idea of the sen- 
sations we experienced when we found ourselves once more at lilierty, 
while many a grateful heart poured forth its praises and thanksgiving to 
Almighty God for this unlooked-for deliverance. 

" The advance of winter had now closed all the harbors against us, 



.111(1 as it was impossible to penetrate to tiie westward throu'^h the pack which we had just been liberated, I made the sij^rnal to the 
Investigator, of va\ intentions to return to l':n<rland." After a tavora])lc . 
;ind imeventful voyage, the ships arrived in England early in November, 
on the fifth of which month, Ross reported to the admiralty the result 
of his vo^'ag'j. 

The accident which prevented this party from examining the waters 
nnd coast toward Melville Island, is a good illustration of the versatility 
of the elements in Arctic regions, and the extreme nncertaintv of the 
future, even for a short time, with which a polar navigator must, of 
iRccssity, enter those unknown waters. In ordinary seas, a few hours of 
adverse wind simply drive a ship from her course a few miles, or hinder 
for an hour, or a day, her direct progress; a return of favorable breezes 
sutlicing in a short time, to counterbalance the temporary misfortunes. 
I5ul in the latitude of almost perpetual ice, no one can predict what hour 
the pack may close about the hapless craft, and crush her sides or im- 
prison her for dreary months in a desolate, frozen mass. When the 
peculiarities of Arctic navigation are considered, the marvel should l)e, 
not that so little, but that so much, has been brought to light of the 
mystery surrounding the " Storied Pole." 

IIP]' \' v\ 


I - 




, \ 

I ■ ■ 


■ 1 

« 1 


[ ' ■( 

' i 



KXI'KDIItCJN \l.\ lii:ill{|\(;'s STHAII' TiriC KHKAI.I) AND l'I,()\-KK 

]'lM.l.i;.\'s lioAl' jOHHNF.V I,A\l.ASli;i! SOUND (JKKAT IMiKI'A- 

KATioNs - - Dist<)\'i;ini:s — iiip; rKiNiK Ai.iii;i!i' i{i;rrii \s lo 
KN(;i.A\D si.i;d(;i; J()i;k\|.;ys — riii: I'laNtK Ai,i!i:i{ r--A t inri- 
CAi, sni'ArioN — \\iN'ii;i{ on ijoakd iiii-; I'lnMic amuoki', 

Tlic sciirch expedition 7>/a Hchrin^-'s .Strait, was suj^gestcd and or. 
ganizcd upon tho ground, that it" Franklin succeeded in pusliint;- his way 
througli the western ice, and thus proved tlie existence of a Northwest 
Passa<,fe, lie would likely be found at or near the coast of Russian Amer- 
ica, frozen up in the waters of that re^^iou, or cruisinjif a])out to add to the 
gco<,'raphical knowledij^e of those comparatively unknown parts. 

This expedition was composed of the Herald, under Capt. Kellet, 
and the Plover in charge of Coniniander Moore. The vessels were ex- 
pected to arrive in Hehring's Strait about the ist t)f July, 1848, and were 
directed to i^roceed along the American coast as far as possible, consistent 
with the certainty of preventi-ng the ships being beset by the ice. A har- 
i)or was to be sought for the Plover Svithbi the strait, to which that ves- 
sel was to be conducted, and two whale-boatg were to go on to the east- 
ward in search of the missing voyagers, and to communicate, if possible, 
with tile Maclvenzie River party. The Plover was fitted out in tlie 
Thames in December, iS^y; I)ut baviiig been found unseaworthy, was 
compelled, when she went to sea, to put into Plymouth for repairs, and 
did not liiially leave l-^iglaiid until February, 1S48. This lardy depart- 
ure, conjoined with her dull sailing, prevented her from passing Hch- 
ring's Strait at all in iS|.,S, but she wintered on the Asiatic coast just out- 
side of the strait. 

The Herald visited Kotzebue Sound, repassed the straits before the 
arrival of tlie I'lovei-, and returned to winter in South America, wiih the 
intention of going northward again next season. 




The summer of ,Sjo was spent l.y the two ves .Is in a series of faith- 
ful explorations, whose resnits a.t.le.l ,n-eatlv to otn- knowled-^e of the 
Russian seas, without, however, disclosinj^ any traces of Franidin .„■ his 
men. Especially remarkahle in connection with this vova.^e was -, l.o.t 
journey to the eastwani l>y I.ieut. PuUen. Son.e details of this advo- 
turons voyage are ^iven hy lAn,,. Harper, in his private correspondence. 
In tour open hoats they had set out for's River, which they 
.cached after a perilous voya^^e of thirty-two days. Ascendn,^ this river 
thcv came to Fort Simpson, where they met Mr. Rac, an.l rcccive.I an 
account o( h,s r.wn proceedin^rs atid those of Dr. Ricliar.lso,,. 

On the 30thofjune of the followino- summer, the whole partv <.f 
Pullcn, with the servants of the Hudson Hay Con.panv an.l their Jiock 
ot four, started f;,r the sea to emhark for Fnt^land. On the .-,,\. how- 
ever, tiicy were met hy a canoe containinjr dispatches from admiraltv or. 
-Icnn^ the search for Franklin to be resume.I alon^ the Arctic ^oast 
Stopped l,y the ice, and shatterin<, one of his l,oats in the perilous at' 
tempt to cross the northern channels, PuUen was also .nrsuccessftd in this 
undertakmo", and subsequently returned to En<,dand. 

In the n. :;, time, preparations fi.r the search by wav of Lancaster 
Sound were :..ule on a lar^e scale. The Resolute waJ con.nissioned 
oy Capt. Horatio L. Austin, and the Assistance, Cap,. On.nanev, was 
put under h.s onlers, to.^.ether with the Pioneer and Intrepid, stean'. tu^^s l,y Lieuts. Osborn and Cator. Capt. Willian, Fennv Tn' 
experienced whale-fisher, was also en^a^ed fbr the search, an.l plam- in 
— i of the Lady Franklin an,l the Sophia. In addition to these ex 
P-l.-ons futclout hy the a<imiralty, others furnished fVon. private sources 
showed the interest that was widely and deeplv felt in the cause Capt 
Snjohn Ross, In spite of his advanced years, sailed in the Felix schooner' 
an.l, as we shall see, the United States came forward in the first of the' 
Onnnell expeditions, a full account of which will be o-jven in its place- 
Lady Frankhn likewise, with that untiring energy and conjugal devo- 
f- ^vlm:h marked her conduct throughout, dispatched the Prince Albert 
-'<lcr the onlers of Con.mander Forsyth, of the Royal Navy As 
n.anv o, these were largely subordinate m thur objects, and unattended 




by important results, the reader will not W Ixirdcncd with a detailed ae- 
coimt (.f tlu-ir adventures. They were all sent out in ( iS^o) and en.-4a,',re(I 
in searchin<r the same traet, the eoasis on hoth sides of Lancaster Sound. 
Overcomin-jf all dimculties from tlie Hairm's 15ay ice hy the powerful 
aid of the steamers, Capt. Austin's sijuadron readied the enlram-e to the 
sound in July -Capt. I'eiuiy's vessel foliowin-,' in their wake. There 
they separated, and while the Pioneer and the Resolute remained to 
examine the nei<rhhorhood of Pond's May, Capt. Ommaney proceeded to 
Hccchey Island and enjoyed the distinction of discoverini^- the first traces 
of Franklin's expedition yet hrou^'ht to lijrht. Capt. Austin, his attend- 
ant steamer. Penny, and tlie American squadron, soon joined the Assist- 
ance at Cape Riley, and minute investigation only proved the 
importance of tlie discoveries, and demonstrated this to have been the 
scene of Franklin's winter quarters. The site of the encampment was 
plainly marked by the various signs of the former occupants. \o record 
was found, however, and concerning the whereabouts or fate of tlie 
missing voyagers, the crews were no wiser than before.. Papers were 
left at Cape Riley by each ship in its turn, and the Assistance landed 
provisions at Whaler's Point tbr the succor of Franklin's crew, sliould 
they ever reach that place. 

These discoveries were made in August, and, as winter was rapidly 
approaching, little more could be done this season. Penny pushed up 
Wellington Channel as far as Cornwallis' Island, but turned back l)efbre 
an impassable barrier of ice, beyond which he was chagrined to dis- 
cover open water as far as the eye could reach. Thi' Lady Franklin 
and Sophia sought winter cpiarters in Assistance Harbor, at the south 
extremity of Cornwallis' Land, and they were speedily joined by Sir 
John Ross' Felix, while the Resolute and Assistance, (.f Austin, soon 
became fastened in the pack which filled up the channel between (Grif- 
fith's Island and Cornwallis' Land. The Prince Albert sailed for l^ng- 
land before winter set in; and her example was followed by the Advance 
and the Rescue of the Americans, though, as subseciucnt chapters will 
explain, fate had reserved for these two a more pcrilcus passage than a 
simple journey to New York. 

- (iJ 


As the winter advanced, the hollows between the lunnn.ocks in the 
.ce about the vessels lille.i up wi.h snow, an.l sled^nn-,. parties 
were orJ,^■nn^e.l. In all, fifteen sle,l,.es were sent out with lo^ ,nen so 
that only seventy-five remained to take el^n-e of the sl.ips. Itis in.pos- 
sihle to .ive any .letailed account of these well-p.a,-.ned and brave 
atten.pts, ihe prosecution of which involve.l more hardship than had been 
endured ihrouj^hout the whole of the winter preceding;. Fati.rue from 
-Irawinj. heavily loa.le.l sledj^es over ice often rou^d, and precipitous, suf- 
)ormj,. from exposure to the intense cold, from which no an.ount of eloth- 
n.,^ could protect the traveler, and more than all, the terrible snow blind- 
ness ot an Arctic winter; all these told heavily upon them, and to these 
was added the heavier weijjht of disappointment. Each party retm-ned 
Willi the same sorrowful response, " No si<rns!" 

Several parties from the Lady Franklin were up Wellin-^ton 
Ciiannel; one of them Penny commanded himself, and finding the chan- 
■K-I too open to admit of sledj^e traveling, he returned to his vessel, pro- 
VHlcd hunself with a boat, commenced his journey anew, and after a 
scnes of adventures and difficulties, which he overcame with coura<.e 
worthy of a hero, he penetrated up Queen's Channel as far as Barin<r's 
Island and Cape I3eecher, where, most reluctantly, he was compellarto 
t.nn back. A fine open sea stretched away to the north as far as the eye 
could reach, but his boats were weak and small, his men were few, and 
he ^vas obliged to withsta.ul the temptation to embark on the bosom of 
lii.s n.viting water. Penny really thought that Franklin had followed 
th.s route, an.l tiiat his ships, if ever fbund, must be looked for on the 
untracked waters of the Polar Ocean. Capt. Austin, however, could not 
be persuaded of the truth of this theory, and as nothing could be done 
without his co-operation, was compelled to follow the course 
])o,nte<l out by the ad.niralty scp.adron, which, after two InefFectual at- 
tempts to enter Smith's and Jones' Sounds, returned to England. 

I.uiy Franklin's vessel, the Prince Albert, did not stay "to share with 
luT companions the inclemencies of an Arctic Christmas, but leavlno- 
them m preparation for winter, she brought home the welcome hitclir. 
gcnce of the discoveries at Becchey Island, which inspired all interested 



A CRirrcAL srruATrox. 

in Hie laiisc witli a lively 1i..ik-, aii<i si-rvid not a little to expedite prepa- 
rations for a comini,' season. No time was lost in refittin;^' the 1- ive lit- 
tie craft, which was placed in char^^e of Mr. Kennedy. His secoml in 
command was f.ient. IJellot, that nohle volunteer in the cause of hinnan- 
ily, whose j,'encroiis self-devotion procured for hini a fraternal n -ard 
from all En-,dishmeii. The ol.ject of llu' present voya^'e was to exam- 
ine- into Ke-,-nt\ Inlet and the coasl of \orth Somerset, an important 
district for which no provision seemed to have heen made in tlu' admi- 
ralty ])Ian of search; for nothini,^ could then he known in ICn.udaiid of the 
sled-re parties hy means of which C'apt. Austin was at that verv time 
in part supplyinuf tlie deliciency. 

The easterly ;,^des had formed a 1)arrier of ice across Harrow's Strait, 
cuttin^r„(r;,ii access to Cape Riley or (iriilith's Island, so that the Alhert 
was fain, to turn at once into Re,s,rent's Inlet, ami take temp<;rary refu.!.ce 
from the wind in I'ort Bowen. As it was very undesirahle, however, to 
winter on the coast opposite to that along which lay their line of searcli, 
Kennedy, with four men, crossed to Port Leopold amid masses of ice, to 
reconnoiter the western line of coast, as well as to ascertain whether any 
documents had heen left at this point by previous searching parties. 

After an hour sper.t in examining the locality and seeking for papers 
they prejiared to return, hut to their d-smny found their passage cut ofT 
by the ice, which, opening only in dangerous crevices, proved a hopeless 
obstacle when they attempted to reach the vessel on foot. It is ditllcult 
to conceive of a more deplorable situation. Darkness was fast coming 
on, the doe on which they stood was passing rapidly down the channel, 
and the ear was deafened hy the crashing of huge ice-blocks, which 
(k'shcd furiously against each other, and threatened momentarily to hreak 
in fragments the portion they occupied. The only alternal\-e was to re- 
turn lo shore as best they could, ai'.d tluis, separated from their ship, 
clothing, and jjrovisions, tl;ey passed the night; their (.nly shelter being 
their boat, under which each man in turn took an hour's lest. To these 
disagreeable experiences was added in the morning the mortification of 
finding that their ship had disappeared! Their course was nowllxcd; 
they must endure the winter a; well as they could. l'\)rtnnately, the 



<lop..( ..fpiovisions Ic-fl l,y Sir Janu-s K„ss at WhaU-r's I'oiiit, wns easily 
:KTossiI,lc', and InuliM- evcM-ythin- in a -o,„I stalo of prcsiTvalion, they 
iinnu-diatdy pn.i'cc.K-.I to make- ihcnisolvc.s as o,n,r..ttahlo as p(,ssil,Ie. 
Thfv tittr.l up ilu- stc-ani-la.nidi, wlurli, it will W ivnuMnluMV-l, was left 
l.y Sir jatucs lor ilu. possil)!,- transportation of Sir John' Franklin, am! 
ukuIl' a I'omfortahk- temporary liwc-llint,'. 

Thus rc-si,tr,H.,l I,, the- i-xijri-ncii's o|- tlu-ir situation, tlu-y wcmv joyfully 
surprisc-.l 0,1 the lylh of (Mohrr, l.y the appearanee of Mr. iJelJot with 
;i party of srven men, who lia.l .lra,-.^ri.,l ii,r jolly hoat with tlu-m ail the 
way from the ship. It seemed that this jrallant olVieer had ma.le two 


previous attempts to reach the unfortunate party, who now forj^^ot their 
ln)iil)les in accompanying,' their friends hack to the vessel. 

The lon.i,^ winter passed on l)oard the Prince Alhert in the ordinary 
routine; its monotony l)ein<,r somewhat relieved hy the liarrel-or-^ran pre- 
sented liy the hbcral Prince from whom their vessel took its name. A 
lew excursions took phiee from time to time, to form provision depots for 
:i contemplated journey of exploration, or to calculate how soon they 
mi-ht start. On the 35th of February the <rnni(l expedition departed. 
It consisted, exclusive of the reserve party, which accompanied it some 
distance— of Kennedy, Dellot, and six men, together with four sledges, 



(Iniwii partly by dojrs, and partly hy tlic men. It is truly surprisiiifj to 
find what these men accomplished with this slender equipment. Thev 
traced the course of North Somerset to its southern extremity, crossed 
Victoria Strait, explored thorou,<,'hIy Prince of Wales' Land, and fol- 
lowed tlie coast of North Somerset hack a;,'ain to their starting,' point, 
havinjjj, in an absence of ninety-seven days, performed a journey of 
eleven hundred miles, without illness or accident. 

Atk-r the breakinjjf up of tlie ice, the Prince Albert repaired to Cape 
Riley, where the North Star, under our friend Capt. Pullen, was sta- 
tioned as depot-ship to a squadron which had, in the meantime, been sent 
out inider Sir Edward Belcher. Kennedy and IJcUot were at first anx- 
ious to remain out another season, and projected the plan of sendinjj the 
vessel back, while they remained with tiie present expedition. Circum- 
stances, however, induced tiiem to ehanjre their i)lan, and they reached 
Aberdeen, with their full number of men, on the 7th of October, 1853. 

1^^ ^ 



invi:sti<;at()h sent out A.-Arv-Auoux,, caim.; houn-sand- 
\vu II isi.ANi)s_,N K(vr/i.:iu;i.: souni,_alonk ,n tiik aiut.c- 


A r,„M. uixKPTroN-A x.u'EL cruoNouH; v _ „• iioim.:s_ 
Noi! iii\vi;sr i'As.sA(;i.; i'i<i:i)ic' iko. 

Ilos.' (liscovviy squa.ln,,. was scarcely wclcomc.I honio from its 
|K.riln„s operations of 1848-9, wIum, it was at once decide! hy the K„... 
lish (Government to retlt the yes^els, fo,- ,i,e purpose of resumin.^ the 
srarrh (or FrankUn hy way of Behrinj^'s Stra , -the scene of the search 
on .he part of the Ployer and the Herald. It will he rememhcrcd that 
llH' I.nlrrpnse and Inyesti,!rator liad failed in their attempt to .^et west 
"t Leopol.l Island, in the summer of ,8^,;, and only escape.rfrom a 
sv.HU-.'s imprisonment in tiiat inhospitahle spot, to he swept with the ice 
in Harrow's Strait out into lJalli,rs Hay, so that they ha I just time to 
r.'treal to ICn-land hcfore the -cncral closin- of all Arctic seas. 

Snaken and worn as the two ships were, a little Judicious work in the 
'I'H-kvard soon put then, into a proper condition once inore to coinhat 
tiu' uv of Arctic manufacture. Capt. Richard Collinson was appointed 
as s.nior olKcer and leader of the expedition, to the Enterprise, and 
Co.nnmnder Rohert Le Mesurier M'Clure to the Investigator. The 
tonner enjoye.l a hi,,,.h naval reputation, and in China his ahiUties as a 
M.•^^yor had done the State good service. The latter, the destined <Iis- 
-vcrer of the Northwest Passage, having p.assed a useful apprentice- 
^h.p n. the British service for twenty years, received an appointment to 
<!-• I..vest,gator,as a reward f.y valuable service as lientenant under 
Ivo'-s in 1S48-0. 





Up ':< 


Til 1849-50 there was iki lack of volunteers for Arctic service. 
The voyages of tlie precediiii^^ seasons liad attracted tiie attention of 
all; and an interest in tlie cause, coupled with a desire foi- adx^nture 
greatly hastened the completion of the preparations. On the loth of 
January ihe I wo ships set out; hut heing, as Arctic-hound ships must lie, 
heavily laden with jjrovisions and lixtures, it hccamc necessary to stop 
at Plymouth and do bome sliglit repairing — a measure which gave them 
an opportunity of securing several more good seamen. 

No delay was allowed here, however, for the great distance hetwcen 
England and Behring's Strait had to he traversed hy way of Cap- Horn. 
This iu\oh.-ed a journey of six months hefore the sea could he reached- 
and it was fully realized that tlie delay of a month might cause the gate 
to the highwa)- they sought to be closed against them. The services of 
a German clergym;in, who had l)een a Moravian missionary, were duly 
engaged as interpreter, ami he was dispatched on hoard the Investi- 
gator at Pl\-mouth. 

A few hours afterward the Arctic squadron weighed anchor and s liled 
forth with a fair and fresh wind. As the greater interest attaches to the 
Investigator, on account of her connection with the discovery of the 
Northwest Passage, it will he our aim particularly to follow her fortunes 
over the northern seas. 

It was not until the I Sth of March, 1S50, nearly two months after 
leaving England, that the Investigator crossed the Southern Tropic in 
the Atlantic Ocean, although the greatest possible speed had been made, 
and the two vessels, having parted company from the first, had not been, 
as is usual, the means of detaining each other. After being towed 
through the Strait into the'Pacific, she landed on the 17th of April, at 
Port Famine, on the coast of Chili. 

Here Capl. M'Clure learned that the Enterprise had already passed, 
and what was still more to be regretted, had taken with her all the beef 
cattle, so that the Investigator's prospect of fresh meat was no nearer 
than the Sandwich Islands, to reach which the wide Pacific had to be 
traversed, as the Atlantic had already been. At Fortescue Ray, how- 
ever, the Investigator fouiul the Enterprise lying at anchor, ami aa 



opportunity was ufTordcl f„r comparing notes upon their respective ,our- 
neys. On the 19th of April the weather permitted of their again startin-r 
out. Once in the broa.l Pacific the two vessels separated, never again to 

Crossing the Equator on the ,5th of June, the vessel of our nar- 
rative was aided by the S. E. tra.les into 7 ' N. latitude. O.i the .st of 
July they anchored gladly enough outside the harbor of the 
wind not being favorable for entering it. They foun.l that Capt. Col- 
li.ison had already called at this port and proceeded on his way. After 
purchasing as speedily as possible all necessary supplies of fruit and vege- 
tables, they departed, fully equipped for their Arctic voyage, o., tlie .ftl^of 
July, 1S50. The ice, however, was still 40" distant, the Enterprise un- 
doubtedly far ahead, and the season would be closing in, in about sixty days. 
Capt. M'Clure might well be anxious to devise the best means of reaching 
Jkhring's Sf.-aits. It was rumored at Honolulu that the Enterprise, in 
case of arriving at Kotzebue Sound, on the coast of Russian America! in 
advance of the Investigator, proposed to take with her the Plover, 
anchored since 1S48 in that harbor, and leave the ship of M'Clure in her 
place on the American coast. 

To prevent an occurrence which would prove so damaging to the 
ardor of his men, M'Clure made every breeze do him service, and arrived 
in Kotzebue Sound on the 29th of July. As no traces of the Enterprise 
had been seen by the Plover's men, it was inferred that she had either 
passed in a fog, or had not yet come up. Capt. M'Clure's impulse was 
t<. push on and either join the Enterprise or, failiug in that, at least spend 
the remainder of the season in profitable exploration. Capt. Kellett of the 
Plover, although M'Clure's senior, did not feel that he had the authority 
to detain him, especially in the uncertainty of the whereabouts of the 
Enterprise. The InvestigaK.r, then, at once set sail, and in fortv-eight 
hours was out of sigh, and alone on the rough surface of the stormy 
strait. Running northward as far as it was safe on account of the icJ, 
M'Clure retraced his course southward and eastward, until he reached' 
Wainwright Inlet, and again sighted the Plover for a time. 

Keeping now very close .„ tho Ameriean coast, or as near as the 





ice- woul.l permit, tlic vessel made lapui progress toward Point Barrow. 
At midnigiit they rounded the northwest extreme of the American con- 
tinent, and he-an their progress toward the eastward. On the morning 
<.r the r,th of August, 1S50, the officers and crew felt free from all anxiety 
on the score of being able to enter the Arctic Ocean from Behring's Strait. 
Tlieir lirst aspiration was to reach Melville Island, Init as a waste of 
ice stretclied before them in that direction as far as the eye could reach, 
it was <lecide(l to reach if possible, the "landwatcr," on the comparatively 
safe sea between the main land and the main body of ice; and once in 
that water to struggle eastward for that open sea off the MacKcnzie 
River, spoken of by Sir John Richardson. 

On August S, when about one hundred and twenty miles east of Point 
Barrow, a man was sent ashore to leave a notice of the passage of the 
Investigator., and to erect a cairn. Here some native Esquimaux were 
found, of whom incjuiry was made concerning the character of the water 
to the eastward. Communication being generally established with tlie 
tribe, it was admitted by some of the men that they had seen a ship in 
Kotzebue Sound (no doubt the Plover). They gave promise of an 
open channel from three to five miles in width, all along the shore until 
winter; but they could give no idea of what time that season began. 
M'Clurc told them that he was looking for a lost brother, and made 
them promise that if they ever met the wandering party they should he 
kind to them, and give them "deer's-flcsh." 

The chief characteristics of this tribe seemed to be obesity, dirtiness, 
and dishonesty "Thieving, performed in a most artless and skillful 
maimer, ajjpeared their principal accomplishment. As Capt. M'Chne 
was giving out some tobacco as a present, he felt a hand in his trousers' 
pocket, and on looking down found a native, receiving a gift with one 
hand, and actually picking his pocket with the other. Yet, when de- 
tected, the fellow laughed so good-humoredly and all his compatriots 
seemed to enjoy the joke so amazingly, that even the aggrieved panics 
joined in the general merriment." 

Working on to the eastward the Investigator had reached, on Aug. 
14, longitude 14S" 17' west, and became much hampered amonir the 


l.nv islands, which, for a ship in f„..y weather, wore .lan- 
.onerous. They liad now passed the point at which Franklin had^u-rived 
n. h,s jotn-ncy westward iVon, the MacKenzie, and might be said to be 
iipproachmg tlie delta of that .<,rreat river. 

After several narrow escapes on the 14th of Auj^ust the good ship 
lound herself quite beset with the shoals surrounding the individual 
.^ of this little archipelago; and at last, in attempting to escape 
through a narrow s.rait of three fathoms depth, she unfortunatelv took 
the ground. All sail was at first put on, in the hope of dracr^i,;. her 
through it ; but the effort proved fruitless. Even the laying ou^of all the 
anchors failed to float the vessel. All the load possible was now put 
into boats, several tons of water were let out of the tanks on board and 
at last, after being aground five hours, the Investigator was once more 
got afloat. 

On the night of Aug. 7 new ice was found for the first time upon the 
siulace »t the sea, a certain indication of the speedv approach of winter 
and some doubted whether the MacKenzie could be reached. The c^en- 
cral embarrassment was augmented by a mistake of the officers in change 
In the io^.ry weather prevalent at this season along the coast, a blh.d 
lead through the ice was followed for ninety miles, being mistaken for 
tin- channel l^etween the main ice and the shore. Retracing their steps 
thev lortunately found a passage out of the ice, and were soon off the' 
MacKenzie fifty miles distant from the mainland. 

On the .4th of August the Investigator approached Port Warren 
and a party landed, hoping that the natives at this point traded ^vith the 
H.uison's P.ay Company, presuming that in this way another dispatch 
could be sent to England. Their surprise, therefore, may be ima-nned 
at hnchng themselves received with bra.ulished weapons of all sorts \n.\ a 
goeral expression of defiance. A friendly footmg at last bein</estab 
l.^hc-,1, a brass button of European manufacture was seen suspended from 
the ear of the chief. In reply to inquiries he candidly confessed that it 
iH'longed to a white man, one of a party who had arrived at Port War 
rcn Irom the westward. They had no boat, nor other means of convey- 
hut had built a hoi - - - ^ 


and finally dejiarted inlanil. Th 

e owner of 



m 11 


\\ p 

1 1 

the brass button Iiad wandered iVoni the rest of Iiis partv, and been 
U-ille<l by a native, wlio now, seein-,' the ^reat ship, had iled. The white 
man liad been Inn-ied hy the chief and his son. Witii regard to time, 
ho\ve\er, the chief's aecount was sinL,nihirly va-ne, and he could liy no 
means be induced to '[\^ the (bite witli any more accnracv than " It nii^jhl 
l)e last year and it mij^ht be when lie was a child." 

This tale ol course Ljave rise to many conjectures, many were of the 
opinion that the wanderiuLj whites could be no other than members of 
Franklin's party; and all a<,nved as to the propriety of makin<,'- thoroufjh 
investi;^'-ation before leaviu'^ the vicinity. A thick fo':^ which warned 
them to return to the ship, did not allow them to visit the white man's 
<,M-ave, but on followiut,^ the direction indicated by the chief, a hut was 
discovereil. They were disappointed to find that the hut was old, and 
that the occupants had vacated it years before, while the decayed wood 
of which it was made bore not the slijrhtest trace by which to glean infor- 
mation of the former tenants. There was at least nothing upon which 
to base the slightest connection with Franklin's fate, and therefore noth- 
ing to cause further delay in their onward voyage. 

Another tribe of Esciuiniaux was encountered about the close of 
August o(F Cape Bathurst, who, being friendly, undertook to convey the 
dispatches to the Hudson's IJay Company, which it had been found im- 
possible to transmit from Port Warren. It was of course necessary to 
make some trilling presents in return, and M'Chu-e gives an interestiii'-- 
account of the manner in which the women, excited by what thev had 
already receivetl, and tempted by the display of articles before them, at 
last became unmanageable and rnshetl upon the stores, seizing what they 
could reach, and carrying it off apparently without compunction. 

The 1st of September found the Investigator still laboring to the 
eastward. From the 1st to the 5th the \essel was occupied in 
rounding the I?ay formed by Capes Bathiu-st and Parry. On the 
4th large fires Nvere seen on shore, and at first were supposed to 
have been built by the natives to attract attention. It was not 
likely, however, that natives would indulge in so la\ish an expenditure 
of fuel, and the appearance was at last attributed to (he presence on shore 

NOh' TinvEs r p. i.s.s . u.i. j -uon 1 7 /./;. 

of Franklin a,ul his con.nules. Figures in white wcc seen n.ovin.. 
ahont, and various suggestive objects wore descried hv the anxiotrs 
scatchers. Bitterly wen our voyagers disappointed to find upon, 
..on only a few small volcanic of a sulphuric nature, while the 
tracks of reindeer, coming for water to a neighboring sprin-., ck-nlv 
explanied the mystery of the moving ficrures. 

A n-esh breeze an<l clearer weather^vith n.ore open water enable.! 
.he Invesfgator to set away from the Continent more than she ha.l clone- 
->-l OM the 7th of September Capt. M'Clure landed on a newlv-dis' 
covere,! p.ece of hnul, to take possession of it in the Queen's name. ^This 
U..S ,,amed Baring's Land A-om the Lonl of the Admiralty, in ignorance 
of Its bemg connected with Banks Land already discovered 

rWnce Albert Land was at last reached, and exhibited, in its interior 
...nges of mountains covered with snow. Gulls an<l other birds were seen 
i ymg southward - a certain indication that winter was soon to set in 
A hope began to possess the n.ariners that they were to accomplish wha^ 

others had heretofore failed in achieving __ namelv .he A\^ r , 

' ".-. 'i'"ii'-i\, llie (hscovery of the 
N..,-,lnvc.». l.»,„«c. The ,l„„.o,-s ,„■ U,c cxpclitio,,, „,,, „„„„„,. ,„,„. 

sh,,,-.ll wee f„.K„e,o„. -Only give us ,i„,c," thcv «,i,l, ..,„., „e 
"MM nuke ,he Northwest Passaic." X„„„ „f Septen^her cj.h place.l 
Ihe.n ,.nly ,t/v/i- miles from liarrow's Sirail. 

"Icaanot," say, M'Clure's joar,.,:, ..leseribe n,y anxious feelings 
(.a„ ,, I,e possible t],at tltis water communieates witl, Harrow's Str-Ut' 
-. shall prove to he the l„„,„.,ht Xorthwcs, ,.assa,e? Can it h„ tha^ 
so h„,nhle a ereattu-e as I „.ill he pemutte.l to perform what has hafflcl 

;" '*;""■■; '' "-'^^^ '■"■• '"'"■'-* "'■.-n-s.= lint all praise he ascrihe.l to 

ll.n. who has eou.lnctcti u, so far on „,„- way i„ safetv. His wavs are 

"■-nn- ways, nor are the ,„eaus that He uses to aceontplish Hi^ ' end, 
». nn o,„. eo,„prohe,„io„. The wi,.l„„, „f ,he worl.l is foolishness 

\\ "n I lim. 



SKJNS f)I- WIVTKK ItlCSl'T IMt KI'A I{ KI) I'OK DAXCKK WI :■ ..i! F V<; rv 

IIIH AlU IK- I'OIwVIt IIUN II\(;-(;i{Oi;\l)S — SUM.MKK AfiAlN 

I'KiNri-; Ai-iticur's caim; -riii.; knii;i!im{im.: - axxikty i\ i;.\(; 




!i ■' 

Scptombor i i, 1S50, broii_<rht with it iinclouhtecl si<,nis of v/inter. The 
thermometer fell to i r' iielow the freezini,^ ^int; and a northwest <^r;,lc 
rolled the ice ilovvii into the channel, and rendered it almost nnnavi<,'ahle. 
No harbor was in si;4ht, and the Ion-; dark nif^ins rendered pr()i;ress 
peculiarly danjj^crons and diirunilt. On the uth of September M'Clure's 
journal is to the followini^r clfect : 

"The teinperatnro of the water has now fdlen to zS" Fahrenheit 
(freezinjr point of sea-water.) The l)ree/.e has freshened to a -ale, luiu--- 
in;4 with it snow, and sendini,^ down hw^e masses of ice npon us. The 
pressure is considerai)!e, Usthvj; the vessel several de,L,n-ees. Forlunatelv 
a lari,re floe, which was fast approaching- the vessel, has had its pro^ness 
arrested by one extreme of it taking- the Lj^mund, and the other lockiu'^ 
with a '^rounded floe upon our weather l)eam. It is thus coinpletelv 
checked, and forms a safe harrier ajj^ainst all further pressure. As the 
rudder was likely to become damai^ed, it was unluuii,'- and suspended 
over the stern. We can now do nothing, beinj,^ rej^-ularlv beset, hut 
await any favorable chani^e of the ice, to which we anxiously look for- 
ward, knovvin.<r that the navi.gable season for this year has almost 
reached its utmost limit, and that a few hours of clear water will in all 
probability solve the problem of the practicability of the Northwest 


PliEPAIfED FOR nAXaiilt. 
Till- 13th :iii(l 14th l)rou<,Hit no chaiifre for ilic 1 

K'ttcr, hut on tl 




tlu. wind vccvl to ilic southward, and tlic vessel hc-an to ,h-ift up the 
channel. On the 16th a point was readied only thirty miles (Von, the 
he-innin- of the water, whieh, inuler the name of Harrow, Melville, an.l 
LancastL-r, eonneets with the waters of the Atlantic thron-h the' ice- 
sti.dded waters of Baffin's JJay. For some reason, tlie ice in which they 
had heen driftin- would go no farther, and thus at this tantalixin- dis- 
tance from Harrow's Strait they were compelled to stop, and for Ttime 
rclinquisii their hope of reachin«r the Northwest Passa-re. 

11 was necessary now to decide whether they would re'race their 
steps to the south and Ihul a suitahle place for wintering, or remain in the 
pack and l.rave the dangers long since declared fatal by alleged compe- 
tent authorities. " I decided," says M'CIure, "upon the latter"course, en- 
c.)urage<l by the consideration that to relinquish the groini.l obtained 
through so much difficulty, for the remote chance of finding safe winter 
.|uarlers, would be injudicious, thoroughly impressed as I was with the 
al^olute importance of retaining every mile, to insure any favorable re- 
sult while navigating these seas." 

The ice now closed about the Investigator, and her peril for a time was 
imminent. As t lie massive floes came crowding against her, causing her to 
surge back and forth in her narrow bed, the noise was so deafening That the 
orders of the officers, although delivered through trumpets, could scarcely 
l.c understood. Anticipating the worst that could happen, Cap't. 
M'CIure ordered a large quantity of provisions and fuel to be placed on 
deck, the officers an<l men to be carefully told off to their boats, and 
every one to be in readings for a final catastrophe. ICvery precaution 
was taken to save life, even if the ship coul.l not be preserved. At 
length, however, the old floes became so strongly cemented by the young 
ice, that the element around the vessel assumed a state of quiescencr, 
and the danger which had been threatening was for a time averted. 

The housing was now stretched over the ship, and the customary 
preparations for winter were made. Care was taken to leave the sunny 
side of the vessel uncovered, in order that the light might be enjoyed 
as long as possible, for Capt. M'CIure was well aware of the scorbutic 


S 4 J 

V'' J 



II i :■; 


wiNTEiitm; IX run arctic. 

<I.lhcul,.cs with which he must co„tcM..l, :,n,l sou^lu to ..ntido,. ih.-m ,s 
tar as possible in advance. Aitoj^ether, the crew was ,„a<ic much ,no,c 
••^- •"•.l.narily comfortable, an.l the usually cheerless prospect of a win- 
ter u. the ice was brighcene.l to a wonderful de;,n-ee by hopeful spirits 
and willin^r hands. 

The winter was well spent in evplorin- the coast adjacent to ,hc ves- 
sol's position, and in battlin.r the temlency to scurvy, bv killin-- what- 
ever could ],e found. On the „Sth of April, „S,-,, three explorin-. 
sled-c parties were sent out imder Lieut. Haswell, Lieut. Cresswell^ 


and Mr. Wynniatt, respectively to the southeast, northwest, an.l north- 
east, with six weeks' provisions each. Hy these observations the sur- 
rounding coast lines were accurately trace.l, but no si-^ni of the missin.^ 
vessels could be discovered. The party Hrst mcntioncl discovere.l a 
tribe of Esquimaux who subsequently visited Capt. M'Clure; they 
proved remarkably intelli.i,rent, and readily trace.! on paper the coast 
hne of Wollaston a,.d Victoria La.ul, therel)y determining the Ion-. 
disputed point, whether or not these districts really belong to the Con- 
tinent of Xorth America. Above eight hundred miles were traversed 
by these three parties, who .liligently cTcctcd cairns and .lepositcd in- 

slrnctions wherever they would he lil<dv to ..Test the attention ..f wan- 
.l-vrs; an.l all returned to hea,l<,uarters eonvinee.l, In.n, the total ah 
s<aue ot trace or sij^n, that Franklin o.ul.l not have penetrated these 

Hetween the 5th and ..d of May those on l,oard the Inves,i...,o,- 
1-1-i delight the sij,ns of^ summer. The ves^er^s 
cnllce<l an.i painted, and hatchways opened to dry up lon^ accumulated 
-i-np hetween decks; the stores were exa. ' .1 an.l culle.I wi.h ..v „ 
care, an.l the health of ollicers and crew was thorou^hlv looke.Mnto 
Not a trace of scurvy was <liscovere<I, u, ,,,„,, „„j,„;,„,i,,, ;„ „,, 
h.story of Arctic voyages." This wonderful exemption fron, disease 
W.-.S largely due to the prevalence of j,ame, and the skill exhihited hy 
.he crew ,n the seci.rin,. of it. One valley visited hv then, was liter- 
:niv ahve ptarmigans an.I, an<l the keen appetites of the 
seamen eventually made them keen sportsmen. 

In the latter part of May a lar<,e hear passing the ship wa shot hy 
M Clure, and irs stomach was found ,0 contain an astounding, medlev 
" There were raisins that had not lon<,. heen swallowed; a few sma'll 
p.eces of tohacco-leaf; hits of t^.t pork cut into cuhes, which the ship's 
cook declared must have heen use.l in n^akin^, mock-turtle soup, an 
-tu-le often found on hoard a ship in a preserved form; and lastlv fr..^ 
ments of stickino^ plaster which, Uou. the tonns m which thev ha,i h.ei, 
cut, evidently have passed throu^^h the hand of a" sur<>eon " 
Lapt. M'Clure, heing ignorant of the ships which ha.l heen sent 
on. from England, could think of only two wavs in which this 
phenomenon was possihle, namely, that the hear had come over 
-n>e floe of ice visitecl hy the Investi-^ator last autumn, or that 
•he Lnterprise must he wintering somewhere in the vicinity. B„t 
ue know, or might, if we had followed the Enterprise on her 
c"urse Iron. South America to Russian A.nerica, that she had returned 
to the south, and was at this time in China. The first theory was ren 
;!--' nnprolKihle hy the f^,ct that no vestige left hv the Investigator in 
'-■ HMu-ning of the previous autumn, could have avoide.l destruction in 
the en<lless grinding of the moving ice. A meat-can containing all the 


Tin: /:x //.h'/'u/s 


artick's mciitioiied above, was at'tcrwanl (oiin.l. 

which could render thcin no service, -thai 
tcrcd ill their immediate neiyhhnrhood. 

coiivincinj'' all of ;i fm't 

some other party iiad win- 

The Ice which had so loii<r held the v 

about the middle of July, and M'Clure shaped 
east, iutendinj;, if possible, to soiuid the northern coast of 
At the outset ..f her vova^je the Investij,fator had 
doe to which sii 

essel a prisoner, be<'an to vield 

liis course for the nortl 


el VI lie 


e \v 

a narrow escape; the 
as temporarily attached -ave wav, and the detached 

portion hc'iwr whirled 

round and crushed to<^'ether hv the press 

ure of 

.snrr()uiulin<,' ice, l)ore down with tremendous vel 
the sturdy vessel. The cl 

elocltv and t'orce 


lains and lines were at once lei '■•,, ami f 


e event ; for the vessel no 


and so esc 



ship thus freed from the floe —a fortunat 
held stationary, was driven onward bv thi 
the influence of the lloe. 

Escaped from this danjrer, the Investit^Mtor followed her course with 
comparative case until the Joth of Au-ust, when they were driven be- 
tween the ice and the beach, a little nortii of Prince Albert's Cape. 
Here they lay till the ist of September, in comparative safety. \i this 
time, however, they were threatened with imminent peril from an im- 
mense floe to which they were attached, beino- raised by surround, n- 
pressure, and elevated i>erpendiciilarly thirty feet. A few moments ,.f 
suspense and anxious watching;- showed all on l-.oard how small an ad- 
ditional force would turn the -lassy rockin,i;-stone completely over, and 
crush the helpless vessel in that awful tall. Gradually the iloe slipped 
down and ri'^hted itself, and the ship so Ion- and severely tried, a,i,^ain 
sailed level on her course. After a series of such experiences as we 
have just narated, the Invcsti<jfator was compelled once more by the ad- 
vance of winter to seek winter (piarters. A harbor on the north oC 
Rarinj,' Island was chosen, and the winter of 1S53-3 was bc-nm. 

Havin,i,r nov,' brouj^ht to a close the narration of the Investi^i,'ator\s 
experience up to 1S5;?, let ns turn to the course of the Enterprise, which 
started with the Investi.L;ator under such ])romisino- circumstances. I lav- 
ing^, as before intimated, wintered in China in iS50--i,she had the iieM 
season again approached the north of America, a^id on the ^^tli of 

ANX//:/ r /.y Km: LAND. 407 

.h.Iy was foILnvin^r i„ tluMrack „r the Invcsti^rator, an,u...i l'.,i,u Bar- 
row. Strujrfrlin^ .-.lon- as far as slic could, sl.c wintered in the 
i^v ill iSsi^j, at the southeni end of i'rjuce of Wales Strait. It was 
not until September, 1852, that the linteiprise seems f. have made any 
pn.-ress eastward from lu-r direction which Capt. 
Collinson naturally decide.l upon attempting, with a view to penetrate 
Uu- distance between him an.l Cape Walker. He reached on the 26th 
of September, Wollaston Land, where he passed the winter of ,852-3, 
of which we are now writin>r. I„ these winter <iuarters they were' 
visited by Esquimaux, one tribe of whom numbered over 300. In their 
possession was found a piece of iron, which many still believe to have 
come from the missin- ships. This seems very probable from what we 
know of the place of Franklin's death; but Capt. Collinson, bein- igno- 
rant of that fact, could have no idea of how close his ship was to the 
place where Dr. Rae's informants afterward stated that they had seen 
the. remains of Franklin's ,nen. Leaving now the Enterprise, presuming 
iliat siie experienced a very severe winter, we turn once more to the In" 
vcstigator, wiiose adventurous crew and officers were spending their 
second wniter in the ice. 

rheir story from this point may be told in few words. All the 
ICnglisii vessels which had sailed in^the same year with the two ships of 
our narrative, had returned home, and great anxiety was beginning to be 
felt for tile long-absent fleet. The commander of the Investigator had 
])aMnise(i tiic necessity of eventually abandoning his ship; bu" as a pre- 
liminary step, selected a party of men who were to make the best of 
their way out of the ice and get to England if possible. A fortunate 
combination of circmnstances, however, was about to make this danger- 
ous journey unnecessary. 

In accordance with the "Arctic Committee's Report," an expedition 
for tile relief of the Enterprise and Investigator was sent out from Eng- 
laiul in the spring of 1S53. It consisted of the Assistance and the ResolutI, 
under Sir Edward Belcher and Capt. Kellett; two steam-tugs. Intrepid 
an.! Pioneer; and a iM-ovision-ship, the North Star, under Commander 
I'lilleu. The northern waters 

were reached by way of ]^,affin's 1 








imr. FEF EXPK nrrrny. 



alx.iit tlu- 1st of SoptcrnljLT, 1853, and tlu- sciircli iiniiKvliatcly W'^wx. 
Mflville Island was rcuclu-d by Capt. Kfllrlt ..f tlu- l<.es()lmc, a-d C' 
iiiaiukT M'CliiUock of tin; Intrepid, 011 'tin; 5th -.f SL-ptc'inl.L-f, and thu 
vossfis in;idc' fast to r-c which still iinijciv.l in Winter Harbor, thi- well- 
known wnitcrin-^-place of Sir iCdward Parry in the year 1819. 

Ilavini,' hcrome securely frozen in Ibr the time, parties were sent 
nut durin-,' the fall an.I winter for discovering- traces (.f either ..f tlie 
>hips s(ni,i,rht. On one of these occasions, Lieut. Meachani of the Reso- 
lute, happened to inspect more closely than usual tlie famous mass of 
sandstone on whieh Parry had caused his' ship's name to he en-n.ved. 
lie could scarcely credit his senses when he discovered a document 
upon its summit, detailing' the practical accomplishment of the North- 
west Passaj^'c, and the position of II. M. S. Investi-jator in Hanks I. 

Impressed with the belief that the Investi^jator had <,mt out of tlie 
IJayof Mercy and passed to the northwest of Melville Island, M'Clin- 
toik and Meacham chose routes which would intercept her supposed 
track; consequently, Lieut. Pim of the Resolute, was, with Dr. Dom- 
ville of the same ship, chosen to make a journey with sledj^es from 
Melville Island to Banks Land; and on March 10, 1S53, they started, 
amid the prayers and cheers of their shipmates. 

In the meantime, April, 1S53, j,rreeted the iimiates of the Investi.i,^- 
tor. All preparations had been made' for the departure of the party be- 
fore referred to. On the 5th of April a fine deer was hnn- up rea.Iy to 
I>e .livided for a hearty meal, of which all hands were to partake 
their separation. The events of this day are <,Mven in the lan-ua-e of 
M'Clure's journal: " VVhlle walkinj; near the ship * * * •1= * -j,. 
we perceived a fi<,rin-'j walking,- rapidly toward ns from the rou-h ice at 
the entrance of the bay. From his face and jrestures we l)oth naturally 
supposed at first that he was some one of our party pursued by a bear, 
but as we approached him, doubts arose as to who it could be. He was 
certainly unlike any of our men; but recollectin- that it was possible 
s-.nie one mi-ht be tryin- a new tra.,elin- dress, preparatory K, the 
departure of our sled,tres, and certain that no one elsu- was near, we eon- 
liuucd to advance; when within about two hundred yards of i,., this 



it i i \ li 

.strange figure threw up his arms, and made gesticulations resembling 
those of Esquimaux, besides shouting at the top of his voice, words 
which, from the and the intense excitement of the moment, sounde.l 
like a wild screech; and this brought us to a stand-still. The stranger 
came quietly on, and we saw that his face was black as ebony, and really 
at the moment we might be pardoned for wondering whether he was a 
denizen of this world or the other, and had he but given us a glimpse of 
a tail or a cloven hoof, we should have assuredly taken to our legs; as it 
was, we gallantly stood our ground, and had the skies fallen upon lis, we 
could hardly have been more astonished than when the dark-fiiced 
stranger called out: 

"'I'm Lieut. Pim, late of the Herald, and now in the Resolute. 
Capt. Kellett is in her at Dealy Island.' 

"To rush at, and seize him by the hand, was the first impulse, for the 
heart was too full for utterance. The announcement cf relief at hand, 
when none was supposed to be even within the Arctic circle, was too sud- 
den, unexpected, and joyous, for our mn.ds to comprehend it at once. 
The news flew with lightning rapidity, the ship was all in commotion; 
the sick forgetting their maladies, leapt from their hammocks; the artifi-' 
cers dropped their tools, and the lower deck was cleared of men, for 
they all rushed to the hatchway to be assured that a stranger was' ac- 
tually amongst them, and that his tale was true. Despondency fled from 
the ship, and Lieut. Pim received a welcome-pure, hearty, and grate- 
ful—that he will assuredly remember and cherish to the end'of his days." 
M'Clure at once decided to visit Capt. Kellett to make arrangements 
with him for conveying to England all the sick on board his vessel. It 
was still his purpose to remain by the Investigator another season if 
necessary, rather than abandon her while any possibility of her release 
remained. We can easily conceive of the nature of his .iiecting with 
Capt. Kellett. They had last parted on that eventful day in 1S50 when 
Kellett had felt tempted to restrain M'Clure until his consort came up- 
a course which, if it had been adopted, would probably have prevented the 
happy achievement of the Northwest Passage. 

Capt. Kellett, however, did not feel it to be in accordance with his 


duty to allow M'Clure to once more peril the lives of his crew hv rashly 
remaining in the ice durin- the winter of ,853-4. A consulta- 
tion hetween Dr. Donn-ille and Dr. Armstronj,^ resulted in condemnin^r 
the measure as impracticable, considering the health of the Investigator's 
crew; ami M'Clure himself, f„un<l to his surprise and mortification that 
only four of his whole number felt able and willin- to go throuj^h 
another winter. Much, therefore, as he rej^retted the step, he felt justified 
in leavin- the Investigator and proceeding with his disabled crew to the 
hospitable Resolute and Intrepid, where he arrived June 17. Their 
troubles, however, wore yet by no means at an end; for the gallant 
squadron which had volunteered their rescue, in tm-n found itself" beset 
an<l unable to leave its doubtful harbor until another summer-that of 

The events which led to their final release, and the circumstances of 
the (lucstionable desertion by Sir Edward Belcher of several ships in 
good order, will i,u fully presented i.i the succeeding chapter. 






The abandonment of a number of ships in good condition, well- 
provisioned, and with good promise of release within a reasonable period 
certainly constituted, nt the time, a novel conclusion to a series of Arctic 
ventures; and one which subsequent repetition has never justified; so that 
in pursuing this course, Sir Edward Belcher may at least have had the 
satisfaction of complete originality. It is not the purpose of this chapter 
however, to pronounce final judgment upon the wisdom of choices, nor 
to attempt to criticise motives, but simply to give the facts as 'they 
occurred; from which the reader will be free to form his own conclusions 
While M'Clintock and Kellett had been pushing their investio-ations 
.n the direcdon of Melville Island and Banks Land, the remainder of 
Belcher's squadron had continued at or near Beechey Island, and had 
made it the center of operations. Although some good service was 
rcndercHi in the way of surveying and exploration, Sir Edward's coinse 
appears to have been timid and unsailorlike throughout. His ships 
Pioneer and Assistance, having become temporarily beset fifty mdes north 
of Beechey Island, surprising arrangements for the abandonment of the 
whole fieet were at once made by Belcher. 

Totally ignorant of such an arrangement on the part of the senior 
oflicer, the commanders of the Resolute and Intrepid, which we left frozen 
up in the winter of .853-4, h'^l so carefully and judiciouslv husbanded 
their resources that they were prepared for f-. possible "contingency 
o< being compelled to remain still another year in the ice near Barrow's 
Strait.. This fact was all the more t<; their credit because the 


•y nad added 



to their list of consumers the exhausted crew of the Investigator. Capt 
Kcllett was therefore sm-priscd to receive from Sir Edward,'in the spring 
of 1S54, a confidential letter containing the following remarkable 
passage : 

"Should Capt. ColHnson, of the Enterprise, fortunately reach you 
you will pursue the same course, and not under any consideration risk 
the detention of another season. These are the views of the .overn- 
ment; and having so far explained myself, I will not hamper vou with 
ttn-thcr mstructions than, meet me at Beechey Island, with the'crews of 
all vessels, before the 26th of August." 

Determined not to take such a course hastily, Capt. Kellett sent Capt 
M'Chntock to inform Sir Edward Belcher of the perfect possibilitv of 
savmg h,s ships; to advise him of the stores of provisions which ^had 
hccn saved up; to assure him of the health of the men; and to express 
h,s disapproval of so unnecessary and unwise a movement. These rep- 
resentations, however, were unavailing. Sir Edward sent back by 
M'Chntock an .,-^.;^for abandoning the Resolute and Assistance, and the 
Investigator's brave crew, « who had lived through such trials and hard- 
ships for four winters, stared to see all hands gradually retreating upon 
IJccchey Island, ready to return to England as speedily as possible " " 

Thus, leaving Capt. ColHnson to steer the Enterprise safely out as 
best he might, and abandoning the good ships Investigator, Resolute, 
Assistance, Intrepi.i and Pioneer, Belcher ordere.l the combined crews 
.>f those five vessels to seek quarters on board the North Star provision 
ship, andembarked for England in charg. of many chagrined and dis- 
satishod Englishmen. All, including the Enterprise, reached En-Wand 
.n September, 1S54, being welcomed home by a sympathizing but dis- 
appointed people. 

The matter of the abandonment of the Investigator was of course 
tormally examined, aiul Capt. M'Clure was tried by a court-martial- a 
l)iocccding which resulted in his ir.ost honorable acquittal. Not knowing 
what might in the meantime have been accomplished bv Sir John Franir. 
l.n, the admiralty, agreeing that M'Clure had virtually achieved a 
Northwest Passage, were unanimous in bestowing upon himself and 


4:! I 

i ' t 


crew ,€io,(x.c,, ,„• lialf of the stamlin- reward. In addition to ,iis 
tinction, M'Clure was kni-lited l.v tlu- Qnec-n, and several of his ollicers 
received merited promotion. 

Sir Edward Relcher was also tried l.y a court-martial, hnt, althou.^h 
he wasl,arely acquitted, the venerahle chairman of the judicial body be- 
fore whom he was ],rou-ht, han.led him his swonl in u si,<.nincant 
silence." Concerning the justice of the acciuittal, it seems .lifficult to 
determine, but his eonrse in this particular case seems to l)e in contrast 
with the usually o-cuerons, com-a-eous spirit of the :?ritish sailor. A 
writer contemporaneous with the events just narrated, tln>s feelin-ly de- 
scribes the condition of the al)andoned vessels: 

"Meantime, it is sad to think of those poor doomer] vessels, which we 
have invested with so much personality in r.ur nautical fashion, deserted 
thus in that lone white wilderness! We can fancy in the lon,^- comin-.- 
winter, how weird an.l stran-e they will appear in the clear moonlioht 
—the only dark object in the dazzlino; plain around. How solemn and 
oppressive the silence an<l solitude all around them! No more broken 
by the voices, and full-tone<l shouts, and rin-in- lau-hter, which so often 
wake the echoes far and near; varied only by the unearthly sounds that 
sweep over these dreary regions when a llssure opens in the -rcat ice- 
fields, or the wild, mournful wailin- of the wind amon- the slender 
shrouds and tall, taperin- masts, that stand so sharply deline.l in their 
blackness upon the snowy l)ack-roun(l. An.l so, perchance. Ion- years 
will pass, till the snow and ice may have crept roimd and over them, and 
they bear less resemblance to noble En-lish sailors than to shapeless 
masses of crystal; or more likely some comin- winter storm may ren<l 
the bars of their prison, and drive them out in its fury to toss upon the 
waves, until the an-ry ice -athers around its prey, and, crushin- then^ 
like nut-shclls in its mi-hty -rasp, sends a sidlen boomin- roar ov^r the 
water— the knell of these intruders on the ancient Arctit solitudes!" 


In followin- the fortunes of the various expeditions sent out in tlie 
year i,S5o, we must not omit to speak of the adventures of the Pioneer 





.111(1 IiUrcpid, under LIcuts. Osborn and Cator, l,otli of whom proved 
themselves l)rave and efficient navij^'ators. As will be seen by their in- 
structions, the object of their voyage was essentially the same as that of 
the other expeditions. which were prepared and sent out almost at (he 
same time. They received orders from the admiralty to examine Bar- 
row's Strait, southwesterly to Cape Walker, westerly toward Melville 
Island, and northwesterly up \Vellin,t,'ton Channel. 

Startinnr from En-land early in May, the coast of Greenland was 
si-htcd on the 26th, and the Whalefish Island, their first stoppin- place, 
soon arrived at. May .and June were both spent in cruisin- up the west 
coast of (ireenland, and cndeavorinj,- to effect a safe passajre to the 
opposite shore of I?affin's Bay. During the first days of July, Osborn 
had his first experience of the real perils of the Arctic world. The 
hands were -all at dinner when the startling announcement was made 
that a large body of ice was bearing down upon the ship, and threaten- 
ing to crush lier in its surging mass. The best security in emergencies 
of this kind, is the preparation of docks in the body of the ice, cut in the 
portion which is firm and olid. The shijis are then thrust into these 
artificial « leads," as it were, and thus are protected by the very element 
to whose tender mercies they were but a short time before exposed, fn 
this case the combined crews were instantly on the ice, their triangles 
were rigged, and their long ice-saws werfc at work. The relief was 
much needed, for the floe was coming with terrible force, and the col- 
lisions between pack and berg were frequent and prodigious. 

After struggling through almost impenetrable ice for several weeks, 
they reached Lancaster Sound on the zzA of August, and began the 
search. They soon reached Beechcy Island, on which the three graves 
of Franklin's men were to be found, together with other evidences of his 
having wintered there during 1845-6, the first winter of his absence. 
When about to leave Beechey Island Osborn fcnind it difficult under 
his directions to determine what course to pursue. Franklin had evidently 
chosen one of three routes on leaving Beechey Island. He must cither 
have proceeded southwest by Cape Walker, west by Melville Island, or 
northwest through Wellington Channel. In the meantime, vague reports 


lH'ca.„o current tl,at Pen,., .„• his n.en had ..iscovered sledge-tracks ,.n 

the west coast of Beechey Island. He therefore deter.nined to explore 

th,s ,sh„Kl in person, hetbre ad<,ptin. any other course. First findinl the 

siedfje-marks he divided his party, and each followed the sled-^e-marks in 

an opposite direction. Amon^ other things he .liscovered ,1^ site of . 

circular hut <.r » shack," which ha.l apparently been i,nilt and used hv '. 

si..otM,. party Iron, the ]^rebus or Terror. The stones used instead' of 

stakes, could not be driven into the fro.en ..round, lay scattere.l 

around, and son.e well-blackened boulders indicated where the Ineplace 

iKul been. iJones, en.pty, and porter bottles were strewn 

-•"•■n.l, and told offcasts and ,.,.d cheer, but no written wonl helped to 

solve the mystery which occupied so fully the minds of ,„„• searchers 

Soon atter this the Intrepid and Pioneer fell in with the other En.^- 
hsh vessels which, together with the two American brij,s, were en^^a..^! 
iu evpl.nnj, the san,e regions as themselves. Nothing further of hUeLt 
nccurrcl save the hardships and adventures connnon to anv crew 
expenencn^j, the nj^or of an Arc.ic winter. After spending thJ wintc.- 
... .S50-, u, the ice an.l narrowly escapin-, a seond in.prisonment, the 
squadron reached Enj^land in Septen.ber, ,85., after a successful trip of 
Ihice weeks. ' 


Early in the year 1854, before the return of M'Clure and IJelcher 
the foliown.o- notice appeared in the London Gazette: 

"Notice is hereby jjiven that if intelligence be not received the of March next of the officers and crews of II. M. S. Erebus ..nd 
Terror being alive, the names of the officers will be removed from the 
Navy List, and they and the crews of those ships will be considered as 
havn.g died in Her Majesty's service. The pav an.l wages of the officers 
and crews ofthose ships will cease on the 3, St of March next; and all 
!)ersons legally entitled, a.ul qualifying themselves to claim the pav and 
wages then due, will be paid the same on applicatio.i to the Accountant 
General of Her Majesty's navy. 

"By command of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty." 



,1 ■■> 


111 a kttcr full of anTection an.l hope for her lo^t consort, Lady Frank- 
liii .Icpre-iatL-d to ihc admiralty the necessity mider which they had felt 
compelled to take this summary step. In gracious terms ihe a.lmiralty 
explained to he;- ladyship the exigencies of the case. Their sympalhi.;"s 
and fniances were all needed for the prosecution of the Russian war; and 
the particular date announced had heen chosen since it was the close of 
the liscal year, an<l it was necessary to close the accounts for that period. 
However cruel it may seem to have thus classed amon.i,' the dead those 
of whose .leath no certain tidin-s had heen -ained, the intelligence re- 
ceived fron, Dr. Rae a few months later, seems to have conhimcl as ap- 
propriate, the decision of the admiralty. His story is hrielly this: He 
ha<l l)een sent ],y the Hudson's Hay Company in 1853 to complete the 
survey of the lon,L,r isthmus of hmd which coimects North Somerset with 
the American continent under the name of Boothia. 

Repealing his plan of ..|K-ralions in iSp;, Rae wintered al the lakes 
on the i.thmus which divi.le Re-ent's Inlet from Repulse May, an<l early 
in the sprin- of .85 | started with his sled-e party to accomplish hi"s 
task. While tn.ikin- his way to the northwest, he met ,.n the 20th ,,f 
April an Kscpiimaux, who, upon hein- asked if he had I'ver seen aiiv 
ships or Nvhite men, replied no, hut that "a party of while men had died 
of starvation a Ion- distance to the west of where he then was, and l,c- 
yond a lar^e river!" 

After questioning,- this Esciuimaux further, Rae .<,deaned the following 

iuformation, whicli we -ive as it was presented in his report: 'Mn the 

sprin-, four winters since (1S50), while some Ivs.piimaux families were 

killin- seals near the north coast of a lar-e island, named in Arrow- 

smith's charts Kin- W^illiam's Land, ahout forty while men were seen 

travelin- in company southward over the ice, and dra--in,- a hoal and 

slcd,i,'es with ihem. Tliey were passin- alon- the west shore of the 

ahove-named None of the ahove partv could speak the lOsijui- 

maux lan-ua-c s., well as to he understood; hut hy si-ns the natives 

were led to helieve that the sliip or ships had heen crushed hy ice, and 

that they were now goin- where they expected to find deer to shoot. 

From the apioearunce of the men, all cjf whom, with the exception of 






a" olhccr, woro haulinj, ..,. ti.e clra^r.,„pes ..f the slcl^^c, an.l lookc-.i thi,. 
t hoy were then ft.pposc.i to he f^ettiuj,. short of provisions; an.l they pur- 
chased a seal, ,.r pieee of seal from the natives. The officer was de 
scnhed as hein.,^ a tall, stout, middle-aj^ed man. When their chiv's jour- 
ney terminated, they pitched tents to rest in. 

"At a later date the same season, hut previous to the disruption of the 
-ce, the corpses of some thirty persons, and some .^^raves, were discov- 
ered on the, and Hve dead bodies on an islan.l near it, al)oul . 
Ion- day's journey to the nortinvest of the month of a lar-e strenn can he no other than Hack's (Jreat Fish River, as its description' 
:'nd that of the low shore in the neighborhood of Poiut O-le and Mon 
treal Island a.^^ree exactly with that of Sir (ieo. liack. ^ Some of th. 
Ixnl.os were in a tent '.r tents; oth.-rs were under the boat, which hul 
,l.een turne.l over to form a shelter, and son.e lay scattered aI,out in dif- 
terent d.roctions. Of those seen on the island, <me was supposed to have 
been an olhcer, as he had a telescope strapped over his shoulders, an.l ■. 
douhle-l)arreled ^run lay beneath him. 

" From the mutilated state of u.any of the bodies, and the contents of 
the kettles, it is . vident that onr Nvretched countrymen had been driven 
to the dread alternative of cannibalism as a means of sustaining life. 
There must have been among this party a number of telescopes, .nnis 
watches, compasses, etc., all of which seem to have been broken np"as I 
saw pieces of tiiese articles with the natives, and I purchased as many as 
possmle, toy:ether with some silver spoons and forks, an Order of Me-it 
..1 the form of a star, and a small silver plate engraved -Sir John Frank- 
lin, K. C. J}.'" 

In this report Dr. Rae sent a list of bofgju from Mie Esciui- 
maux, and afterward on his return to England brought the articles them- 
selves, and received the proffered reward of ,tio,ooo. He had not proved 
the death of Frank|»i, l,ut his account bore terribly painful evidence to 
the now generally received opinion that the whole combined crew, ly^ 
in number, had miseral,Iy perisiied. From Rae we revert to the details 
of the adventures of the American Grinn.-ll Expedition, alrea<iy referred 
to in a previous chapter. 


CIlAl'TI'k MAX. 

"■ •'"""••"■'■ -—."->-—,■ „„.„,„, _,„,,,,,„,,„,,,„ 

V,,,,,,.: „„v^,.v A ..KA,..-,c,...NAv,„.n„._.„,„, ,„,„„„^;^ 


■'"'" ;'."::'-"V"' "'' ""■' "^■'■'"^ '"' "'-' ""' »-• ehc ,csc„. ,„. ,ii,. 

cove,,,., S. Jo,. P..„,H,., wa, w..,„,, „„,„«„„„ „„„ ,„^^,„ ; 

po,„. .h. ,„eovory of „ N„,-.l.wos. Passaic ,,!,, ,.ot, fo,- |,,„i„ ,,, 
havo.. .,...,.., ,,,.„, u,.i.,, .S.„e. .haU. ha,. .. ,i ,.,„., I; 
A,„.„ca a,, ,,,„,., .,K ,„„„,,„„., „„„„ „^,. ^,, ,_,. ^ 

--vh,cl, ha ha,l s,.cha .n.^ica, ,o,™i„a.i„,„ a„„ he,- ...a. h- t 
ea„. .,,„pa.hy ,.. ,he b.reav.l „atio„ a,.„ the amic.o,, „1... ^^ 

wc ,„„. pnva... bcncvolcce co-opc-ati.,, wiU, eh. p..,,h-c ,„„,. „ 

cat .. PC, .,0,. ,„ behalf of .he ,.hjece co,.„„„„ .„ ,, „,, '.„„ ,„„,„;'■" 
The ch,ef A,„cnca„ expeditions fo,- this p„,.p„.e vve,e h. ,u„n, er 

...... h.ue,,.,o:;^::;.:r;^:::::--;.-- 

a..,l the th,r,l by Mr. C. F. Hall, „r Cincinnati An ! ',cs „i„ be ,ive„ in thei. .L.^,.;::^^ ""' "' ""'° 

Lady Jane Franldin bad personally applici to the United State, for 
a.; -;;. he enterprise of snatchin, .he lost navigators fro.'n !'r, 
„.- . The .natter was eonsid re,l by Congress, but ovvin. to the ei, 

.-..,. above .nentioned ^...eron!, n^r: '^ r;::: 

:i ,r::i,r;;it*c"""""'=^''°^ 

y, Co„g,ess accepted the gift, and i,„,ne,liatelv 

441 ■^ 


Dnsch'/rrrox of run adv.wcr. 





. ' 1 

niithori/L'il llic executive Id dctaili iiu-ii iiul oHiiiTs liom the ii.ivy i . 
nccompany and take chai-j,'e of tlio i-xpcditioii. Lieut. ICdward ). Dc 
IlavLMi was (.hosfii as coinmaiuU-r, and Dr. lO. K. Kaiu>, svlm was sinii- 
inoiu'd by tclcjrram from liis field (»f labor mi the (iulf (.f .Mexico, as 
medical olHccr. 

It may l)e well to state here, tliat Lieut. Dellaveii decliniiij,' tu mak.' 
more than aii ollicial report of the voyaLfe, an extended account was 
written and |)ul)lished i)y Dr. Kane, hein,,' compiled lap^'ely from his 
join-iial. VVe shall feel free, accordin.,dy, wiien occasion presents itself, 
to (piote from his copious observations in his ovvn clear and <,'racefiil 

Thf two vessels proffered by Mr. Griniiell for the u'^c of the i)arty, 
were the bri<rs. Advance and Rescue, and were admirably calculated for 
their intended service. In an enterprise of this kind stren-rth rather than 
\veij,Hit or size seems to be the dcsidcriituin, ami the followint^r descrip- 
tion of the Advance, j,dven by Dr. Kane, well shows tiie i^ood iud'^nuiil 
of Mr. Grinncll in the mattei- of selection: 

"Commencing,'- with the outside, liie iuiU was literally double, a bri-- 
within a brij,'. An outer slieathiny of two and a half iiuli oak was 
covered with a second of the same material ; and strips of heavy slat'i 
iron extended from the bows to the beam as a shield aj^ainst the cuttiii'^- 
action of the ice. The decks were waler-ti,q:ht — made so by a packing,' 
of tarred paper between them. The entire interior was lined, ceiled with 
cork, which, independently of its low conductin<,' powei-, was a valuable 
protection a_:j^aiust tiie comlcnsin^ moisture, one of the -reatest evils of 
the [jolar climate. 

"The strcnjrtheninj,' of her skeleton — Iier wooden framework -was 
admirable. Forward from keelson to deck was a mass of solid lii.ibe'rs, 
clamped and dovetailed with nautical wisdom, lor sevei> feet from the 
cutwater; so that we could spare a foot or two of our bow without spring- 
ing aleak. To prevent the ice from forcing;- in her sides >he was built 
with an extra set of beams runnin,;^ athwart her len>,nh at iiUersals of 
four feet, and i-o arranged as to ship and unship at pleasure. From the 
Samson posts, strong, radiating timbers, called shores, diverged in e\ri v 





VI' r 

iliivction; ami oaken kuft-s, !ian;;^ii-,' aixl olilique, were added vvhcrc 
space would permit." 

Tlie plan of the V()yaj,'e, as indicated hy tiu' foiinal n\essair,. ,,» 
instrnction lV;)'n the Secretary ol" the Navy lo Lieut. Dellaven, was 
lirielly as IoIIowh: 

The main oliject of the expedition was understood to he tiie tliscov i-i v 
(il'Sii jno. I'raiddin and liis companions; sniijecfs of scieniilic in(|u:rv 
were to he considered only so far as tiiey miyhi not interfere with the 
urand ohji'ct of the search. 

The ships were to steer for Marrow's Straits, and decision was to he 
tiieii made as to whether they should separate; in case of separation a 
place of rendezvous was to he a^need upon witii Commander (Jrillin, 
who was to have chars^e of the Rescue. 

In case Harrow's Strait could not he approached or jjenetrated, atleii- was to l)e directed to Smith's Sound or Jones' Sound; and in case the 
ice should materially ohstruct these, makinj,^ entrance impossii)le or dan- 
herons, tiie expedition was advised to return at once to New York, (ir 
make further searcii at liie discretion of the leader. 

vVs the entile Arctic face of tlie Continent had heen traversed in 
search of tile missin-^r navi},'ators, it was thou^'ht useless tore-examine 
tliose points. 

The commander was enjoined not to take any course which would 
hazard his own life or that of the crew, and was advisi-d to spend only 
one winter in the Arctic re<(ions. 

On tile 22(1 of May, 1S50, the two ships were towed out of New 
York harhor and after taking- leave of Mr. Grinnell and his s(ms, who 
had accompanied the ships out to sea, the)* tacked away in j^ood earnest, 
and were soon out of .si<^ht of the metropolis. The course alonj,' up the 
Atlantic till the 'coast of Greenland was reached, was varied hy the new 
experiences of iceher<,'s and driftwood from the far north. An occasional 
school of whales was met, to amuse the crew with their porpoise-like 
tumhliuLC about the ship. The len-jthening days, also, as <,M-atlual advance 
was made toward the north, was a novel experience, and when at last the 
:<un ceased alto<jethcr to disappear below the horizon, the usual order of 



'Xi t t ! ■ 

. , i , ' 





A lie TIC TlilfMS. 

thiii-s seemed quite subvertcci. To these thin-s the crew quickly became 
accustomed, and routine on board the ships being perfect, the ei)thusiasm 
(or discovery soon caused these disturbing elements to be forgotten. 

The 1st of July found the little squadron approaching Melville 
Bay— that well-known wholesale depot of ice, both new and old. 
It was the fate of the Advance and Rescue, as it had been of many ships 
before tliem, to become engaged in a large ice-pack; and for weeks they 
lay witiiout being able to advance or recede, except with tiie pack. It 
may not be generally known that ice-navigation, or .he mano'uvering of 
a vessel necessary when involved in a pack, has become a recognixed 
l»anch of the nautical art,— being, as it were, a science in itself, and 
having its own terminology to designate tlie difficulties peculiar to such 
;ni event, and the movements necessary to gain relief. Dr. Kane's de- 
sc:iptiou of a scene in this particular time of extremity is too vivid and 
lyiMcal to omit or abridge: 

" Let us begin by imagining a vessel or, for variety, two of them 
speeding along at eight knots an hour, and heading directly for a long, 
low margin of ice about two miles off. ' D'ye see any opening?' cries 
the cajitain, hailing an officer on the fore toji-sail yard. 'Something like 
a lead a little to leeward of that iceberg on our port-bow !' In a little 
while we near the ice; our light sails are got in, our commander taking 
the place of the officer, who has resumed liis station on the deck. * * 
" Now commences the process of ' conning.' Such work with the 
helm is not often seen in ordinary seas. The brig's head is pointed for 
the open gap; the watch ari> stationed at the braces; a sort of silence 
])revails. Presently comes down the stentorian voice of our commander 
'llard-a starboard..' and at the same moment, the yards yield to the ready 
hamls on the braces. The ship turns her nose into a sudden indentation, 
and bangs her quarters against a big lump of smashing ice. 'Steady, 

there!' For half a minute not a sound, until a second yell, 'Down 

down! hard down !' and then we rub, and scrape, and jam, an<I thrust 
aside, and are thrust aside; but somehow or other find ourselves in an 
open canal losing itself in the distance. This is a lead. * * 


iioKui"" a 

head, we see that «)ur lead 

IS gettnig narrower, its sides 



K'ln .„„a„, each other; ie Is ,„,„, It. »„,,„,,„„», .^, ,„„ „,„„ 

lo,.! 'l^».vps„l'. S.e,,,!.. «„,,,-,.,,„„!..,,.,,, h„,,,,ha,,l!' 
(Scrape, scratch, thumn ^ 'Fiio-hn .„ , » , u. 

■nnmvl f .K / " anomalous grunt, and ux- are 

i.anmcd fast between two "-ro-it iV,. (\,.\a.. c i 

^reat icc-fields of unknown extent. The cm 

tani comes dow.i, and we all go quietly to supper ' 

"Next comes some processes unconnected with the sails, our wings. 
These w,ll explam, af^er Arctic fashion, the terms M.cave,' and ^ wa^' 


'™-'! '':'•''-''•■ '"'"■--"•'"■l-ctmi.e, :,,,.! ..,«,i,,,e „;,,,, 

"■-■ I--, .» .I>M,I al,ea,l. A „,„,,le „r ha„.ls, u,,,,.,- .,„l.,.s, .,f ,,„„.,. 
-«.,.,„ ,,-„„ |,„„,„,„. ;„„,„,„„, „,. ,^.,^.^,_ ^^_^ ,^^^^^ ^^^^^ si..., „„e „; 
' ••r^"""''"'-"'' ^''•''"' ■•- '-■"''-h»..n*; with ,his ,l,.v i,,,,,p 

'"""'" ■»■■'"'''•'-'■'"'''«- *H Hose ,., ,h. „,,;,,f , he 

n-:|cl< al,„„ .vhieh u-e uish „. ,■„,-„ „,„■ wav. T„ „,a,„ a„ iee' ,„„-, a 

1>. .^ .s c„. „ „,.,„e,, .., ,„e sarfaee .,f „,e „„e, ei„,e,. with an iee-chisc, or 
-ih the anchor „self use.l pick-axe fashion, and into this Itole the lar,.cr 

J. t' 






conuT of tlic anchor is hooked. Once fast, you slip a liawscr arouiid the 
sinallcr end and secure it from further shp hy a ' mousinj^ ' of rope- 
yarn. The shiclv of the hawser is passed around the shaft of our jxatent 
wineii,— an apparatus of co<;rs ;md levers standing,' in our how, and 
cvcrythin.rr in far less time than it takes me to describe it, is ready for 

" Tiien comes the hard work. The hawser is hauled taut; the strain 
is increased. Everybody, captain, cook, steward, and doctor, is takin-^r ^ 
spell at the pump-handles, or overhaulincr the warping gear; for dignity 
does not take care of its hands in tiie middle pack, until at last if the 
Hoes he not too ohdm-ate, they separate hy the wedge-like action of on,- 
hows, and we force our way into a little cleft which is kept open on eillKr 
side hy the vessel's beam. But the quiescence, the equilibrium of tb.c ice 
which allows it to be thus severed at its line of junction, is rare enough. 
Oftentimes we heave and haul and sweat, and after parting a ten inch 
hawser, go to bed wet, and tired and discontented, with nothing but ex- 
l-)ericnce to pay for our toil. This is 'warping.' " 

For twenty-one days they were in this narrow strait between two 
continents of ice, part of the time immovalile in relation to the pack, and 
part of tl-.e time edging their way al(Mig, a yard an hour, hy means of 
their "eternal warping." It was now August, and the season f.t for 
search was passing away; the prospect of success was rapidly vanishing 
and the ice-locked mariners were becoming nca'ly desperate; when a 
fortiuiate combination of winds, currents, and temperature released them, 
and they were able once more to continue their course. 

J5ut it was no quiet lake into which they made their escape from tlicir 
icy besetmcnt. Melville Ray presented itself to them in all its terror 
iM-om the dark headlands looming up in the distance, u solid shore of ice 
projected itself for miles into the bay. Along this solid ice the great 
drift moves, impelled i)y the varying winds and currents, sometimes close 
to its edge, sometimes at such a distance as to leave a passable channel of 
open water. Down this ehaimel the great icebergs came sweeping along; 
and more than once during their f'rst night in the bay, all hands weie 
callecl on deck to warp the vessels out of their course. Througli ilic 




channel, between the advdncinc. floes and solid ice, the vessels made 
'i^-'-'a''onoMs way, sometimes hy towin,,^ sometimes by their sails; In.t^ always upon their northwestward eourse. This transit acn.s 
MHvlle Hay, a distance of not more tiian three hundred miles, consumed 
" weeks of a voyage whose success depends upon days, and 
^■v-' 1-nrs. A sn.all steamer would have towed them across in a counlu 
ot days. 


As they sldrte<l these icy shore., thev not infrequently found oppor- 
tumnes.o leave the vessels, and sonu-times came upon spots amid snow 
-..1 uv where the reflected rays of the sun formed a delicious little AU 
P'Mc garden, ^reen with mosses and cariccs, and stirrounded with shrubs 


A jYahrow escape. 

,J ll 


and trees—what passed for shrubs .uid trees, in the meagcrness of Arctic 
ve-etatioti; plants like those dwarf specimens produced by Chinese art. 
There was the wild blueberry in full flower and fruita-e, yet so small 
that it mi-ht have been inclosed in a wine glass; wild honeys.^ckles, au 
entire plant ..f which might have been worn in one's button-hole; wil- 
lows like a leaf -.f clover; trees, not one of which reached to the level 
of a .nan's knees, while the majority, clinging along the groinul, scarcely 
rose to the height of the shoes of the navigators who towered above 
them like the giants of IJrobdignag among the vegetation of Lilliput. 
The processes of nature, hampered or rather modified by the Arctic 
temperature, produce results cp.aintly difTcring from those to which we, 
reared in the chmate of 40^-50% are daily witnesses. Kane had opp,,,-' 
tmnty to measure tlie depth of the accumulating mosses (,f many years. 
In many places he fnmd it five or more feet in height, and counted sixt> - 
eight difTerent layers indicating the fertilizing accumulations of as maiiy 

The auks had built their nests upon the rocks overhanging the min- 
iature hot-beds, and the apparently easy ascent invited adventure. 

" Urged by a wish to study the habits of these little Arctic onigrants 
a^: their homesteads, I foolishly clambered up to one of their most populous 
colonies, without thinking of my descent. The angle of deposit was 
already ^•ery great, not much less than 50", and as I moved on, with a 
waikmg-pole substituted for my gun, I was not surprised to find the fra- 
ments receding under my feet, and rolling with a resounding crash, to 
the plain below. Stopping, however, to regain my brenth, 1 foun<l t'hat 
evcrythi.ig, beneath, around, above me, was in motion. The entire sur- 
face seemed to be sliding down. Ridiculous as it may seem to dwell 
upon a matter apparently so trivial, my position became one of d.-ui-rer. 
The accelerated velocity of the masses caused them to leap off in dellertal 
lines. Several uncomfortable fragments had already passed by me, 
some even over my head, and my walking-pole was jerked from nn' 
Hands and buried in the ruins. Thus helpless, I commence<l mv own 
half-.nvoluntary descent, expecting momentarily to follow my pole, when 
my eye caught a projecting outcrop of feldspar, against which the stron^^ 


currcu split into two minor strca.m. This, with some hard jun^ns I 
succeeded ill reaching," ' 

% the ..iddle of August it became evident that the expedition 
would be able to pass ,he ice, and would winter iu the almost unknown 
re^-ons of the Northwest. Their spirits rose when the ice-pack was 
cleared, and instead of threading the winding, cha.mels among the ice 
they ba.le good-bye to the bay of the "famous Mr. William Baflln "' and' 
with full sails headed toward Lancaster Soun<l. 



1 I 



(|.;iri-^.,;KAVKs ..iscovkkki. — vahyin.; conclusions--, kni, ,„, 

-AN UNl'inXI'DIlNTi:!) DIUI T. 


I iii I ' 

I'n)I)al)Iy most wlio read (liis Ix.ok have 1 

H-eii 1 eared 

/oiii' (.('the oak, tlie maple, and waviiij^^ fields of 
liave passed their lives i:i .i still 

111 the 

riaiii ; or some 


more L,>-eiiial leLrioii 

nourishes and t 

, where the oraii- 

u- sun invites to a V. 




'I' \at 

sensuous en 

ure's lavish -ilts. Such will (Ind it hard to reali 


i/.c th 

<-' eoii- 

(lition and si'iisations of those who HI 

, hki.' themselves, aceustoiiu 

to ll 

variety of temperate re^;ions, ha\e he 

wlu-re coiuimious ni<rii 

It or ])roloii^ed day is t 

en transported suddenlv to the 1 
1 d; 


hr rule. 

I'he readt-r has heiai aei-iistoiued 1( 
soothin.- inlluLMiee of the twilij^ht 

nit^ht and (la\- 

lias lei I the 

nLM\i:,ri„„- jrradnallv into darl 

ose more somber hnc-s invite repose and sleep; and 

speedy return of day whose stimnlatin- 
activity. Uul in the lonj^- watches of A 
picas! II -r varietv. 
chance advi'utiirei- 

k 11 CSS, 
he is used to the 

sunli'dit uiLTcs once 

more to 

rctic life there (om 


cs no such 

'or six months the henii^rhted Es(iui 

motinis the ahsencc of the li'dit-'Mv 

as wi 


maux oi- the 

iMLT orh; hfe-'dvin' 

IS .i,-j:ht-.,'-iviii.,r, for ill his ahsencc hcaltli fails and 

in depression and melancholy. On th 
ajjpearance, when once he cstahlishcs 1 

the spirit sinks 

ic other hand 

>V()us as is ll 


IIS course above the horizoi 

constant ])resence stimulates t 

1, Ills 

) unnatural and ex 


)urs of rest are broken. Meal-limes tread 

cessne activitv 



upon I'ach other's heels, a 

only till' most rij^id sclf--rovernment 

ot the act-ustomed or 

can preveni. a disastrous sul 



der of 

everyday events. Such are 

some of the 

necessary obstacles in the way of those xvho would unravel the mysteries 
of Arctic life. 




Wi; left our little sciiiad 

Laiu::ister Sound. At three 1 

■•'Ml spee.iin,- tlieir way as l.e.t (hey c.ul.l t< 

Jisl, Ihey overhauled the l'\;li\, (lie I 
Ihitish search expedition, tuid 

lours after iiiidni<'ht on tl 

ic inorninj' oC the 

Icr eoniiiiaud of tl 

John Koss. ''You and f are ahead of tl 
I'^ui^-lishman in (ones tl 
chips' ri.i^'-.ifin;;. Hi- h.ul 1 

"ore most ,. tlu vessels of the 
le l)ravi- old ve(eran Sir 

ILMM all !" shouted the hale .,1,| 

ia( rose alxjve the noise oC ll 

u winds and the 

years I)elbre; had spent liCe and f 
lni<- he was a,«,Min in a (Vail hark se 

^cvn cast away in this san)e eount 

ry seventeen 

lost ronirade. Tin; next d 

oi'tnne in service of hi 
II. liin<r I r the <n-iv. 

ly, while checked hy th 

lin- up thepassa-e to Port Leopold, th< 

s country; and 
-', l>erhaps, of a 
(• harrier of ice sliut- 


I'lincr Alhert, [..idy iM-anklin' 

•y were overtakt n l)v th 

II' "-fallant 

ill sli 

search lor hei- niissiu"- lord 

1]), lilted out to prosec ute tl 



aiie says of this inter 


Ins was a wr 

y pleasant nieetiii; 

llie I'rince 

Albert, and Mr. S 

apt. l''orsytii, w 

lo coniniandec 

ii'>\v, who acted as 

a o 

hmi, were wvy aLrreeahle "enlle 



'■I "f adjutant under 

Mr. S 

now has renienihered kindl 

•y spent some hours witl 

V I) 


Mihlislied since ins return to 1 

his journal which 1 

1 us 

le lias 

'Inland. Their lilt 

■rlcctU' lilted than 

le vessel wa 

ours to encounter 

^ much less 


rcsjji'ct at 

iL' iKTils of the ice; hut 


111 one 

o list' a 

, tlicir expedition rcsemhled ot 
^^'*-'-^'''i''i phiasi, ilu'v had 

ir own. 


ev had t 

o roii'ri, 

what a hast V out 

no faiK'v flxiiii 

ll and a liniitc 

-iiothino l,i,t 


to ahovc' reveals what Ka 

disclosed— with what -allantrv th 

'lj>Mrse coul.l supply." The jonrnal re- 
's modest narrative would 


never have 

hroutjh till! \cc 

■ vinerican stpiadron led 


; and especiallv the hrav 


ery o( 

liaiil ventiii 

I's 'j-amed 

.'or him amoiiLr the \i 

ane himself, whose h,il. 




I'itish the appellation of tl 


')ii the i7lh tl 

le N-aryiU'.- 

waters had hroiiLrht to'-etl 

chances of the scare 

1 111 the 


icr within 

lead, li\ 

t' vessels heloii"- 



a <i"arter of a niile i 
^- lo three separate searching 

icar neech 


•""ly s, and their own. T! 



e .LCreaiest ^^wh\ feelii 

less pii'vailcd amoii>r all. Ti 

I'-f and dis- 


prepared a plan of action t 

u- wdiole-souied Cant. P 

or the tl 

^vas suni)os 


>set!., o 

f t! 

ii'ce parties. Some tr 

cnny had 
lees as it 

ic missing mariners, had 

l)een discovered on Jieechey 




Isl.uHl. Pciinv's plan was to assi<,ni difTcrcnt pail, of (ho islan.l to 
(liinruiit parties; l,e himself would take the western search ; Ross shoui.i 
run ..ver to I'rinee Re-ent's Sound, and the American Expediti.m was to 
])ass throu-h the first openin-s in the ice l.y \Vellin-ton Channel to the 
north and east. These projects were just receivin- preliminary dis- 
eussion when a messcn,i,'er was reported ha^teniui^r o%-er the ice. 

" The news he hrouoht was tiirillin-. Kiraves, Cajjlain Pennv! 
Graves! Franklm's winter quarters!' We were instantly in motion. 


Cai)t. I)e Haven, Capl. Penny, Commander I'hilli ,s, a-, i myself, with a 
JKHty from the Rescue, hurried on over the lu-.^ed .lope that extends 
from IJeechcy to the shore, and scraml)lin- over the ice, came after a 
weavy walk lo the crest ol the isthmus. I Fere amk! the sterile nniformilv 
of snow and slate, were the headhoards of three ^.raves, made after the 
<>l<i orthodox fashion of gravestones at home. The .nounds which 
adjoined them were arranged with some pretensions to symmetry, coped 
and defended with limestone slabs. They occupied a line facin-- toward 


Cape Riley, which was distinctly visible across a little cove at ihe dis 

t.nce of so,ne tour ht.ndred yards. Upon these stones were inscrip.ions conveyed important information; the Urst, cut with a chisel m. 
thus: ' 

' Sacred 
to tlie 
N. Braiiie R. M. 
H. M. S. Erebus, 
Died April 3d, 1S46, 
aged 3j years. 
Choose ye this day wiioin ye will serve. 

Joshua, chap. 24 — i v' " 

The other two epitaphs were very sin.ilar to the one just transcribe,!. 
I he words of one_uI),parted this life .;. /,...,/ the Terror," proved 
tl-'^ -n the spring of ,846, at least, Franklin's ship had not been 
wreci<cd. The evidences were plentiful that the expedition had passed 
a safe and comfortable winter. There was the anvil block and the traces 
of fhe armorer's forge and carpenter's shop; the trough which had servcl 
l..r washmga rude garment fashioned by a sailor's han<l fVom a blanl.-t 
a key; fragments of paper; the gloves of on olKcer washed and laid' 
out to dry under two stones to prevent them from blowin-. away There 
was a httle garden-plot, with its transplanted mosses and anen.oncs. 
1 here were the three graves already described, the headstones in- 
scr.bed with scriptural text. Yet not a trace existed of anv men.oran- 
^lu.n or mark to throw the least ray of light upon the condition or desL^ns 
'" the party. A melancholy interest attached to these relics, fron, Ihe 
tact that they were the latest mementoes of the lost navigators j and 
every day was deepening the apprehension that thev were tiie last tkl 
"15^-s which would be ha<l of them until the grave gave up its dead 
Strangest of all was that Franklin, the practical, experienced navh^ator 
^.-nwn gray in the perils of Arctic sailing, should have left no record of 
h.s ach.even,ents in the past months, nor of his needs or plans tbr the 






MMc, ever nd ful! ..f conjcrluics, .li,! „,.t soc- .«vi,Ic-,ucs nf 
sorrow or extremity !„ the traces disco vc-rcd, nor in tiic fact r... rcr- 
ord was left, a,,.! thou-iit it probahl. . ,,„ llu- party ha.l left tluar 
tcrs witii llu- intention of rcturuin-. -A -arden," says he, "implirs ,, 
pin-pose either to remain or return; h... who makes it is looi<in^r ,.. the f.,- 
tmv." He thonjrht that the party, tenipted hy an oprnin.^- in Wellin.^r,,,,, 
Channel, l,ad sailed away witli the pn.mptness that had aisvays eh:n-ac-. 
tcri/ed the hrave ohi commander, and were possibly explorinji (he open 
sea heyon.l, if livin.^,- or if not, that their remains wonld he found anion- 
the ice lie!,!,. „f the frozen north. And he accounted for the absence .T 
a rcconl, in the haste with which snch a departure mi.uHit naturallv he 
made. These conclusions seeme.l very reasonabl.'. That they were 
wron- everyho,Iy knows, but the course of reasonin- by whiJh they 
were arrived at, shows both the hopefulness an.l ready l.v^nc of ih,,; 

With the close of the brief Arctic sn-umer bc-an to come to 
an end. The sun traveled far to the south, an.l the northern ntidni-ht 
bc-a., to ass.mie the sotnber hues of twilight. The ice was .l^. ow'hi.^r 
thicker and closer around the vessels, which vainly aaempted "'to ^^y^^ 
their way to the western shores of Wellington Channel. The thickness 
of the tables of iee sometimes reached fourteen feet, and hu-c hinn- 
mocks were heaped up by the force of their impact to a hei-ht"of fortv 
feet or more, overtoppin- the decks, and threatening to topple d<,wn up- 
on them. The -real masses drifted past the vessels, usually just missin.r 
contact with then. On one occasion, however, the Rescue was cau.^rh"; 
bodily up by a driftht,^^ iloe imtil the moorin,^- cables parted, when she shot 
ahead into an open patch of water. The Advance escaped the impact 
by hu-^n„j. dose to the sohM ice. The British vessels xvere less fortu- 
nate, bein- swept on by the resistless force of the movin- mass. 

Dmin- the early September days the cold Ix-an rapidlv to increase. 
The thermometer fell by ni.^^ht to 2 , ', and rarely in the davtime rose 
above the freezin- point. No fires had been lijrhtcd below. The historian 
of the expedition retirinu; to his narrow berth an.l drawin- close the 
India-rubber curtains, lighted his lamp and wrote his journal in a 

m • 





i.H is not viTv cold," lu 

says, uiuU-r date of Septemhcr 
S,'M,<. .lot.1,1 to you> 45" minus men of Arctic winters; but to ns from 
Ihc /.one of liriodench-ons and peaclios it is rathei cold for the Scptrmher 

montii of watermelons." On this same 8th of S 

:aii .'xpedition had tiic mortification of 

•pteml)er the Ameri- 

seeinj^ the i:n''lish \ossels in t 


of heir steamers shootin^^ ihead of ihem ri-r|u in tiie h c-th of tlie wind. 
They felt tliat they were now the hindmost of all the searchers. "All 
have the lead of ns," is the <lespondin<,' entry in Dr. Kan. journal. 
Two days later, however, the two American and all the Knfrlish vessels 
found themselves fo<rether once more, auchord fast to the .olid ice, with 
the way to the westward impassably blocked up before tb in. 

Now iH-an the real and earnest perils of the expeilii,.,n. On the 

-'til a storm arose, which \vept tlie Rescue from her nioorln-s, an.l 

.hove her out ..fsi^rht oflui eonsort. t soon became evident that the 

,n-eat mass „f ice to which il, • were moored, was sl-.wlv drifting', 

whither they kne^v not. The cold increased. The th. .melers sanl' 

t.) 14 ', til. n to 8 ', then to _, . yet no fires were li,<,riUed in the cabins of 

the Americans, thou-h those in the British vessels were under full blast. 

The next day I lie Advance fell in with her lost consort, partially dis- 

al)led. It l,ein- evi.ieiU that all fiull,.. pro-rcss to the north and west 

was impracticable, the (;. ,dei decided to turn his course homeward. 

iUil uumy a Ion- and dreary Arctic ni-ht was destnie.l to elapse before 

the vessels escaped from VVellinj^ton C'haniiei. 

Toward eveniu},r on the 14th ..f September, while th. x .-1 was 
rapidly cruuchinj,- her way through lue ice that was formin ,,, .,1, the 
Do. .r had retired below, hopin^^ to restore some xvarmth to in. stiffened 
limbs. It was a somewhat unpromisin- task, for the temperature in the 
eal)in was close upon zer. The dull, grindinj,^ sound < the vessel labor- 
in- tin-ou-h the ice, grew jerkin- .ad irregular; it stopped, ])egan again, 
grew fainter and fainter; at last all was still. Down to 'le cabin went 
tile commander with the words: «Doct..r, the ice has caught us; we are 
frozen up." And so it proved. There was the American Searching 
expedition fast embedded in the ice m the very center of Wellington 
Channel. Here commenced that wroiwlcrful drift, which lasted n^ore tiian 



S.ill -i 


A Ar//\ 

-J,'lit .n.M.ths, Lack an<l furth, thn,u,d, tlu- vVrctic seas, wherever ,|,e 
wnuls currents i.npellecl the c.,„ti.,ent ul' ice. No vessel was .ver 
l.cleaj,n.ered s., hefore; and probably no otlier one that h.u! ever| 
woul.1 have escape,! from such a belea^^uerment. Hcibrc this tl,e explor- 
ers ha<l l,een so thoroughly busie.i in carrying, out the objects of their 
voya,^e, that they ha.l bestowed hardly a thouj^h, upon their own per 
snnal CHUfbrt or safety. With the thern.o.neter at .ero, thev had no 
■ncansofproducin,. artificial heat in the cabin. The .noisturJ f,on, so 
many breaths had condensed till the beanrs were all a-drip, .nd every 
thing bore the aspect of having been exposed to a drenching mist. The 
clelay occasioned by their involuntarv detention was put to some by 
fttn.g up a lard lamp in the cabin, by which the temperature was raised 
to twelve .legrees above the freezing, or 44" above .ero. This de-nee of 
warmth was accounted a positive luxury. So, in uncertainty and gloom, 
they dnlted to and fro, to the north, and sometimes to ,he 
south, m the "waste of waters." 

The animal life with which the region had heretofbre been teemin.^ 
now almost whcdly disappear^, and ,0 this fact was added the appar- 
ently precarious condition superinduced by tl>e bondage of ice. Some 
of the smaller and more hardy animals an.l birds still remained, but these 
were n, small numbers, while the n)ost of the seals, the polar bear, and 
all that gave occasion for exercise, and aironle.l nourishment and incident 
had vanished. As the weather bec.nne n.ore severe, the danger of bein.>^ 
"nipped" or caught between two masses of i. . an<l perhaps crusheci 
became more ami >nore imminent. Ten days after they were frozc-n in' 
occurred the first of the fearful nips ^vith which thev were soon ,0 he- 
come familiarized. A field of ice fburteen inches, overlaid with an 
additional half foot of snow, is driven, with a s. .w an.i tn.iform motion 
directly down upon the helpless vessel, xvhich is half buried be.ieath thJ 
shattered fragments. The force beiiin.l impels the broken fra-nnents up- 
ward in great tables rising in large mounds al,ove the level of the 
and threatening to topple over and overwhelm tlie vessel. Other frag- 
ments take a downward direction, and slide i,elow the bri.r whiciiis 
htted sheer out of the water, and rests unevenly upon shatteHng blocks 




()' ICl", 

Amid ilarkii 

t'ss an 

;iiv called aloll withciovvs and picks, to " fijrlu tl 
Well was it that the ice which tiiun drifted d( 


«l cold, and snow, and deadly peril, all hands 

ic ice" that rises arouiid. 


lown uj)(>:> them was tiie 
Mc.v ice just^r. Had it heeri the solid mass or later .vinter, no fah- 
nc that man has framed of wckxI or iron coi.ld have withsto(„l it. As it 
was, the ice which was now their assailant, hecame afterwanl their pro. 
lcct..r, an.l warded off the eollisio., with other packs against which 
they sul,secp,ently drifted. By the tst of Octoher the icy settinj^ around 
tlu'.n had l,ecomc so Hnn, that for a time they expenence<l somethin-^r 
like repose. 

Deliberate preparations .low be-an to he made for passin- the winter 
in the ice. and fuel were broi./Wit up from the hol.l, au.l with 
the thermo,T,eter at 20" below (he freezitt,^. point, the work of n.anu- 
taclunn,i4- a stove pipe was undertaken. ICnbankments ..f snow an.l ice 
were ma<le about the vessel, in which was deposited coal an<l stores. Ht.t 
alas, for the stability of Arctic s..,.ather! Hardly was this accomplished 
■vhcu the Hoe be-an brcakin- up, and all hands, ollicers an.l men, set to 
work to replace the stores upon the vessel. So insecure was still the po- 
sition of boih vessels, that it was not till the tyth of October that they 
were able to set up stoves i.i the cahi.i, and for warmth thev were still 
fnrce.1 to rely upon the lard lamp. So accustomed had tnev become to 
a temperature but a few dej^rees above the free.injr poini, that they 
would have been quite content had it not been for the pernetual mois- 
lure .hippin- from the roof and sides, a full of dan-^re,- to 
those havi..- a .c<,rl>utic tende.icy. This was at last miti,^.ated in'^some 
dc-ree by canvas -utters, by which several cans full of water were 
daily collected, which would otiierwise have fallen upon the floor. 

The experience <,f Kane well illustrates the power of the huma.i 
system to adapt itself to varied circumstances. Only a few months be- 
f.-re he was i,i the warm re-ions of the Gulf, luxuriating in its tepid 
waters, and baskin- in its sunshine. Now he contentedly watched for 
limirs by a seal liole in the open air, witii the thermometer 20" de...,rees 
below the freezin- point, and if successful in shoolin- it, ate of its'raw 
flesii with a relish. 

lit! I I ' 




The Ions Arctic \\vj\\V, or rather succession of nights and days (lor, 
although midnight and noon were scarcely distinguishahle, they still 
managed to separate them in their chronology ), was varied as tar as 
possible by races, games and seal hunting, although the seals had become 
scarce and more tiian usually shy, Kane speaks, in his characteristic 
maimer, of killing one of these reticent animals: 

" To shoot seals one must practice the Esquimaux tactics, of mucli 
patience and complete immobility. It is no fun, I assure you, aft-.-r full 
experience, to sit motionless a, id noiseless as a statue, with a cold iron 
musket in your hands, and the thermometer lo" below zero. ]iv ano 


.SllOOTINl, SK.M.S. 

by I was rewarded by seeing some oNcrgrowii (Jreenland calves come 
within shot. I missed. After another hour of cokl expectation thev 
came again. \'ery strange are these seals. A countenance between the 
dog and the wild African ajx', an exi)ressioii .so like of humanii\-, 
that it makes gun-murderers liesitate. At last, at long shot, \ hit one. 
God forgi\e me I 

" The ball did not kill outright. It was out of range, struck too low. 
and entered the lungs. The poor beast liad ri.sen bivast-higli out (.f 
water, like treading-water swimmers among ourselves. He \vas lookiii"- 
alH)ut with curious and expectant eyes, when the ball cincrcd bis lunu^s. 



"For a moment ho oozed a little bri<,'ht lilood from his mouth, and 
looked toward me witli a startled reproachfulness. Then he dipped; an 
instant after he came up still nearer, looked ajj^ain, bled aj,'ain, and went 
''"^''■"- * * * The thin«; was drownini,^ in tlie element ot' his sport- 
ive revels. lie did drown finally, and sank; and so 1 lost liim. 

"Have naturalists ever noticed tiie expression of this animal's jihi/.? 
Cariosity, contentment, pain, reproach, despair, even resij^nation, I 
tlioui^dit I saw on this seal's face." 

Thus passed the month of October, durinjif which the expedition was 
(hiftin,!4 about near the outlet of Wellini^ton i^av, in a jreneral southern 
direction, altliou':,'-]! a south wind would occasionally f)rce tliem back to 
the nortii. Hut it soon appeared that the projj^ress in this direction was 
impeded by more compact ice, and Iw a steady current ; while a noitli 
wind drove steadily before il the thick lloe in whicli tiiey were embedded. 

:; '^m^ 

i a 



ai{uavc;kmk:.ts-uv anau„;iks- ukpukssinc; influkncks -- r^. 



Thcythof \ r.mml the arnm,<remcnts for tl.c wintcT n„„- 
plotc-. ()v.rtlK..,uiro<lcck.,f the A.lvancc wa. thrown a housi.ij. „,• 
thick fdt, rcstiu- on an improvisetl rid-c-ij^ rtuinin- fore ari^ralt 
In.lcT ,hc niaiu hatch was tl,e ax>k\ .^^alley, '^ith its j^ipe .w..„i„J 
'l>n.u^h;h.lolt roof above. Aronnd the pipe was built an appara..^; 
I'" nu-hin- ice, t., supply tlieni witii water. The hulk-hea<ls l)etween 
llu' forecastle an,! Ou- cabin were re.noved, throwin,^- both into ,.„o 
apartnunl, occupie.i i,y both oificers and men in common. As the crews 
"'■ I'olh vessels were collecte.l in the A.lvance, this small room was the 
''<'■"<• of thirty-one persons. Warmth was distributed throu-h the 
^•al.iu by .inee stove, beside- the cookinj^ <.alley; and as the unbroken 
»i-ht sei in, fonraP-and and three bear's fat lamps supplied the place of 
Miuli-lu. N'eed enouo-h ^vas there tor all this heatin- apparatus, for he- 
'">v the svinler was f.irly be:^nm tlie ten^jcratm-e was 40 > below zero. 

'■ ;incy a day in tile ice, as .pent l)y the ice-fettered explorers. At 
I'^'ll-pa^t six- by ,he chronometers, the crew are called; the officers a half 
='" '"""• '^'"■■■■. Their ablutions must be perfor.ned lirst, to wash olf the 
soot and ,^Mim accumulated duriu- the ni-ht. This is accomplished in 
hrtll-fro.en snow water. Then the toilet must be made. Three pairs of 
socks, several un<lershirls an<l outer robes of fur, the u hole complemented 
J'V n cap and hood of .ealskin, be donned; and all hands take a 
turn on ,Kvk. to ^et up an appetite for breakfast. This is foun.l news- 
s:n-y. for the nanudess stenches connected with the sleepin- room, ki.che,. 



...Hi iMHlcr cmbincl, suffice to completely nauseate the " stoutest 
<>r tliem all." 

Nothin<,n>etter showed the extremity of the weather than the con- 
<i.t.on and appearance of the various articles of provisions. ICverythin- 
was transformcl into some -rotescjue a.ialo<.y of itself. All ve-HaMcs 
u-ere pehbles of assorted varieties. Fro.en meat was liard a. h'i.ildin.. 
stone. The tat of the hear and the seal-liquid at respectahlv losv wZ 
pcM-atmc, were like marble; a pleasing assemblage of figures n.onhled 
and carved from nature /))' nature. 

The extren.e temperature and the absence of the s,ni be-^n to ,cl' 
upon the health an.l spirits of the ,nen. In more temperate regions we 
learn ... recognize the tendency to rheumatic .liseases and <Iepression of 
>pirits ..ccasioncl by even a few days of cloudy weather. This condi- 
lion was fulillled to perfection in the case of .„n- explorers. All faces 
:-. -an to assume a livid paleness, like plants growing in darkness. The 
nK.ugrew moody an.l dreamy. They bcanl strange in the nLdit, 
:mu1 1kk{ wonderful visions in their sleep. One .Ireamed of vvandeWn-g 
'ira.iion • :,.c and returning laden with watermelons; another had 
rm.,uISirj.>.m Fr^wfelk. in a beautiful cove line.I with orange trees: 
a.-d .1 thir.l, in «1tc h-M-A^\\r\um .,f his mental, ha.l iLn-.l his 
witV .m.\ child.,'eH crying f ,• help. All were particularlv sensitive 
..> M.pp.,sed slights .>r^.«,tery 0,1 the part of the rest. This led 1., un- 
I)le:,sa.,t f.vlings and painful scenes. The ..ilicers alone, bv stri<-t guanl 
'.l'<"i tiuir tongues, managed to keep up a show of goo.l fJeling. Sick- 
..essappean.l in new and peculiar forms, an.l t he genius of ..ur phvsician 
an.l author was taxed to the utmost to pr.>vide for th.' sanitary nec(>ssities 
"I- the narly. As i. usually the case, th... scurvy-alH.o^d adhered f, the 
ralal.liet..f salt meat, an.l cunning had to be resorted to, in onler to 
save them from themselves. As they wouM not e^t the anti-s.-orbutic 
f"od pr.,vide<l, the doctor prcpare.l a sort of beer from hi-, httic st.,re .,f 
vegetal,les. Olive-oil and lime-juice, raw p<rtato..., .anr-kraul and 
Nlii.garc.mbined, ma.le,. .lelcctahlecompouml which fhc men .irank 
gr.vdily. So successful was tiiis treatmcM.t that, as w .1, Hi sec. no, .^k- 
iif tite crew was lost. 



li I. L' 1 

\di,, s 



Christmas Day was spent with as much merry-making as could ho 
coi.trived in the ahnost t..tal ahscnce of resources. Some hottles of,t,me remained, and the French cook prepared an ehihorate dinner. 
Mr. Hrnce, one of the crew, ami possessed of .Hvers .luahHcations, h,„i 
contrivcl a play, and the crew had undertaken to pro.h.ce it upon an 
cxteniporized sta^je. " Never," says Kane, "had I enjoved the tawdrv 
•luackery of the sta-^^e hah'so much. The theater has always heen to ,ne 
a wretchcl simulati.,n of realities; and I have too little sympathy with the 
unreal to \\n,\ pleasure in it Ion-. Not so our Arctic tiieater. It was one 
continual frolic from hegiiuiinj; to end. 

'• The 'Blue Devils' : Gr,d hle.s us! hut it was very, very funnv. None- 
kneu- their pans, an.l the prompter could not read .glihly enouoh to d,. 
hisolKce. Kverythin-, whether jocose or indi-nant, or conunon-place, 
«.r pathetic, was .lelivered in a hi-h tra-edy monotone of despair; llvj 
words at a time, or more or less, according to the facilities of the 
prompter. Me-rim, with a pair of sealskin ho.^ts, hestowed his o„Kl 
t.pon ,i,.enlle Annette, and Annette, nearly six feet, received II u-ith 
mastodonic -race. Annette was an Irishman named Dalv; an<l I mi-|n 
defy lunnan hein- to hear her, while halanced ..n the heel of her Ivn.t, 
exclaim in rich masculine hro-ue, 'Och, feather!' without roarin-." 

Other amusements followed in like style, hut the desolateness of their 
condition, their separation from h.mie and friend's, and the ahsence of the 
means an.l opportunity for ohtainin- help and sympathy, uearlv siitlal 
all atte.npts at merriment. New Year's Day was passed in much the 
same way, varied hy a race for a purse of three ilannel shirts. This 
elfort exhauste.l most of the men, sh.)win,o- the dehilitated condition inf. 
which they had f.llen. In the meantime Lieut. Dellaven had -n.uu 
almost helplessly sick, and l.ein- conllned to his hed, Omimander Grillm 
hecame the e\ecu:ive ollicer of the comhiiied crews. 

I' rom the Sth of Decemher to the nth of Jamiary, the lloe in which 
they were fistened ha<l steadily increased in solidity till it seemed scarcel\ 
less f.rm than the -ranile ran-es which -n-.lle a continent; and firmlv 
cmh.,-dde<l in it the vessels enjoyed a season of comparative respite fnun 
dan-er. The Advance all this time lay with her hows sunk in the. sn,,w 



-.Hcc, a,ul he «,„,.„ elevatcl »,„„. ,K,. ,„• .i. fcct; »ho aU .,„„, ..vcr 

...»tarb„ar.l, .„,„„,„„,„,„. „,,.,^,^, „,,^ _,^ ,^.,_ ^^_^^^^ ^^^_ . ^ _ 

"7 ""■ ";'■'-• »'''°» '""' '-' '"-'<"" "P" "-!> "■ a« NV.W K,;,a,„, 

»n.l o he- a^crs bank.,,, .heir „„,.,,, a,. „, „,„„,„,,, ,„. „.„^.J ^^^ 

ho of January a s,,,,,,,,, .,|,„ek brought all „p„„ ,,_,k A 

f,»su,c appearcl in the iccplah, which ,„„„ „i,|,„„, huo a h,,,a,I pa.^.^c 

. ron,h wh,ch the la,-.e f,,,,n.e„,s bore ngh. .lown upon thj >.;:.; 

A. ....e h„„, p,« ,„i,lnl,H,. .he c,-cw stoo,, on .lock ..,,,ppc,l and han.e,: 

- V, .„ tak. to the Ice. Right ,k„vn upon then, ho.o the large h,u„. 

...ock upon the .e^el. .te„,,_a ,„as,, s , as .narhle, thirty fej «,„„„ 

;>t tlK. base and r„n,g twelve feet „n. of water; it ..,„p», .„„„ „,vaL- 

.. .q.l.ioaehes so near ,l,e vessel that hardly enongh roon, is left to a.hnit' 

"I a n,an s walkutg between. That narrow channel crosse.I, and no 

1".M-.. an cnnid eonstrnct a fabric which wonld resist ,hc icchill's ,er 

nHo "og .. That passage was never crossed. The huge ntas. stopped- 

*...... the stern; bccantehnpaccd there; and fn- „,„n,hs rcnainL, i,' 

.0 .an,e place as a ghostly n.en.en f the ..ato.wly-escaocd,;. 

.vcnwh e thev had prepared to leave the ship, the „„estion arose 

^^ ";'":;'■;"••■•' "-T .-.^ The Rescne. their dis , „,;,, „,,„ ^^^^^ 

™ vhgdde place of satety, a, ,ey Ic ifted far, far, f, the coasi. 

'"''7;'' ""■;■ ''■■"' '"'■ '>■ 'I"'' -11 toward lianin-s Kav. What 

_;;;:;,;';' '" ""■ ^ -^ ■- "■'"■'■ ""■ •■ ..'.•™. ocea„s of-ce sho„id 

,■'■";■■"'':"'■'' '"' -^"''''^ ■'''■ ™"^ "■■ -"■ :-"-t iov ■ anxietv 

:;"" -"- -•' •■-"■ ,-1-vd , ake suitable dcnons,. ,; 

'"■;''""-^'™"""""^-^-- '■•'"-- '>-l..vday,,hcro.v tints shot up 

:"'7, 7" ;?"'■'' '■- •-■-'— to bodJau end to al 

'"•'-""'■■I '" '- .1-"-- -..I,-,:. e.. ., absence of eightv-sis davs The 
-cw u.cre o,n ready to give three .• eers ,„ t.he great pi,;,.., .„ i.' n arked 
;":*""''"■'■ "' i""'-"" --.rise, noon ™nse,. „rKa 

r "'■;"'"'■","■ ."*■ '■-'• ---I •'-■ ^oenc by hinrself N'e^er did 

""■ ™l'-' "H. .-cecve n.ore hearty front devout Parsce than 

"■^^^-^■^ '-'^y- •" '-^"'-h-.-s.tys Kane,... ban, nIK, 






with :i -jrcat orlobus m my throat. Then came the shout from tlio ship 
— three shouts — cheering- the sun." 

We must pass over the foUowinp: «l:»ys during which, althouj^h tlie 
sun was constantly rising higher, tlie temperature was still insupportahly 
low. It was not till near the close of March that the broad ice-pack Iks 
gan fairly to open, and a broad reach of water spread before the eyes of 
the voyagers, weary of the perpetual gaze upon ice, stretching beyond 
the reach of vision. From this time the process of their liberation wont 
slowly but surely on. The prevailing northerly winds drifted the Hoc 
toward more genial latitudes. Frost-smoke began to arise from the ice. 
A slight moisture became perceptible; the paths along the vessel's side 
became soft and pulpy. i'he men, long accustomed to an Arctic tern- 
perature, complain that "it is too warm to skate, though the thermom- 
eter indicates a temper iture of im^ below freezuig. At last, on the 
loth of A])ril tiiat imerring monitor rose to 33" at noon-day. Up to 
fiee/ing again! Very soon the cabin-lamps were put out. The crews 
cut the ice from al)oiit the Rc-scue, and she was once more manned in 
n\uliiicss for release. The felt covering was taken from the deck of 
the Advanci', and daylight j)i-evailed throughout the Arctic regions. 
ICarly in May the ice-saw was put in operation as a prcliminarv at- 
tempt at freeing the vessel. Parallel tracks were cut of convenient 
width, and the ice sawed away in blocks, and hauled to the edge of the 
floe. Thus the ojxm lead was daily brought nearer. In a short time 
tile Advance was surrounded on all sides l)y these floating barricades. 
Shortly, too, the ship showed signs of changing iier position, grating a 
little on the moving ice, and seeming to advance a few inches ujion the 
remainder of the floe. Desperate endeavors were made to wrench the 
vessels clear from their icy moorings by means of strong tackle and de- 
termined pulls, but in vain; they would not float level upon the water 
till the grand break-up occm-rcd. Meantime the summer w^as hastening 
on. Evidences of coming final disruption were multiplying about them. 
Animal lite increased, birds were flying in every direction, and seals and 
whales were playing on every hand. The floe on which the ship- were 
<;ast had iK-comc reduced to a small patch. 



On tlic 39th of May land was scc-n—one of the capes of Greenland, 
for they had been driftin- down l?at1in's liay with the wind and current 
for several months. How suddenly and completely they had been cut ofT, 
not only from tlie means of search for Sir John Franklin, but also from 
the place where it was now evident that search should be made! 

The 5tli of Juno witnessed the -rand break-up. Commander CJriihn, 
the commandin.iT otHcer of the Rescue, iiad walked across the ice for a 
call on his friends in the Advance. He had just started for home when 
a cry arose that there was a crack in tlie Hoc. Sure enou-h, there ap. 
pcared a crevice in the ice between the two ships, an.l water flowinjr 
between the ice-sheets. Reaching,' tlie crack hurriedly, lie had just time 
to sprin.ii: across its ^/idenins surface, and escape to his ship. In ten 
minutes more there was water all around the Rescue, and in half an 
hour both vessels llo/ited in their element. A lart^^o piece of ice, how- 
ever, clim.i,^ to the .tern of the Advance, and by its -reat buoyancy held 
her posterior up almost out of water, while lier bows suffered a corres- 
pondinjr depression. Finally, about noon on the Sth of June, one of the 
otHcers was in the act of clamberint,^ down on tliis attached mass. Hardly 
had his foot touched it when it parted from the vessel. He scrambled 
hurriedly up the side, tearini; his nails and clothin- in his haste, just in 
time to escape the huge block as it su"gcd up to the surface. The Ad- 
vance was free at last, and Moated level with open water all about her. 

Although now clear from any direct attachment of ice, the remain- 
ing portion of the journey to the coast of Greenland was a somewhat 
uncomfortable task. It was too warm to liave fires in the cabin, and yet 
the gn)wing dampness of the warmer climate, increased ]>y the pressure 
of icebergs, made (h-es extremely desirable. In spite of the seal meat, 
of which they now had some reinforcement, the scurvy, deep-seated and 
persevering, broke out again; and it was evident that the tedious pro- 
cess of regaining lost health must be gone througii with before any new 
adventures could be attempted. Many of the sailors were ill from'shore 
excesses \vhen the vessel let\ New York, ;ui,I the circumstances of the 
winter were such as had been most fivorable W. the reopening of old 
wounds, an.! liie revivification of slumbering virus. Iceber-s in -reat 


Ii! ' 

" II 



miinhcTs, worn and carved liv \hc wat 

ct's aftioii iiilo many 'jrn'tcs 

shapes, iT(!\V(k'(l around tlu-in, and imiK-dc-d tlu-ir proj^M- 


ess; and nisi>r. 

niflcant as tlu- rcniainin!-- distanc-e \v 

IS, il i-aused a painlnl cdort, in ll 

exhausted and del)ilitaled condition oC 



T.ieut. Dellaven, who had now n-covered sullicientlv to take chap 

of the expedition once nion-, iiad decided 1 

o 1 

ecnperate at Whaiel 


Islands, ofT the coast ol" ( 

rreenland, t'oi" a lew davs, and hasten hacis !< 

Melville Bay, Barrow's Strait and Lancaster Sound, and 
search which tiieir unt 

renew tl 


unelv l)esetnn-nt had curtailed 

r^ver\- man con- 

curred heartily in the plan. It is true, they wer 

e worn and weary 


they had had th 

e seasonni"- which a \yinte 

r m the ice alone can "iye. 

and considered ihemselyes as veterans, 
tinned service. As thev drew near t 

scnted itself which tiiey had w 

well lilted hy I'xperience for con- 
ic coast the same appeai-ancc ])rc- 


essed a year a,i,n); only they thi-nisehi 

had lost the freshness and huoyancy with \yhich they had app 



e same coast in the precediiiL;- summer. The d 

on the i6t!i of June. I)i-. K 




estincd port was reached 
with riyi> others, was dispatched to the 

^scpumaux cro\vdc'i 

1 th 

e hank, do^^s harkc 

(I, and chddrcn sclk 


So, after a short pull, ended that marveh 

'Us nine months of hcsetmcnt. 

drift, toil and di 






t:iri/n\'Ari;i) iastics — Hanoi; 


iiii'; NATioNAi. nw 

i!Oir\i) |.()i< IIII.; xoiciii A(;Ar.\ icscaimc 


UKsiri/rs ()|.- rill.; \-()VA(;ic 

hv ivniMindcM- of t lie .story of tin- fxpcditioii ini'^H 

up. After iillowin^- Uieinselves five d; 

It 111- easily suinmed 

on their way to the north. Th 

lys lor recniitinL;, thev wei 

(■ airani 

incident and in c-xi 

IS second journey was peciiliarlv rid 

1 in 

)erieiKe with the nativ 

the past year had not allowed lliem in 

es, with whom the fortunes of 

ucli eoinmunieation. All of t!ie 

principal places on that coast were touched at 
of pleasiii'^- happen in,<,rs. As the lleet landed 
(piiinaux town well to the nort 

, each one f'urnishin;^ its list 
near PriU-en, a Danish ICs- 

;"reet them, drai^^.^ini,'' th 

1, a merry party of ICs(|uiniau\ came out 


avaks after the 

m o\er seven miles of the 

pack, and then spmnin-- out to them over the narr 

()W chamu'l of water. 

These were soon followed hy a yawl load of the oe„trv of the dI 
The reader will best enjoy the account of tl 


lis occasion in Dr. Kane 

s own 


She (tl 

le vaw 




a pleasant t'omjiain- 




schoolmaster and jiarish priest, Louisa, 

his sister, llu 


tie A 


^ouisa s cousin and some 

others of humhler noti 

waters had but partially rej^'eiierated th 
at least, did not conform 

ese sava'j'es. 


1 lie baptismal 
leii deportment. 

to our nicest canons. For the lirst 

few minutes. 

to he sure, the 


es kept their faces close covered with their hand 
withdrawing- them to blow their noses, which they did in the most 


s, on 


iti\c ai 

id picturesqur manner. IJut their modesty th 

that it needed no further illustration. Th 
to us conildeiitially that they had cultivate 
smoked, Louisa, that she tolerated t 

us assured, thev felt 

ey volunteered a daiict-, avowed 
lastes — Amalia, that she 

le more enlueiim 

both that their exer 

iuiuids, and 

CISC 111 the open air made a sli;^rl,t refection alto-etl 


acceptable. 1 lospitality is the virtue of these wild 

re^^nons; our hard tack 


cranberries, and rum, were in retjuisitioii at once. 


' I 


I! > 

! 1 i 



■<■ It is not for the host to tell tales of his after-dinner company; l.iu 
tlu- tnitli of liistory may he satisfied without an intimation that our 
^Micsts paid ni^rjjranl honors to the jolly ^rod of a milder clime. The ver- 
iest prince of l)ottle memories would not have (puirrcled with their 

Some of the feats performed hy the natives in their kayaks were truly 
remarUahle, The ])rocess of turnin^^ a somersault in the water, hoal and 
all, seems an imi)ossihle one, hut its jn-aeticahility amoni,'' the I>.(iuimau\ 
is attested hy many witnesses. An active male will seize a lar.L^e stone 
m lioth hands, and leaninjr hackward, will disappear, t<. return almost 
instantly, still holdinL^ the stone. But this species of acpiatie perform- 
ance is hardly more remarkable than the process of catchinii,' a seal, and 
is certainly not as dan-^rtsrous. The former feat "s exhibited liy the half- 
day for a chew of tobacco or a j,dass of jrro^r. The latter is dared be- 
cause huuL^a-r and the domestic necessity <leman(l it. 

Here at PrrA'en the parties celebrated the national anniversary in the 
best manner tb.t their limited means permitted, liy wav of salute, and 
in lieu of <,runpowder, the seamen rolled a bu.^'c boulder down the clifl's, 
"spliced the main brace by means of egj^-no},', made from the e.^i^rs ,,f the 
eider-duck, and wound up with a ball in which sonn of the E <|ui- 
maux belles li,L,'in-e(l conspicuously, Pnttin.t,^ to sea on the ^th, thev suc- 
ceeded in working- their way nortiiward, and on the i :;th thev encoun- 
tered their old accpiaintance, the Prince Albert, from which they had 
I'cen separated in the l)esetment of the month befbre. This vessel, tlion^li 
under a new command, was back more once upon the same mission as 
tiiemselves. The two expeditions kept together tbr three weeks. Hv 
watch^iL,'- every openin.i,^ in the ice tiiey manaj-ed to make a few miles of 
northiuL,^ every day, which brouLclit them early in Aui^nist to the dreaded 
Melville P.ay, over which the "Devil's Thumb" kept solitary ,i,aiard. 
Here they found the ice more impracticai)le than the vear before. The 
icebero^s came down, threatening- them with instant destruction. The 
leads were all closed, and solid ice lilocketl up the jjassa^^e across the bay. 
The British abandoned the idea of succeedinir in that direction, and 
j)rocee(led to the soutli, there to continue their unsuccessful search. 








^y M^e 




5^ /^/. 



■^IIIM 12.5 

■« 1M 111112.0 

11-25 i 1.4 

- A." 




WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 

(716) 872-4503 



.Ik- 30.1, „f s.„.e,.,,.,.. The Roscuo ,.,n-ivo,l s,.,felv ,„vcn ,,ay, ,.„,,. „„ 
Srctost Kr«it,„lc provalUn.,- araon-, all f,„. ,|K-ir v,r I 1- ' 

»" ."■•.„. „a,„o. ,„■.„„„.„,, .,,.;,, ,;„., ;„:;;-,. -^- ""'■-™- r,,„„ 

ft n„>v reraai,,, ,„ speak brieHy of ecrtain lhl„.„ ,hat K 
™«i.u.„,. „,„, eo^pleee, „.. a„e„p, ,.. ,„.„ ,„„ ' ^ , t;,:;:;- 

wc will now attempt to do. ' '"'''''■' 

The slightest attention to the oY.ncrr.,,.u., r xt , . 

;n\:;r::::;.:- r r =■« -= >;-;:r^^^ 

t.on of the northern coast of Morth Am...-- ^^'^'^'''^^'^ f'^^" "avij^^a- 

pursued a course JireCly west .,„•„„.„ Uan,! S, ! ' "°" 

Beeche, I.a.,.,, uea.- „.„ic„ plaee ,„e ,nee.l , „ l ! [.r '" ^ 

rro. here a . e„u,-,e „a, p,„.»,,e,l alon,, ,he islands „„ ,„e ,„„d, 

dntt he,gan whose pnncipal events have heen reeor.led in ,1. 
pa.^e.s. The of the drift dnrin, the nu.nth S 1 , ' ' 

wholly northward and th. '^^•p' on her was almost 

y "uiwaiu, and the upper extrem tv of the (^h..n„ i i 

". •;■ ™.i,„, the ehauuel. F„|,„„i„, „,, ,„„,^^, .„. „^^, ,,„-,^,„^; 

P""™ ^^h--'- l> -""• aeeumulated ahou, ,he„, ,hev I ■ 

eastward i„,„ Maffi,,., ,5,, ,,„ , ,,, ' ""'"' ""-^ ''""«' »1<>»I.V 

■"i.ii s uaj, and thence southeast until -s w,- lv,,„. 

>" "- .-antintc, in the drift ,„ the northward, certain 



'iivisions had l.ecn discovered, and received names from the American 
j>arty. These discoveries, while they were of no great practical value, 
wcrestill supposed, at that time, to he of importance in confirmmg a 
theory which was chaining ground durin- the middle of the nineteenth 
century, namely, that about the Polo were land and water of comparative- 
ly mild temperature— perhaps inhabited, and certainly capable of sus- 
taining animal life 

These discoveries were announced in Lieut. De Haven's formal 
report to the vSccrctary of the Navy, in substance as follows: 

" Between Cornwallis Island (already long since discovered) and a 
large mass of elevated land to the north, was seen a large open channel 
leading to the westward. To this was given the name of ' Maury's 
Channel,' in honor of the then chief of the Hydrographical Bureau, 
and the National Observatory. The large body of hign land seen to 
the north between N. W. and N. N. E., was termed 'Grinnell Land,» 
in honor of the head and heart of the man in whose philanthropic 
mind originated the i.lea of this expedition, and to whose munificence it 
owes its existence." 

A remarkable peak on the eastern visible extremity of the unknown 
land was termed Mt. Franklin, with obvious fitness, \severa! other un- 
important discoveries were made; among them a small island which was 
named after Mr. Murdaugh, the acting master of the Advance, and an 
inlet, discovered by Mr. Griffin, the commander of the Rescue, was 
aptly named from its discoverer. 

It is proper to remark in this connection that the matter of pre- 
cedence in the discovery of tlie so-called Grinnell Land above men- 
tioned, became a subject of unfortunate controversy between English 
and American geographers and explorers. English geographers, i.rcer- 
tain maps published in the latter part of 1S51, plotte.l this tract of land 
and named it Prince Albert Lan<l, announcing it as the discovery of 
Cap^ Ommaney, confirmed more recently by the explorations of Capt. 
Penny. This map was supplemented by a foot-note mentioning the fact 
of the American claim, and stating that a certain other tract of land 
bearing some 6o'^ „r 70" to the westward must have been the Grinnell 



i. 'fie: J, : "o"""^' '" '" ^""''' '-- -'-"' -' ^"•■" 'he ioLow. 
»„; ;■„,', T""^' "^'" '"'""" "■ '-- been „ ,n,„.lrc..l „,,,. 

. A .he Amonca,, .q„.,„„ w„, „„,,. f„„, „;,,, f,„„, , ,„ 
s .cade,. „.. ».„„„., .He new eoa., a.,., a» it wa, hare,, vi.,ih, ^ 
1. .ppea„n« „p„„ .he vessels ,e..ea.i,„ „„;, . ,,w ,„i,es ,. .he ,„., ' 
o <,„., .„, Cap.. «,n,„a„e,., si«, ,..,, ,„, „.„„,, ,„.,,^ J ; 
^ ve, as was professed, seen a,,., „a,„e,l .his new ver«e <,f a p,„si 
A e.,e ec,„.,„e„.. A«,„, as .he America,, squadro,, wa^ well „p, '^ 

E^..«h asp.ra„.s for preeedenee a„d pres.i„e wo„,d Have a..rih:.ed 

W lo I,e sure, the Amerieans were earriod .hi.her ,„v 
hoee „. .he,r „w,., and i. was ,.„der eirc.,„s.a„ees he,o„d .heire „ „ 

^ha. .hey preceded .he Bri.ish party in .he ™ in eon.roversv; b„. „ 
D . Kane laeon.cally observes, -They */ precede .hen,," and .h, s, wi'. 
o... do, ,. es.abnshed .he eiain, of discoverers, and .he ri,h. „, do 

-'• '.. '^"n.,ns forward .his disenssion, the has endeavored" . 

!' ■." ■■»""■;" >-'*e ... inflncncc bin, i„ presenting „„. f„„,, „,„ 

h .s n. eonscons of bavin, vioia.ed any r,.,e of international eti, e..e. 
A A er,ean .geographers, and wc are glad .o no.e, son,., also of E„.. 
l.«h an.l,„rsh,p, eon.inne .ogive .he lan.l in ,p,.s.i„n .he A,nerican del 
.gna..on, .hns, a.ler three .leea.les, the An.erica,. elai.n 


DBV,. S .r„„M„_VA,„OUS D,SCOVEn,.S_..A„,v S„„.W„.CK.U 

The .screw schoono,-, Isabel, wa.,, It »ee.., „,,„i„anj. ftte.l .„.t by 
. D„,u„. lieatson fo.- a en,i,e .„ .he Arctic regions i„ .,,.,,„ „f s^^ 
Jo.,„ I. .a„kl,n by way „f liehrin-A Strai.. This e.p„,i,i„„, however 
"W,n, .„ „navo,dab,edirtieu„ies, was abandoned, and .he shi, , wi.h i ve 
years prov.s.on, for .welve ™en, and a s,.a„, high p, .are engine of 
s,..ecn horse power, which had been fi..ed .„ drive an Archi;edia„ 
so .„., bes, es havn,. been doubled, s.rcng.hened, and covered as f,r ,, 
.. K. boa s w,.h ,„,vani,ed iron, wa- .hrown back „p„„ .he hands „' 
Lady Franldn,, .he originai owner. ,. was .l,e„ ...fered .„ .head-nir „. ' 
.,.r Arce scrv.ce; bn. .heir lordships „„. earin, .o any ,nore 
Autic expeditions, declined the offer. 

A pr,^osi.ion was ,he„ ,na.le by' Lady Franldin .o Commander E 
A ..„lc„e., .o . e cffec. .ba. he should .„.e .be vessel, provide a crew 
^.nd such „.her de.ails of equip.ncn. as .ho vessel should reonire Z 

' '■ '"'"" :»'-■ *^- '--^»i- V ■>.. hoard, and, joinin, T s '.i ^ 

™-epresen. n, .be ArCic regions, deposi. wi.h .hen, bil provi ils" 
-I return .he san,e season .o England. Cap.. I„g,efleld had 1 ..le relish' 

. c,„g e,„ploye,l .nerely as a .rauspor. cap.ain, h„. seeing bow w 
h ted .be vessel was for Arc.ic cruising, be aceep.ed Lady FrauM „ 
"'>.;™i .. «-o.-.o give hi,n. he ship in con,pensa,io„ ' for bis I..^ ^ 

V. n,gd-,a. be could be ,dlowc<l .o condnc. a search in any .nana: 
.n ,. „ov,ded,also,.ba. he could oh.ain leave of absence ,Vo„, .he 
L.,,d ..W,„,ra,, and be allowed .„ have his vessel n..ed np in a govern- 




As he had already expressed his taste and willin-ness for Arctic 
explorations hy volunteering on several previous occasions to joi,, , 
search for Sir John Franklin, and as he further helieved that Frankli,, 
could he found, or that he could he followed over the route which he 
had chosen, he regarded this opportunity as too tempting to he lost; and 
as the admiralty granted him in full the permission he desired, he' lost 
no time in acquainting Lady Fraiddin with his decision. 

With the divers appliances on hand at the navy yanl it was a com- 
paratively short task to fix up the little schooner,'and with the engine 
thoroughly examined, provisions well stored, sails dtdy repaire.l, ^an.i 
ship considerahly strengthened, together with the addition of sledges, 
tents, traveling and cooking apparatus, and innumerahle articles which 
many friends found the means of supplying, Inglefield was ready to nio\e 
out of the hasin on the 4th of July, 1852. 

After taking leave of his friends, the Lord Admiral and Lady 
Franklin, Inglefield caused his vessel to he towed out of the harh<,r,and 
was soon speeding up along the coasts of England and Scotland. His 
plan of search was hriefiy as follows: His first ohject was to arrive at 
Whale, Smith and Jones' Sounds hy either the eastern or western slmres, 
ascending as he might find that the state of th- ice would ena])le hiui t.i 
do, and having thoroughly examined these sounds, hays, inlets, or what- 
ever they turned out to he (for there was then no accurate kno-..,le.l- 
of them), he would, if not forced to winter so far north, proceed (io- .. 
the western coast of Bafiin's J]ay, exploring its shores as far south as 

In order that he might intelligently comnumicate witli the natives, 
he hoped, at llolsteinherg, or some other Danish town, to procure an 
interpreter, and with this in view he had taken with him a letter to the 
Danish authorities of Greenlaml, requesting for him their assistance, 
should he he in \\ciii\ of it. 

If the lateness of the season or any other cause should ohligc him to 
winter at Lancaster Sound or north of it, he hoped hy means of his 
sledges to he ahle to communicate with the royal sc|uadron, as well as 
to make a careful search of all the deep Inlets of P,alfin's IJay; an.l thus. 

lar south as 

THE CREW. ^^j. 

o..,, if ,,,,.™ece.sf„, in ,he «rca. objoc. „f hi, vov„,o, he hoped .„ .,t,e 
..-e, .he vexed c,„e™„„„fu,e entrance in.,, .he Gre,,. Vohtr „„, 

"■,.,„h .he s„.eahe., S,.i.,,. s, , „hich before hi» voyage had nev 

been approached nearer .han vvi.hin .even.y miles 

After stopping f„r .heh- las.,s a. Pe.erhead, on .he coas. of 

.coland, ,hey ,.ean,cd away, and were so „.. „f ,,.^, ,„ ,„„. 

I eerewand o.Hcer, who composed .his ..n..le band of spiri.ed 
». c,n,.ers,"„,, .he newspapers sp„.e of then, a. .he .i.e. n.niered 
sc-entee„,andc„„s,stedof.wo ice-mas.e,-, and a n,a.e, a surgeon an 
......ncer a stoker, who was also a b,aeksmi.h, .wo carpen.ers,"a c;ok, 

™.l e,,h. able seamen. Of .hese every one of .he officers was a man o 
e.|x.,ence and abdi.y. Dr. Sn.herlan.l, the snr^oon, was particularly a 
va aable m.., havn,, been e„,.a,ed i„ the previous Arctic c.pcdi. „n 
." ic Mr. Penny, and hcin, versed in the sciences a knowledge of 
ul.,ch >vould be calle,! into pl.ay in the ArCie regions. 

The accommodations of .ho Isabel were vcry"scan.y. "My cabin" 

-v^ t;ap,. I„,defiel.l, .-was not ntorc than six fee. square, having .', sk!.. 

.-uattctopofakindoftrnnk, which passed throngh a s.oreroo,,. 

' ' "" ,""■ """*"'■■ '" "^''- 'l'-'-- -l-k- My *-.X, or sleeping berth 

>vas on the starboard side, fonr feet above the ,leck, and conid only bj 
approachcl through an aperture in a kin.l of wooden screen; and cer.ain 
cnve.ncn. book-shelves an.l lockers were fi.tcd in all .he an^^lcs and 
corners, ,vhicl, none bu. those accustomcl to a seafaring life cotd.l have 
s„ n,gennn,sly appropriated. A two feet by .wo a,al a half was 
hxcd against the bulkhead which separated the .doctor's cabin' front .he 
ca,,.an, s.s,a,eroom;'. he fo,,„ersome.hi„g smaller .ban .he latter the 
bunl. the sante size, bnt arranged as the sleeping berths of .he doctor 
™l Mr. Manson, one of the ice-m.asters. The engineer's cabin, an.l 
.N . Aherncthy s (the other ice-master), occpicl positions on either side 
of .he hatch, so that when .steam was up, tltev enjoyetl a 
Itmperalure of ioo° Fahrenheit." 

The boiler an.l engine were as conveniently placet as possible It 
«» nnpossible, however, on so small a ship so to arrange the binn'aclc, 
'1>»> Ihe comp.ass shoul.l no, be disturbed by the presence of so much 



ffi ! ' '] '! 


• E 

meal. I,„U..,i, ,hc w.i.c,- Is ,|i,„o,e,l h, „„ril„„. ,hc <li»c,c„.„Kic. 

<■.- ly .„ ... „».„., i„„..e,.n,cy ,„■ .„. ,on„... i„»„,„„,„,„ ' .^ ' 
d. „,,„..„ ,,„„,,,, ..o„,„ ,„ ,„„ ^„„ , ,„. ..,,__ ,,^ ^ "» ■,c.,„,. u-as vo,-, „,„, ,,,. ., .,„„., »„,,„, ,, ,„ ' , ^ 

«c-a,„.,, .„„„,,„ „,h l,K. i,.„n „.a.l,i.,„ .vcv ,„..„,,„ ,„^, ; 

..C.S wh,ch .„„.,.„.■,. c..„ai„ „.. .,i»„epa„ci., „f Cap,. .„.,,.«.,' 

Araoc,,,,,, with ».v-o,,,l English sails, a„,l a scvco a„,l ,a,.l,„;„.,, 
enco,,.,.,. ,r Cap.I,..we„, „..,. „,,. „,„„„, ^.,.^,„ ,„, '^ « 
occ,„.„„, .,„„,„ „.. v,,va,e to .ho „,,. ,.„ppi,„ „,„„ „„ „,. J:^ 
-.. <„, .„e j.h ,.f A„,„s., as .„. vessel „as Keepi,,, i,. ,„„„,, 

'"'""* :'"""■• "'■"- '--incss .„-„, s„„K. natives...,: I 

scvc e,„n„„ ,„r i„ .hoi,. ,i,„. ka.alcs. ,. „as s, , „s.,„„i . . 

vessel was on- Fisl<e,.n,es, „ Danish se..lcme„., , „,| Cap. I„„le 

soon ahle .o ven.V his posi.i..,. f, , his ins.n,,'...,,,,. ,1; ' .f. I', r 

E qu,„„.,„. a,„l Chei,. canoes on I .„, o„e .„. „„„„, ,,^.,„. ,^„ . ^J "^ 

.Kl,.h nl.n, „ p,.„,,,„. ,„ .,„„ ,,, ,,^^ „.^„,^_ ., 

'V'^"': ' -'- -I--., :n,„ p,.oeec ,an,Mn,he 

ha..|.o,.. .So ve,v sn,al, „.as ,he ,„, .,, i,.;,,,,,.,,,,^^ ^ 

f'"-^'"'"' ---'-"M-in. U.„,o,ishe,, he,. ,n.,.,e,.. This „ 

f..m,ne „.as ,.epai,.e„ i„ a sl,„,.. ,i,„, „,„. ,^,„, ,„^, ^ _ ^ 

^ '>-^;i^ 0„ve,.„o,., M,.. La..e„. „e,.e .he ..eates. hospi.ah.v ua 

l>""n h,n, and a„ho.„h nei.he,. .he ,,„ve,. his see e.a,.v eo,„„ 

spca.. a,,v, „„ oxeep. Danish, so„,e i,„-„,.n.,.io„ .as ,a.he,.e., o,- .,, 

.oso,,,,e,,,.ese,.e,io,,s. ..\,„o,„ o.he,. .hi„,s ,hev To ha,.: 

. c ,easo„ sled,o„., was no. p,.:,e.iee,l i„ .his l,a,, h„. „,e „.ave, : 

Ic u.e,.e pe,.,o,.,.e,l wholl, in .he wa,e, ,, n.eans o,- ,„e l.ava,., 

; ""':"f '" —-1'™'.^- Thefi,.ew ,,eo„, „,■..,;„„„.» 

■"" ""■" '" ''■^'■-'-■' -"I «"">■ ^.' ".«, was .a.l,e,.e 

<li.scrcj);nu-ius i,, 
'• ''V Dr. K:uK., 
"uinc'iits. Iiiu-l^,. 

1 the VL-HSCI, the 

-'vv, its shiitt and 
rc-rfiil ;i<rcMits to 
* ^<-'<-'n that Dr. 
chapter), how. 
iiiul hasftl upon 
■ I'l-lefidd. 
'""' lastincr crale 
^ "i" importance 
1 the Greenhnul 
in toward sonic 
itives were ob- 
^'i"sto()(i that the 
Jno-lefield was 
\-iii- taken the 
I'lj^'ly more in- 
;i>i aiu'horai^e, 
licld yielded lo 
ii'l in the little 
•"'ver, that the 
L'r. This nn's- 
- ■'^'lip up pre- 
led to wait on 
ispitality was 
Jcretary eonld 
thcred of the 
bund that Ibr 
he tra\el and 
" the kayaks, 
r '>(" willows, 
'''-''I in these 




i !l i!i\ 

oom.aks. Tlu. principnl export sccmcl ,„ ,,c co,lfi,h, „f which ,. .|,i„ 
ioa, h,„l „..„ .„„ ,„,,, ,„ ,>,„„,„., „,„,. ^, ^^,^^ _,^^^_^ ^^^_^^.^^^^^ '.P- 

Cunm,, ,„ „hsc.rvc ,!,„ mc.h„,l „r „.„rsl,ip h, ,h,s o,„.of.,|,e.«..,v 
piace, .n,.|cnol,l oheycl ,ho «,™n,„„,, „f a ,,„|„ „,„ „ „,^, „^,. ;> 

oo,l,a,„ ,„„k hi, place in .he vilia.-e church ,„ .he „.„„hi;,. ." 
they flocked in. ' 

"Softly, but rapidly, the little meetin,^.hou,se filled, and then the do.,,- 
closed, and an Esqnin.aux with the n.ost fo.-bid<iin^ exteno,- of .„, j 
had seen, slowly .-ose, and with sole,.nity ,ave out a hyn.n, .u, i„ 
a few ..on.ents the melodious hannony of „.any well-tuned voiees hrok 
forth I was delighted with the strain, for though not a word was i„. 
clh. .le to ..e I could nevertheless feel that each person was littin, his 
hear to h,s Maker, and I unconsciously joined in the harm >n v with J,rds, havmg been learnt in childhoo.l, now rushed into n.v mind ukI 
hade ,ne^.in.le them with the hallelujahs of these poor scmi-sav:.. 
* * A sermon followed, and there burst from the 
ershps a flow of elocution that I have seldom heard equaled; with„„t 
^cst,cu afon he warmed to his subfect till the lar^e drops of perspiration 
ic on the sacred volume, and hi. tone and emphasis proved that he was 
gifted w,th eloquence of no ordinary nature." After exchan-n-n^. court 
es,es with the authorities, by giving and receiving several cHn.^rs, „. 
party bade a final adieu to the little harbor of Fiskern.s and steanu.l 
away to the north. Capt. Inglefield intended to touch at Holsteinhor. i,, 
order to take on, if possible, one Adam Heck, a Dane, who had beo 'me 
responsible for a report of Franklin's murder. Inglefield desired ,o 
make hnn prove his statements by actually visiting the scene of the al- 
leged tragedy. A gale, however, drove the vessel bv IIolsteinI,or. such force that the town could not be made, and so U.e project re- 
ferred to above had to be abandoned. 

It was now resolved to push for Godhaven on Disco Island for the 
purpose of securing dogs and an interpreter. On reaching this port it 
was found that Sir Edward Belcher, who had preceded Inglefield, had 
taken all the <logs there were to spare. The governor, however, 
Capt. Inglefield a letter to the authorities at Upernavik, directing'that 



'■■^ "•,,„„ ,„o„i,l„e .upplicl .h„e. Fin,li„, hero .he mnil ,,,,„, „r s;, 

A,,.,., .he, were „„. ,,„„ ,„ ,„.„„„,„, ,„„ ,,^,^ ^^, .^„ J^ 

■^"•^'T'"" ■'■' -"'erne,,,,".,,, I„,,enel.,,.„„,„„ he,,,,, 

.,.c,f „..„., .,r „„e ,„ ,he,,e Greo„l:,n,l village, i, so ex,,e.l, .he e,„. .e 

' ;," ■■'■■:";■'• '-\r ""- "-'>'-" '"• "'^■■•■- "-- -'i '--■« »„, L 

.,...", ,„ ..„ e „ ,.1 ; .„„ „,. .h,,.e w„„„e„ h„..e, for .he se..,ers a,,., 
I..^.m,.. huts for .he E,.,„i,„aux, are .he general features of .hese 

A so„,herly hreeze .oo„ hrou.h. ,he„, h, si,h. „f .he ea.ranee 
...NMuleBay. 1. was now .^..-one ,lay, ,i„ee .he, left Pe.erhea.1, 
:.... .lv,v ha,, reache.1 .h.s poi„. on,, „ few .,„,, ,„.„, ,„,„ .„^ ^ ^ 

- ' l» ,.-v.....s vear, wi„, apparc.l, a ,, season, „„e„cu,nhere<, wi.h 
:..... sort, a,„, w,.l,o„. o,,e,.s. The Devi,'s Th.n.h a,,., Crh.s„„ Clilf s„ccess,vel.v passe,,, a sharp ,„„ko„. hein^ Uep. in .he ,.ea„.i™e for 
v,s.,,es ,., wrecl<s a,„, .raee» of hnn,a„ ,,Te. A we„,,e of a ship's ,„as. 
a .a-,,, a cor,<, a,„, so,.,, s.aves were pieke,, „p, a„,| a, .he .in,e seen,e, 
"""I..V. „o.,ce w,. refe,.ence .„ the ,„,ssin,. .„„„„,.„„; h,,., ,.s was 
'"■ "--.l l.>""<l, tho ,h.,as.ers of ,he whalers in Melville liav accounted 
I"! ihe presence anil conili.ion of .hese ar.ieles. 

After ,lisc.„veri„g an., nan,i,,^- Nort,„n„l,eria„cl Island an.l M„,.ehis„n 
Cha,„K ,„,„1 ace,„a,elyflxinK Makl,,,. Isla„,ls, .liscovere., bnt wronHv 
l"-";l '■>■ "^"li" ">a„y ,ears ,,efo,.e, stea.n an,, sai, we,e p„t on, a,,,, U^o 
v,,,el spe,, awa, .o .he northwanl, an,l's S.rai, ,„„, Son,,,, u,.,e 
.-.I.,,,. Here ,nan, points of interest were ,!iseovere,l an,l „a,ne,l 
I lu. western coas. showed a. so„,e .lis.,n,ce hack a hi,h ran,-e of ,n„„n- 
la.ns, which were callcl after Ills R„,al Highness .he Prince „f Wales- 
,m,, those .er,„i„a.ins •', the ,„„s. n-n-tiu-n, point visible, reccive.1 thei,' 
i-amc l,-,)n, titc English Qneeii, Victoria Ilea.l. 

IV- hay intervening between that an.l Cape Albert, was natne., after 
»• I ro.ces, Marie, then DnCtes,, of IIa„,i„on. Other eapcs on the west 
>l-.^ ue,e callcl after the Ear, of Cu,nper,,own, Col. Sabine, an.l Mis, 
<^ nidolt, a uiccc of Sir John Franklin. 

■ I'lM 



lilt i' 



On the eastern land, the furthest northern point ohserved was c-.lld 
after his Danish Majesty, Kin,^ Frederick VII., heing the most northn„ 
pon,t of his dominions. Tt:e >.ater ne .rest this point was ealle.l .(kr 
Lady Franklin, Franklin Hay, and other eapes, hays, gulfs, and mown 
tarns of less nnportance were designated after distinguislicl En-lish ,li. 
n.tar,es. As has been seen, Inglefield's loeations, espceially Ws rep," 
sentation of the trend of Smith's Strait, were faulty, hut the traein-^ of 
the eonfiguration was mainly eorrect, an.l with the new la(itu,le".„„| 
longitude afterwanl given, the points noted hy him di.l not receive new 

A violent gale rising soon after Victoria Head was discovere.l 
prevented any further progress to the north, and a ret.n-n to Jones So,„,.i 
was now contemplated. The highest latitude reached l.y Uk- Iv.IhII., 
was, according to Inglefield's reckoning, 78" 30', being farther nor.h 
than any vessel had yet attained in this Sound. As Kane ifterv ,nl 
found that Inglefield had made the coasts of the strait tren.l too nuah" to 
the north, it is probable that the latitude reached at this time was less 
than reported by him. 

The ship was ,.ow directed along the north coast of Jones •„„! 
Ingbs I'eak and Cape Maxwell were successively noticed, and named 
«n,m English personages. After attaining a western longitude of Sf 
.0', the ship scudded before a gale over ^ - the south shore, and the party 

once more proceeded eastward, surveying and charting the coast as (Lev 


After reaching the e.,stern extremity of Jones Sound an<l neariv s„f. 
fermg shipwreck on Cape I'arker, it was necessary to decide what 
should be their next step; an.l after deliberation, i, was determined ,0 
nsk the chance of being caught by freezing up, and of spending the win- 
ter >n the ice, for the benefit that might be conferre<l on the govenur.ent 
service, by carrying the surplus stores of provisions and coal to the 
squadron of Sir Edward Helcher, whose provision-ship, the North Star 
was known to be in the vicinity of Bee- hev Island. In this ea^e Sir 
Edward might be benefited by Inglefield's discoveries, and on the otiier 
hand, the latter coidd carry back to England, which could probably be 

IS (Iisc-(niTc(|, 
) Jones Soiiiitl 

tlic- Is;i1h-1|;i 

farther north 
lie afteruani 
' too much to 
ime was luss 


ached l)efore winter, the latest inte 
liiiuh-on, and of tlieir cha 

i^'ence of the movcnie 

tliS () 

nees of success. 


f the 

Upon reachinjr Ik-echey Island, it 
Capl. Kelleit had sailed from that nl 
three weeks previons!}-, the f( 
tn Melville Island; nothing,' since 

was f.unid that Sir Edward and 

place with their steani-tenders al 


'liner up Wellin-ton Channel and the 'atte. 

It was 

supposed that Sir lulward had ;,' 

I'.irry Strait. The of] 

had been heard of either of ihein; and 
one away into open water beyond 

icers of the North St 

rceut an 

y considerable amount of the st 

ir could not be induced t( 

ores olFerci 

ahhoujrh the fact that he was jibout t 


for bin) to part wit!-, tlic i.)ost he had 

> return to En-rland made it pos- 


Here they showed lnj,r|eliel(l 
d I 

the tliree j^M-aves of I' 

uliicli liad l)een discovered i)y I'eiinv and Dell 

111(1 told him of the I 

ranklin's men. 

i\-en ;-vo years previous, 

ic of tile ,i,n-aves, sittiuLT "l)"ii it ev 

>ear winch was said to keep a conti 

erv niifht. 


le mail ba<,^s bein- all prepared, and the kind 

nuous vijfil over 

farewells said, tl 

a prepared to bei^rj,, l^.r j 

omc'.'.ard journev. 

tended to la.i.l at Holsteinber-, but Wbalelish Island^ 

uiivenieiit j)oint, a landin,','- was e.Tected h 

It was at first hi- 
proviiiL,^ a more 

the homeward journev. 


ere, and the ship refitted f 


er a rest of several davs, dnr 

tiiiu' a reception and ball, -iven by the Danish C 

llie party set out for home, where they landed in Noveml 

iiKiiiths from the time of startin<(. 

pon arrivin- i„ ICn-land Capt. In-lcficld published 
aibeiitures, and received the 

m<r which 

rown. Were enjoved, 

)er, just four 


an accotmt of 

Ahhou-l,throu-h causes over which he ba<l n 
n.aiiN of them, inaccurate, his vova 
cause of -^-eo^M-aphical science, and d 

ipprobation of iiany pi.blic i 


o control, his results were. 

,re was still a valuabi 

e service to the 

eserves due mention in our list. 

1 ! 



It Is the misfortune of son.e men to outlive their reputations, at least 
so far as their noble, worthy features are concerned. On the other hand, 
it has often been observ-d that real worthiness of character, and even 
<,'enius, have not received full recognition nor due homage until the car 
of the possessor " has grown too dull to hear." Fortunate is the man 
who, like the subject of our sketch, listens in life to the praise of his 
own heroic and virtuous deeds, and dies with affectionate and honorahle 
tributes still oflbred him on every hand. Admiration for .,o distinguished 
i,n American, and a knowledge of his popularity and thorough 
appreciation in every part of America, must be the excuse (though none 
were needed) for giving his biography so large a place in this series of 

Elisua Kent Kane was born on the 3d of February, 1820, on W'al- 
luit St., Philadelphia. In respect to nationality he was descended fnmi 
fom- distinct ancestral stocks. He numbered as his progenitors ihe 
(irays, of English, the Van Rensseljers, of Lmv Dutch, the Leipers, ,){ 
Scotcii, and the Katies, of Irish extraction. His immediate ancestors 
were John K. Kane of Philadelphia, and a daughter of Thomaj^Leiper, 
ail parties being prominent and well-known in the politics and public 
events of the days in which th.- lived. 

As a child, as a youth, and as a man, Kane exhibited striking (|ual- 
itics. His musculai- and nervous characteristics were such as to (it him 
for all manner of athletic exercises, and in these he especially delighted 
to engage. His freedom and independence of spirit, with his intense 
aversion to arbitrary authority, gave him, in the estimation of prini- 



't 'HI 

"K. E. K. KANE. 



EARLT 'qualities. 

.l.v-c people, the eh:,n.eter of a " 1,^,, h,,, ," though he mdly h.ul none 

of the ciualities by virtue of whieh he shoukl have merite.l this title 

There was nothin.i,^ of the hypocrite in his nature, and he scorne.l to 

resort to those little lyin- suhtertu-cs whieh " -oodish" boys arc apt to 

employ in order to shield themselves from the results of bad behavior. 

His frank and open character surprised the -ood people of his nei-l." 

I'orhood and acciuai.Uance, who did not interpret him as they grew^o 

'1<> afterward; and who, n..t understanding him at all, chose to as"-ribe t„ 

lii>n those ciualities which many boys possess. Many incidents of l,is 

early life well illustrate his manly disinterestedness and -enerosity. V^s. 

pecially <Iid he establish himself as the guardian and '^l^rotector "of hi.' 

younger brothers. ()„e day, when about nine years of age, bein- ,t 

school with his little brother >nuch younger, the latter was abou^t io 

sufler a whipping for some slight olfense, when lOIisha sprang up, ex- 

clai.liing: "Whip me, don't whip, he's so little!" The'teacher, 

thinking that this was another exhibition of the boy's rebellious spirit,' 

sai.l, "I'll whip you too, sir." The struggle which followed showe.l 

youngKane'snotionsof justice, although he- left the room with marks 
that recpiired explanation. 

He was of that wiry, nervous physique which enables people I., ,|„ en.lure in a manner which surprises not only every one else, but 
oftentimes themselves, also. Commonplace feats he was 'never satislld 
to attempt. He undertake that which was dilHcult, daring, and in 
his earlier life, many times what was reckless and useless. it was j„m 
this g..-ahead, energetic spirit which enabled him in after years t„ walk 
over <lillicidty, and accomplish his undertakings, fre(iuently in thc^ midst 
of untold peril, and in a co.ulition of physical weakness amomiling al- 
most to prostration. Like many other men who have risen toemin.Mue, 
he did not, in his earliest youth, show a taste for learning, aiul certainlv 
not a fondness for lessons set by teachers, but having chosen to follow a 
given com-se of action, convinced of its reasonableness or necessity, no 
dislikes, or ditlirulties, or importunities sulHced to shake him from his 

His father, afterward Judge Kane, was a shrewd lawyer, literatcur, 



a.ul connoisseur in scicn.o, and sccin^, with his keen pcnetn.tion, that 
hc,-e were occnlt possibilities, wisely let hin. choose hi's course for him- 
selu. regard to his f;,rnK.l education. He had inten.led his s„n for 
^aIe College, and took hin, to New Haven for entrance, hut it was 
he,^ soon discovered that he was already smitten with the heart <lisease hun,,. about him all his life. The Universitv of Vi^nnia in pre 
sentin., the plan of elective studies, ^ave n.ore n-cedon. to a ' uti. of 
poor health, and here, for a time, he prosecuted his studies. There was 
nothm,^ peculiar about younj, Kane's colle.,.e course except that he nvm- 
.feste<l a c,,.eat deli,,.ht in the concrete realisation of what he ..,t in the 
abstract Irom books. Geoloj^y, chemistry, botanv, must all receive body 
and naeanin;, to him by actual examinations on the rocks, in the woods 
-• i" t'- lalx,ratory. Thus, though he did not take a decree, his knowl- 
-l,e ot all the subjects which he investi.^.ated was marvelously com 
plete and thorough. His j,reat command of lan^ua^e, his happ; choice 
.>! words, and his wonderful knowlecl^^e of the terminolo-.y of" the sci 
cnces, are well seen in the descriptions which he has written of his voy- 
ai^i's to liie Polar regions. 

Although in wretclK-d health, an.l without prospect of anv cban<^e 
'•'■■ -IH' better, it l>ecame necessary tbr Kane to choose ^ profession ; such 
a lcu)perament, and such actiVity of mind, could not be satisfied without 
M.,ne .lellnite aim. His studies in chemistry, and his thorough insight 
into the methods of scientific investi<rati 

on, made his subse([uent choice 
of the study of medicine a wise one, and at the a,e of twentv-two he 
i.ra,luated m that profession at the iiea.l of his class, and with" a thesi, ^ave him ^reat celebrity and n.ade bin, mu,ucsti<,ned authority 
on the subject treated. 

He entered a hospital as senior officer soon after .^n-aduation, but it 
was seen that his health demanded a chanj,.e. He therefore be- 
came a can.hdate for the position of assista.U surgeon of the United 
States navy. Havin- received this appointment, bis life thereafter was 
to a oreat extent, a life of travel. With the <iuestions how this suited' 
l""b and to what results some other .nanner of life wouhl have led we 
have nothing, to do. We can only record here that, placed a. \v was he 






made the best of every circumstance, and became the polished scientist 
and brilliant writer that his published works show him to have been, every part of Europe, many parts of Asia and Africa, n.ost ot" 
the important islands of both oceans, and, as we have seen, the extren. 
ity of America, became the scenes of his observation, and their interest 
nvr features received successively the attention of his brilliant and well 
balanced mind. "Some persons," says Pres. Fairchild, in his Mor-.l 
Philosophy, "Without physical health, or foundation for it, //.. becu^e 
they deem it to be their duty." We are aware of not havinc, quoted 
hus words exactly, but this idea of the predominance of the soxd over 
the body, of the will over corporal weakness, was embodied truly in 
Kane. He rose from a sick bed to his adventures many times when ris. 
mg seemed indeed a resurrection. 

It is impossible to go into the details of his eventful life up to the 
time ot those events with which this volume has particularly to <lo It 
remains, therefore, to mention briefly some matters connected with his 
private life, before continuing the narrative from which this biography 
IS an incidental, though necessary digression. 

Kane's great physical weakness had determined him in early m.n 
hood to lead a life of celibacy. It is said that as he was one day" ...oi„.. 
the rounds of the poor-house hospital in his junior service as phvsici-u, to 
that, he came across a diminutive, scjuali.! pauper, \vho had 
married rather a come! .voman in the house. The senior physician 
who was with him at the time, asked bin. what he prestmied. must he 
the feelings of that woman when slie looked upon this disgusting speci- 
men, an<l reflected that lie was her lord an.l master. To "which Kan. 
very seriously replied: "It is to save some la<ly just such thoughts as 
those, that 1 have determined never to marry." In spite of this"<Ietcr- 
mination, however, anc. in spite of his physical infirmities, he ])rove(l 
susceptible in after years to the charms of the fair sex. In the h.ttcr 
part of KS52 Kane became acciuainted with the celebrated Margaret Fox, 
whose name has long been familiar in connection with the "spiritu;il 
manifestations" which were such a source of wonder and scientific com- 
ment at the time. Although she was but a very young girl at the time 

CR/r/C/SMS. ^g^ 

Ik- first her, he fell in love with her at first .sight, and resolved to 
;;•'■; ->'■ -.rry her. The remainder of his Hie was crowded tull of af- 
ccfon and brotherly tenderness. Probably a more devoted couple never 
!.ccan,e engaged than these two, though circumstances were against the 
•...alloyed and unbroken enjoyment of each other's society 

The necessity compelling the Doctor's continue<l absence as well as 
the precarious condition of his health, prevented their marriage for many 
vcars; but this separation resulted in a rich legacy of correspondence nuheates more clearly than any other circumstance could do the 
sincere, pure, noble character of the affection of each toward the oJher 
They were at last n.arried a short time before his death, but the affair 
Nvas so quietly conducted, that many for a doubted its reality and 
thus placed the unhappy widow in a most undesirable light before' the 
world. It was partly for the purpose of vindicating her own puritN and 
that ot her sainted dead that she afterward allowed his correspondence 
to he published. His letters reveal a depth and warmth and steadfast- 
ness of affection, which is rarely if ever excelled. No aspect of a nuan's 
htc so thoroughly reveals his character as the relation which he holds to 
the object of his affections, and for the same reason, in no way does the 
p.ibhc come so close to a man's inner life as in the correspondence crow- 
H>g out of such relation. Thus if there had ever been anv doubt of the 
sincerity and purity of Dr. Kane, or her whom he honored with the best 
love of his. life, it surely was dispelled upon presenting to the public eye 
the correspondence of his private life. 

!• cw distinguished persons escape entn-ely the attacks of calumniators, 
an,l we fmd that our hero was no exception. In his voyage to the Arctic 
.v.^ions, certain diffculties in government of the crew arose, the particu- 
lars of which will appear in their proper place. We refer to them here 
tor the purpose of showing in what way the cliarges of injustice brought 
a-ainst him, as the commanding offcer, h.d been refuted. His com-se 
on one <.f the occasions referred to was - trongly condemned after his 
.cuun by certain persons, who, not knowing the circumstances, and 
l-cng natural and chronic croakers, felt called upon to express a gra- 
tuitous ojjinion upon the subject. A letter from Wm. Morto„. „„,, of'the 



c;«^vv, and a j.c„ctrati„., sajjacious nK.n, fully vindicates fh .• 
• I-o^-.".- in each or the clitHcultics which .J W " '"" ^'^^ 

;-<-<edt.nn.chati.candunde...r:ir: :^^^^^^ 
fiimincsiKr.rests- and ;f'M. ,. 'Lumstanccs as an Arctic 

'.^.^tsts, an.l If measures which seemed extn-m,. 

'". '-^ seems tliat the Doctor shoul 1 .- • "'■' '■''"'■^^■'' 

■H'ss an.l hraverv instead nf ■ ^"^^ercsm^. pronipt- 

celchritv. " '■'^''-^>' J^^'V'^'i iiini 


If i 




''-' ms J'LAX — iv MEL VII I F n\^- 
AnVANCK AT AXCIIOK. '" '""""^ " ^""^ 

« K „,crdv , . ■ ' '•■^■^"-■-"•f -> open Poh.r Soa. This „pi„i„„ 

c.McnM%c,„f l„s previ,,,,. researches bei,,.. well 

- ca,, G.^,ra„h,ca, Soeie.,, :,„„„„..ei„, ,, ,.,„, ,„,„ ,„^ .„,_ J 

,. He .eferrc, ,„ h,, u,,„„ .„ .,,^ „„^, „,,^^ ,^.^^ 

>-.t th p<„e „ ,„ax„„,„„ cUl is „.H identieal wi.l, ,,e North I'-ole 11 
»h..u-c,, tha. .here arc .v„ p„,es „, e«re,ne eo,.,, „„e f.,r each he," 
s,>hcre,-„,,c ,., Asia an., .he o.her i„ America; a.,„ .ha. each is ^Z 
.c para,.., He fur.her ..hservc., .ha. .he ,.ea,. .Cpera.ur 
A,,,u,c...P„,e,ssevera„e„.ees h.^cr .ha„ .ha. of .he isia.ic I^o.eJ 

I-tonde., .h„„.h. a,ul <,bserva,i„„ l,a.l Ic, hi,, to behove .ha. ahoat 
.1. M ,.,e was a.. „„„„/„,, ,« i. wee, „r .i,,, of „„a, „f c„,„pa,,.tive 
.1 u,r.pera.„,.e, ,s„r,-„„,u,i..g a., open polar sea, which presu,, ah,v c 
"> K, „o,,her„ .e,.™i,„,s o,' the ea.h. This opiLn, share , a, „ 
.. Her e,„,„c,.. „re,„ was fou,K,e., t,p„„ sevcal si,„i„ea.,. ;ae.s, an,™. 

:!:::,;■:''. vo,: r-t '"■": t " -"-'"''- -"■• "° -"- 

.K-„at,„„ ha,l bee, see,, ab,.,u,a„. s„„ke," alwa,s inCicaUve of 


Iff jliffflH 

m I ^ 



a mil(U;r climate, and hicrhly sii^rj^estivc of open water. Resid 
liad l)L'cn remarked both hy Lieut. Dell 
the North Pole 
This, a<r 

es this, it 

iven and many others that 


was approached, the eviderces of animal life 



:dn, su<r<rested vcfretable life as the ultimate means of subsiste 


lin facts reu'ardi 


:urrents and winds as observed by Liciit. 
Dellaven, were pertinent to the subject in hand. He announced furtlier ,k 
his opinion that Franklin had sou-ht and found tiiis supposed open polar 
sea, an.l tliat, if found dead or alive, it would probably be upon the limits 
of this hitherto undiscovered water. 

Whether tlie views of Kane upon these subjects were coincided with 
or not, he was seen by all who heard and knew him to be a person emi- 
nently fitted to conduct an expedition to the Arctic regions, whether f„r 
the purpose of finding Sir John Franklin or for purposes of scientific in- 
vestigation. He possessed skill, bravery, experience, and great scientilic 
knowledge, all of whicii were qualities essential in the trying scenes im- 
plied in an Arctic voyage. 

Accordinglv, in December, 1853, Dr. Kane received the following 
formal message from the Secretary of the Navy: 

" Nov. 27, 185.'. 
Sn< :— Liui.v Franklin h.ivin.,' iirsfed you to undertake a search for her liushaiul and 
his companions, and a vessel, the Advance, havin- been placed at vour disposition l,v 
Mr. Grinnell, you are hereby assi^med to special duty, for the purpose of conducting 
an overland journey from the upper waters of BaiTin's Bay to tlie shores of the I'oLu- 

" Relying ui)on your zeal and discretion, the Department sends you forth upon an 
undertakinjr which will be atte.ided with .rreat peril and exposure. Trustin- tiiat vou 
will be sustained by the laudable object in view, and v/ishin<,' you success and u safe 
return to your friends, I am respectfully your obedient servant, 

"Jon.N- W Khn-nkdv 

He was also formally directed to give his "attention to scientilic in- 
quiry;" and "to transmit to the Department when opportunities allonled, 
reports of his progress, and the results of the search." To tiie enter- 
prise in hand contributions were also received from Mr. Geort^a- Pea- 
body, noted for his genero.sity to the London poor. Various scientific 
institutions aided in furnishing the expedition with suitable instnunci.Ls 



:mi(I other articles useful for the expedition. Ten officers and men were 
detailed hy the United States Government to accompany the party, and 
these, with seven others specially chosen for the occasion, completed the 
siiip's crew. They were not under the laws which <rovern the United 
States Navy, hut they had excellent rules am! rej,ndations, which were 
ri.i,ndly adhered to throujrhout all the exi<rencies of the journey. These 
were, mainly, to he in complete suhordination to the officer in command 
or his representative; to use spirituous liquors only when dispenseil hy 
the special order of the commandinj^' officer; and to ahstain hahitually 
from profane lan<^ua<;e. 

Kane's plan had heen outlined in his address hefore the American 
(}eo<(raphical Society; and was based upon the theory that thj; northern 
part of Greenland probably formed jiart of the a?nm///s which has been 
sjjoken of as theoretically surroundinjjf the Pole. His "general plan, then, 
was to pass up Baffin's iJay to the hi.<rhest attainable point, and then 
l)ressiii:4- on toward the Pole as fir as boats or sled;^'es could carry them, 
examine the coast line for vesti<jes of the missinj,' partv. It was with 
reference to this plan that their simple equipment was chosen. It con- 
sisted of a cpiantity of rou_t,di boards to serve for housing over the vessel 
(iurini^r the winter, a few small tents, and several carefully built sledges. 

Leaving New York on the 30th of May, 1853, the ship, in eighteen 
(lays, had reached Newfoundland, where they received a team of lar"-e 
(logs from the governor of the province; and ])r()ceeding, without inci- 
dent reached the harbor of Fiskcrnics, on tiie coast of (Jreenland, Jidy 
I.'. Here, understanding tiiat both the party and tlie dogs woidd re- 
<|uiro fresh meat, and knowing that a skilled hand for tliis service woxM 
he necessary, an Esquimaux boy of nineteen, named Hans Christian, 
was secured for trilling wages, and a premium of bread and meat for his 
mother. This boy became very useful to the [)arty, both as caterer to 
the (logs, and as it came to jxiss, to the party also. Thus the expedition 
proceeded up the coast, stopping, as a matter of course, at the various 
ports, Pr()ven, Lievely, and Upernavik, to procure dogs and clothing, 
and establish a friendly feeling among the natives and resident Danes. 
Going on among the dangerous fogs and shoals, Melville Bav was 

f n 

w ■ 







reached, :mc! preparations were inaile to strike out to the northward .nid 
Smith's Sound. 

After entcrin,ir Smith's Sound Kane deposited several caches and 
erecied several cairns for the douiile purpose of supplyin^r tiii-ni with 
food if ohli,t,'ed to traverse that way a5,'ain, and of ^niidin- any who 
mif^ht foUow on their traciv. Throuj^'hout all tiie ionrney up this pas- 
sa-,re the lirijj was in the most imminent peril. On oi;.- occasion the vesstl 
was moored to an iceherf^ for the nit^iit, and was supposed to he- in a po- 
sition of safety, when suddenly the water ahout tiiem heiraii to Ir. cov- 
ered witli pieces of ice as lar<re as a walnut, and lar-er. Tiu're was 
hareiy time to ]Mit oil" from the her- before it fell to atoms willi a iiash 
lashin.i,' th,e ocean into foam for many yards ahout. Thus capricious did 
they fmd tiie ice of Smith's Sound. 

Workint^r their way up with ditHculty, they ha.l reached, o,, Au-u.t 
19, the extreme latitude of 7S'. Here an event occurre.l which modi- 
fied elFectually their whole future journey. Indications of a -ale ap- 
proachin- induced the commander to moor tlie ship as secureiv as pcs^- 
blc, and await the result. Three stron- i;,,blcs were employc-d in tlils 
service, and it was hoped that hy thus apparently fastenin- ,ian-iT or 
disaster, at least, mi-ht lie averted. The -ale arose, until the second day 
the strainin- of the cables was intense. The six-mcii hawser, the wIiuIl'- 
line, and the ten-inch manila successively parted, with reports like 
musketry, leavin- the vessel and her imperiled crew to the mercy of the 
wind and the iloatin- ice. For reasons -iven before, and siilKcieiitly 
obvious, we (piote tiie scene in Dr. Kane's own -raphic lan-na-e: 

" Ahead of us, fn-ther to the nortii, we could see the strait still -n.w- 
in- narrower, and tlie heavy ice-tables -rindin- up and cl()--ino- ;, i,^,. 
twecn the shore-cliirs on one side and the led-e on the other. There 
V.'::- ])ut one thin- left for us: To keep in some sort the command of the 
helm, by -oin- freely where we must otherwise lie driven. We allowed 
her to scud under a reefed fore topsail; all hands waitin- tlie enemy, as 
we closed, in silence. 

" At seven in the mornin- we were close onto the pilin- masses. 
We dropped the heaviest anchor with the desperate hope of wliidin- 



tlu- hri-r; there wns no withstamlinj,' the ice t.)rr',-!it which rolinvved 
us. \Vc had only time to fasten a spar as a h.ioy to the chain, and let 
her shp. So went our hest hower. 

" Down we went upon the -ale a-ain, helplessly scrapin- alon- ;, loe 
of ice seldom less tiian thirty feet thick; one lloe measured, l>y a^ine as 
we tried to fasten to it, more than forty. 1 had seen such v ,m\y „nce 
hcfore, and never in such rapid motion. One- upturned mass rose above 
()Mr,i,nuiwaIc, smashin- in our bulwarks, and depositinj,' half a ton in a 
hnnp upon our decks. Onr little hri..^ l,,„v herself, throu,<,'h all this wild 
adventure, as if she had a charmed life. 

" Hut a new enemy came in sijrju. Directly in o.u- way, just beyond 
tlic line of lloe-ice a.tjainst which we were alternately slidinj,' and 
thtunpin-, was a -,•„„,, ,,f hu-e ber-s. We hud no power to avoid them; 
the only (|uestion was whether we were to be .lashed in pieces a-ainst 
them, or whether they mi;^rht not offer us some protection from the storm, 
r.ut as we neared them w.- perceived that they were at some distance 
iVom the Hoe's ed'^^e, aii.l separated from it l)y ;m interval of (loe water. 
Our hopes rose, and the -ale drove us toward the passa<,'e and into it; 
an.l we were ready to exult, when, from some unexplaine^ cause, proba- 
bly from an eddy ,-f the wind a-ainst tiie lofty ice walls, we lost our 
headway. Almost at the same moment we saw that the ber.j^s were not 
at rest; that, with a monientiun of their own, tiiey were bearin.^r ,l()vvn 
upon tlie otiier ice, and that we were fated to ]>e crushed between the 

"Just tlien a broad sccmcepiece, or low, v»^ater-washed ber<,r, came 
driviu- up from the southward. The thoui,rht (lashed upon me of one of 
our escapes in Melville I?ay; and as the sconce moved rapidly alon-rside 
of us, Mc(rary mana'^red to plant an anchor on its slope, a'd hold onto 
it by a wiiale line. It was an anxious moment. Our noble tow-horse, 
whiter than the pale horse that seemed to be pursuin,<,r us, hauled us 
hravely on, the spray dashin^i,- over his wiiulward Hanks, and his fore- 
head tearing, up the lesser ice as if in scorn. The beri,vs encroached upon 
us as we advanced; our channel narrowed to a width of perhaps forty 
feet; we braced the yards to clear the impenduiji '^'t- wall. * * ♦ 



In ! 


II' j' 

Pf "lllllrli. 



Wc passed c-lcar, l)iit it \v:is a ilosc shave— so close tliat om- port w.-itor 
boat \\-.ul«I have been crushed had we not taken it from the davlls ;,,„| 
found ourselves under k\w Ice ..f ;i htM-,' in a coinparativciv npiMi l,.;„|. 
Never did iuart-tricd men aikno\vled;,'e with more «;nuitnde their nur- 
ciful deliverance from a wri'liiu'd deatli.'" 

Thus the narrative conlinues; a lon.L,' and thrillin,<j; account of narn.w 
escapes from hcin^- crushed in the mountains nf ice. Kane t,'oes on : 

" Durin-tlic wiinlc of tin- scenes 1 h.ive l.ecn descril)injr, I cuid not 
iiclp hcinjjr sti-.ick hy the composed and maidy demeanor of mv comrades. 
The turmoil of ice luidcr a heavy sea often conveys the impression of dan- 

smith's SOI nd. 

,s,n'r when the reality is al>sent; but in this fearful passa^s^u-, the i^artin- .,f 
our hawsers, the los^ uf our anciiors, the al)rupt crushing- of our stovcn 
bulwarks, and the actual deposit of ice u|)on our decks, would have trieu 
the nerves ol'thc expcrieiucd ici' man." 

It must not be supjjosed that during,- all this terrific scene no ednrts 
were put forth by the men to anchor the bri- and avert the hazard of the 
perilous ice-strait. F.epeatt-d ellbrts wen- made to ,i,n-apple the pas iii.^r 
ice-blocks, and in such . !r it-^ four of the crew became separated from the 
bri<r and had t<; be rcf-uc-: 'm a h .at after the -ale subsided. Mr. Mon- 
sall, one of the icc-n-.s,, ,>, avoided iiein.-,^ crushed i)y a perilous leap to a 
floating fraj,nnent, and like intrepidity was exhibited on all hands. 




Tlu' jxnlliiiit little l)n}r, h 

lowfvcr, was tint yot out ofd.-iivai 

iDciisc aiTuimilatioii 


K- nil- 

'.sol .(val..M.t ha,hon,f<,n t.. ,Ik. n,.,lh l.v llu' rM„,r 
^'alc, hcj^au, to the. horn.,- of the crew, to f.,nv her sc,uare over ,hc her, 
in whose lee she ha.l lande.l. As she rose slowly o,. i.s ru,,e.I sum.:;,elle.l hy the tre.nen.lous .no.nentu.n oftlKMuovin.^ iW hehhul the 
suspense as ,o the result heeau.e oppressive. Sonu-tinu-s a shock more 
-i<l^'.. au.l severe tlK.u the rest woul.l turn her ou her si.le, au,l Ihreat.n 
'" I.rcap.tate erew au.l all iuto ,1,. seethiu;,. chaos of ice and u-ater \s 
shc-.lescemled its windward slope and .p.ietly took her place anuMe- th.. 
l".'Ken ruhhish, the excitement of.h. ,,,w was n.arke.l hv silence ,^uh.-r 
than iNclanialions; they were too tlia.dvful lo speak. 

I- was uo, ,ill ,hc ,„, of Au^nrs. that this terrihie storm ahated sulli- to en,l the period of ina.tion consequent upon the adventures ius, 
descnhed. As soon as possihle, however, all took hold of the l-nv 
I""- au.l " harnessed like mules on a canal," proceeded hy " trackin^^ " to 
• Ira^^ the vessel toward a place of supposed safety. After proceedin- iu 
Ih.s way tor some miles, a pohtt was reached where at least temponuy 
secn-ity could be relie.l on, and the comman.ler an.l olKcers were enahled 
In look about then) and plan for the future. 

-riKT ha.l now attained a latitude of nearly 7c/, hein,^ further north 
■lian any 01 their predecessors except Parry, in his tramp on foot on the 
island of Spit/.be,-en. This element of success at least, was theirs. 

''^1^'- '>"''' -..nmander was hanlly satisHe.l to pass ti,e winter without 
In-t atlannn,,^ a more northern point, hut yo.mj,. Ice was formin.^ snow- 
s,o,n>s were hecomin,^MVe.,ucnt ; the j,n-owinj,^ severity of the weather 
a'l<l-i ... what they had passc-d throuj^h, was be:,innin.. to tell in 
t. ..epressmj. eflbct upon ollicers and crew A <^enerous re^^ard lor the 
l-l.n,,rs an<l opinions of his officers led Kane to consult with thent upon 
thc.,ucst,on of their future action. All, with one exception, were of 
'>l~ that all attempts to secure a n.ore northern position were unwise 
an.l useless. D,, Kane, however, ur<,ed upon thent the necessitv of 
niaknt.ur a pomt from which it would be convenient at least to .iispatch 
^Kd,n,. parties, and proposed to procec.l by warpin;^, u.Uil such a place 
" '" ^"■'■'^■'■'' ^"- 'f^'^ l'^i^='" =':-r'vol, an.l entered heartily into the 




work of conveying the vessel to a desirable harbor. After makin- a 
few miles by availing tliemselvcs of wind ancf tide and lever, a bay was 
reached. Here Dr. Kane determined to leave the vessel until he should 
explore the northern region in a boat and determine the practicability of 
further advance with their well-tried brig. Fitting out a boat with the 
suggestive name of the Forlorn Hope, the commander, with seven 
tn:stv and able men, started on the 39th on their tour of investigation. 




I'assin- on throu-h the narrow strait openin- in front of them, the 
liltlc party was able by breakin- the young ice whicii kept constantly 
forming, to make about seven miles on the first day. Cold and wet from 
the necessities of this doubtful navigation, night was eagerly welcomed. 
'l\venty-four hoiu's' absence from the ship brought thcin to the end of 
tluir boating. The ice-pack had closed with the belt, and was thus on 
one side and in front of them, while on the other side was the ice- 
-irt shore. Advance with the boat was impossible. The carefully 
packed sledge was therefore taken out and set up, and the boat snugly 
slnu'c.l away in a convenient gorge. The sledge was now laden vvith 
a fcxv necessaries, and the march again proceede<l. Interesting notes 
were taken </• the topography and glacial appearance of the rugged re- 
-inn over which tlieir patli lay, and many an amusing and excil'ng inci- 
dent served to relieve the monotony of the [..urney. Its difficulty may 
hv conceived from tlie fact that five days' absence (.nly found them forty 
tnllcs from the l)rig. Tlie tortuous course which it was necessary to 
pursue with the sle.lge was a great .lraw]>ack to tlie commander in his 
liastc' to mal^e latitude, an.l he determined to leave the sledge and pro- 
ceed on foot. The undesirable feature of this method was, that not 
enough food coul.l be carried. The average weight of the men's bunlen 
was thirty. live pounds, inchiding a quantity of pemmican ami one U\iMo 





h 'liiJ; 



robe aiiiccc, and even tliis was found to weigh tlicm down. It was 
found, however, that greater progress could lie made in this way than 
with the whole outfit, and one day they succeeded in making twenty-four 

A river was at last reached which emjjticd into a large bay, and w; 
presumed by Kane to 1k> the largest river of North Greenland. 

"Here," says Kane, "protected from the frost by the infiltration .,f 
the melted snows, aijd fostered by the reverberations of solar heat fioin 
the rocks, we met a flower-growth, which, though .Irearily Arctic in its 



type, was rich in variety and coloring. Amid festuca and otiier (uttcl 
grasses twinkled the purple lychnis and ihc wliite star of the chick- 
weed, and not without its pleasing a^Mui;, lions, 1 rccogni/ed a single 
hespcris, the Arctic representative of the wall-llowers of home." 

After reaching a rocky headland which overlooked a wide expanse 
extending far beyond the Soth parallel, this was made the (iwal point ^^^. 
reconnoissance, and the party proceeded back to the brig. Kane an- 
nounced to the waiting nu-n that he had discovered no spot better suited 
for winter -luartci-s ihun the bay iu Nvhich the brig w;is now michored, 


and gave to tow her between two small islands. Here, then, 
she was anchored amidst the ice; destined to he her resting place for a 
long time indeed, for "the same ice surrounds her still." 

The little party in Rensselaer Ilarhor, as their retreat was called, 
now foun<l winter rapidly approaching. The old ice was soon so firmly 
cemente.l in the hay l)y that which was newly formed, that it would 
hear sledging jxirties which coasted out around tlie brig from time to 
time. Much was to he done, and d.)ne at once; for the stm could not ])e 
(lepe.ided on much longer. The mountain range to the south would ob- 
scure him tNVo weeks before his regular time for disappearance. The 
hold was to be unloaded of its supplies, wliich were to be placed in the 
storehouse upon liutler's Island. This was done by means of loaded 
hoats, through a channel which must be recut every morning. A com- 
fortable kennel must be erected for the canine rabble, which, however, 
would not occupy it. Wild as they were, they preferred to sleep on the 
snow in calling distance of the men. A deck-housing had to be planned 
and built, care being taken to make as warm as possible their winter resi- 
(lence. An observatory was constructed of stone, which the men hauled 
across the ice on sledges. There remaine.l, moreover, to plan and estab- 
lish j)rovision depots for (he convenience and safety of exploring parties 
as they should now and then be sent into the interior. The food to be 
deposited in these places was chieHy pemmican. and as little or no game 
had been seen in Smith's Soun.l, it was necessary to freshen their salt 
provisions, which, in their isolated condition and tendency to scorbutic 
.lisease, it would not do to use. Acconlingly, a fresii water lake having 
heen ibun/l in the interior of one of the islands, poles of the meat sus- 
pended by strings were brought successively to receive the freshening 
baptism. Tlie instruments, also, must be placed and adjusted. The 
magnetic observatory was duly ecpiipped with its magnetometer and <lip 
iiiMruments. The transit and telescope were adjusted in the observatory 
proper. The tide gauge was upon the brig itself, and the meteorolog- 
ical observatory was placed in the open field, duly protected. So sensi- 
tive were some of the thennometers, that when they indicated 40 or 50 ' 
bdow zero, the mere approach of rui observer would cause « dwnge. 





I ; ' ■' 



nc- of tlu'iii could l,c road to the tenth of a d 

tioiis foi- the winter 

ctrrec. So th( 

s ()hs( rvations went 

on, as 

ouit sank lower and 1 



^ sun in his dail 

V cir- 


In th 

e m 

cantiinc, a tlcpot party had 1 

<livd pounds of peinmiean to d 

)c'en sent out, with several 1 


Jjarted ,)n the C(nli of St 

eposit in three places. Tl 


lis party dc- 

L'nil)er, and 



ni''- their 



dents occun-ed to tl 

hd not return for twent 
curious and nearlv dan"-ei 


the hold had 1 

little party remaining'- at the 1 



cvn scriouslv trouhled wit 

oils nici- 
or sonii' tinie 

1 rats 

tlieni out with a ddectahl 

leather had fn'lcd, and 

L- conii^oiuid of hrinist.)!! 

it was determined t( 

■ -n attempt to huni 
L', arsenic and liurnt 




i>piiy\iate them wit 

1 car 

^as. A .piantity of charcoal was hurne.l helow, and ,| 

iialches securely closed. The cool 

to attend to (;uisiii 
nioi-e dead t 

Iv with unfortunate temei-itv 


t' duties, and was hauled forth I 

c iiclow 

rom the 


lan alui 

Ahoiit th 

}■ (-•lenient 

something- 1 

le same time. Dr. Ivai 


>clow was on lire, went down, and 

K', suspectino- that 

liom death h\- sull 

he, too, was fore 


and was only 

he hrt: prov 

>''iy ex- 
<-'(! to he on the deck. 

<l"cnclied with the -reatest difiicultv. S 

his circumstance 

do;;- was ohscrved to 1 
dispatched hv a rille. ' 
hefore thought of. 

On the I Nth of Octoher the expl 
report .f their proceedintrs. The 

everal days aft 

ia\'e symptoms of hydroi 

Hiohia, and was 


•'ULr''-ested a 1 

cr a 

lori-ilile ilansrer nut 

pl<)nn;jf party returned and 

ave a hil 

V had with "i 

n-cat dilllculty, executed tl 

cat i)ains, aiuj oft 


leir chiel'care 

ic commission upon which they had 

was to 

en with 

heeii sent. 

leave th 

c provisions in suital 

secuie them from the inv 

)le ])hu 

liMtiii''' and sa-'ac 

isions of the polar lu- 

es, and to 

II", w 


1 IS very 

does not consume. I 

ions, and Ljencrallv destro\ 


1 s])ite of theii- car 

'ys what stores of this kind hi 

returnini,^ aloii-- their tr 
])letely demolished. T 

■c in this re^-ard, 
ick that one of their caches w, 


cy foil I 

IS almost 

hcv had heen wet t 

111 on 


rrcatest nei 

I' t he skin, an 

1(1 c 

pen! from crackin 

xposed to the 


,i;lacieis, and from t 

ic extreme cold. 

e sun at la- 


li, and the in 

came on. 


'>nie of the prohlems and 

eiise cold of an Arct 

ic winter 


ill this frijriil solit 


ies presenting thcmselvo 

iilc, are tlnis shadowed hy Kaijc; "Fircsid 

c astronuiiu'fs 



can harcily realise the diffict.ltics In the way of observations at sucli l„w 
temperatures. The mere hurnin- of the Iiand from frost is obviated l,v 
covering, the metal with chamois-skin, but the breath and even the 
warmth of the face and body, cover the sextant arc and j,Wasses with t 
fine hoar frost. Though I had much clear weather, I barely succeeded 
by mngnifiers in reading the verniers. It is, n-.oreover, aii unusual fVat 
to measure a base-line in the snow at fifty degrees below freezin-. 

" The great difficulty is to keep up a cheery tone among the men 
Poor Hans has been sorely hon.esick. Three days ago he bundled up 
h.s clothes and took his rifle to hid us all good-bye. It turns out th.t 
besides h,s mother there is another one of the softer sex at Fiskernrs 
that the boy's heart is dreanring of. lie looked as wretched as any lover 
ofam.lder clime. I hope I have treated his nostalgia successfullv bv 
givmg him first a dose of salts, and secondly, promotion. He now'h.^s 
all the dignity of henchman. He harnesses my dogs, builds my traps 
and walks with me on ,ny ice-tramps; and, except hunting, is excused' 
fro.n all other duty. He is really attached to me, and as happy as a fat 
man ought to be." 

The reader would not care for the details of this somewhat monotonous 
night and winter. The most striking feature was the unexampled col.i 
which was experienced ab^n.t the ist of February. The spirit tl^rr- 
mometers indicated a temperature of 67° below zero, or 99° below the 
freezing point. " Spirit of naphtha froze at_54^ and oil of sassafras at 
—49°. Theoil ofwintergreen was in a flocculent state at-56" and 
solid at-63° and_65"." Every expedient was trie.l that a.uid he 
thought of to relieve tiie dreary dcsolateness of the scene. Checkers, 
chess, cards, an,l other games were introduced, and served for a time to' 
enable the crew to fb.get their unpleasant surroun.lings. An Arctic 
newspaper was projected and successfully manage.l, some of the best 
articles being from the Ibrecastle. The vignette of this novel io,n-nal 
was a picture of a ship fast in the ice, and its motto: "//. ienc^nS srrvar, 

But the longest night has an end. The sun gave promise of his 
coming by crimson bands shooting up from the horizon, and growing in 



bnshtncss a>u; ,ua-„itucle with each successive day. Febrt.arv 
then, momentary glimpses of his glory, and March gave them day itself 
-a long needed tonic. «' It was," says Kane, " like bathing in perftmied 
water." The ambitious lea.ler began to prepare for an extended trip on 
slclges to the north and east. Of his fine stock of Newfoundland and 
l':squmiaux dogs, only six remained; the es'cessive cold and the absence of 
light had brought on melancholia and inaction, which, without the mental 
sinnulants with which men are wont to overcome their complaints 
ciuickly overcame them. IJut a new sledge was built, suited more fully 
to the capabilities of that portion of the faitb!-ul pack which remained 
The coming of the sun was not attended at f.rst with an increase of 
temperature. Throughout March and later the thermometer indicated 
-40% making travel abroad dangerous to the inexperienced in Arctic 
weath^M-. But Dr. Kane felt that he had not yet accomplished his pur- 
pose, and he was anxious with that anxiety which ever cliaracterizes the 
true scientist, to extend his obser^ A party for preliminarv search 
was, with some difficulty, organized and sent out. This party was to be 
supp'^ mented after a time by the exploring party itself, which was to 
uicl"' Dr. Kane, an<l was intended to make imijortant additions to the 
alre.uiy rich results of the expedition. 

The preliminary party had been absent eleven days, and preparations 
were nearly complete to follow it, when an event occurred which gave 
:in unexpected color to their projected expedition. 

« We were at work cheerfully sewing away at tlic skins of some moc 
casins by the blaze of our lamp, when, toward midnight, we heard the 
noise ofsteps above, and the next instant Sontag, Ohlscn and Petersen 
came down.into the cabin. Their manner startled me even more than 
their unexpecte.1 appearance on board. They were swollen, haggard, and 
scarcely able to speak. 

" Their story was a fearful one. They had left their companions in 
the ice, risking their own lives to bring us the news. Brooks, Baker, 
\\-ilson, and Pierce, were all lying frozen and disabled; where, they 
couhl .lot tell. Somewhere in among the hummocks, to the !,orlh and 
cast. It was drifting heavily around them wiicn they parted. Irisii Tom 





. „.un»e them. It „„, ,,,,„ ,„ ,|„^,^,. ,,^ ||_^^__ |.^ ..,vo,o„ . ,a.„t „..„„., ,„,„„^ „„^. ^.„^,.„ 

^ ^* ^^ '''''''^''-" was made rcudv, Ohlscn nl„. i 
upon ,t ..„,.„ .,,,p„e., I„ ru,, , ..,„ ;,„„„,,, , J^ ^ '" ;;' 

K.,c c„„t,„„.s: . R,.,,„i„, ,„„,„, .,, „^ ^,___, . 

some ™,,ed ,c..p„„,, r ea,„.. „. . ,„,., ,,.,, „„„, ,„,.^„ , „, '; 

havo attracted the e,cs of „ea,v ,„e eifcm^tanccs like ,„.,:„„" 

wa, a l,.ht conjecture, 1,u. i, was e„o,..l, to t,.,n the .scale, ,■„,■ thete'u. 
nothing else to b.aIanco it. "'Lie „.,s 

.«arU. We raised .,„r tent; placcl our pemraica,, in each,, exc • 
smal, allowance Tor each n,.an to earr, on L person, a ,,1'.' " 
"ow j„. ahle to keep hi., feet, wa„ lihcra.ed tron, his ha- "' ,. ™' 
...possihle .as, with the thermometer at .S,r he,„„. «,.:„, i. ,;.„„:; 
b,.l< e.ert,on to keep fron, peri.shin,. The n,en were nrde';,, t,. s 
out ,o as to multiply the chance, of discover,, hut U-p. ,:c.v„,.,u' ; 
.... ..p .-., „ ,n fear even .,r„. „n,ch ,„,i.ude. .Several were sel,e; I 

severe tremhln.nt,, I.r. Kane Tainted twice h , the eirec. 

-posnre. I. man,, after: hro.en n.areh of twentv-one h -s a , 

wa,d„covered which prove e that of their „„f. ,„„,„„ „„„,,„„' 

Ihc „.elcon,c which greeted the rcenin, party nearly ,„,rcanu. the 
Stoutest heart of them all. ' 

The tent, the ,ick, and all conl.l he carrid, wa, loade.l „„ ,„ ,he 
sled,,e, and preparation, ntad.- to depart tin- the hri,,. The load, when 
complete, weighed eleven hundred ,,„,„„1,. 

that'^'";!"!'" ''■■!'"'"■"'"' "■""""''-■ ""■''-' ""-■ '-»' f'-f"i -.T-in- 

that can be dccnbcl. The ",lcepy comtint" of,, which l,a,l hith! 
erto been treated as a tuere sentintent l.y most of the n,e„, was now re ,1. 

< were soiclv 
'hey h;i(I cvj. 
I l";iti,<,nic .111(1 
ion ill which 

f a!)ility was 
•hlscii placed 
made. The 
Jioiirs they 
'ili;ir toliini, 
l)eriii;r over 
»i,'ht inijrl,t 
iir own. ft 
'I- tliere was 

l"ch of l':>n[. 
t', excc|iL a 
or Ohiscii, 
Halt was 
it i"e(|iiirc(I 
1 '<> NJ)rca(i 
OUsly clos- 
L'ized with 
ect of the 
>iii's a tent 
'Ciunc the 

on to the 
'•KJ, wlieii 

OEAr// OF Tllli Suri'EKEHS. „a-, 

"■' "'"'"' '-•^'""-•^'- Tl"; ""-"".^-t n,c.„ .„,„. ,„ K,„u. ,„Mn. po.nis. 

s,„„ ,„ sleep. .They were not e.,1,1 now; only tired an,! sleepy." K „,e 
.•,e,l t e result of tl,ree-n,ln„,e naps hy tnrns, an.l the exp^lien. 
.|,-on the whole usefnl. The Doctor and a n,..,„ wen, „„ ahead ,o 

.1.C tent an,l caCu, left the day l,efore, in order to prepare sonte ho, , 

lor tlie 

" I cannot tell," says Kane, ^how Ion, it took us .o make the nine 
ni.lcs, for we were in a strange sort of stupor, an.l had little apprei,en- 
Monof time. It was prohably about four hours. We kept ourselves 
awake hy ,mposin<r on each other a continue,! articulation of words 
Ihcy must have been incoherent enough! T recall these hours as amon-.' 
the most wretched I have ever gone through." 

The brig was at last reached, most of tl.e men being in a half-deliri 
ous state, and having a confused recollection of what had taken place 
In spite of the prompt and elHcacious treatment by Dr. Hayes, the limbs 
of several of the party had to be amputated, and two sufferers die,! It 
was four days before Dr. Kane was able once more to record 
events, and perform the other functions of his office. 


had hith- 
low leal- 



i:()M)T (il.ALIKK — tKNNYSON's MONUMKNT — K ANK's STIiKN,;,,, 

Within a week after the return ..f the unfortunnte party descrihe.l in 
our last chapter, tlie brig was favored by a visit from Escpiiniaux- -the 
first yet met in this extreme latitude. Ahnost before the ship's company 
were aware of it, they were surrounded hy a swarthy crowd conxcy,.,! 
thither on peculiar lookin- sled-cs drawn l)y handsome dogs. Pickct- 
in.i,' their teams by means of their lances, they were ready to treat Nvi,h 
(lie commander. Dr. Kane sin-led out a burly lookin- fellow a liead 
laller than himself, and made motions for him to come forward. At fusi 
only this one was allowed to come on board, but at last lie was p,,riniiu,l 
to si-nal the rest. These were hospitably received, and a feast was 
spread before them. As food, however, they preferred -orgin- them- 
selves on walrus- meat 1-ather than eatin- the ;-ood, wheaten bread ami 
loaf sucrar which were set before them in abundance. Many thin-s „„ 
board the ship greatly astonished and amused them— amon<;- them the 
coal, whicli presented to them a strange consistency. They were al- 
lowed to sleep in the hold, and seemed much pleased with their night's 
entertainment. In the morning a treaty was made between the two par- 
ties, which provided that the Esquimaux should furnish them with hhih- 
ber, and rent them their dogs and sledges for j.roposed expeditions. 
Kane iiad heard too much of the versatility of the Esquimaux niin<l t,. 
lie surprised when he found that the treaty was xwt kept. Not only did 
the party never return, but several articles of value about the ship and store- 
house were found to be missing. Their disappearance could only he 
traced to the greed and dishonesty of the savages. From this time, how- 




ever, they were visited by various parlies c,f the Esquimaux, with vvh,.,n 
ti.ey cs.ahhshed a.nieable relations, and vvlu.n, i,, tlu- sMderinjrs an.l priv.- 
iK.ns ..t Liter ,h.ys they came t.. re,iranl as fVie.uls a.ul CeUows. 

April was n.nv about to close, a„d the litiK. .iuR. allowed l.y the 
Arctu- summer for sate traveling, must he used to ,iu- iu-s, a.lvaM.a-.e 
Aceordinj,dy, a journey to the .^M.-at ^daeier oC (o .!,. north- 
east was planne.l hy Kane, and the odieers and er.w were soon l.usv 
w.lh the little .letaiis of .h^ir indivi.lnal preparations. hin.sdf 
was oeetip.ed n, heeominj,. expert in tin- us. of the do,..whlp, ,!,. only 
means <,t guidanee in eanine locomotion. lie had now a smart team of 
seven dojrs, ft,ur houj^ht of the visdin;, ICsquimai. an.l the remainin.^ 
three of his old stoek. These he was husy training, every dav as lon^ 
as his strenorth would permit. ] L- remarks that one he able to on^ 
ploy both stren,nh and exeeedin,. dexterity, or else ^dve up the idea of 
<lnvmj, .loj^s. It is necessary to be able to hit anv do^ in the team in 
any plaee-ear, nose, or hoot; The edieaey of a suceesstul hit is attested 
at .>nee by a dismal howl an.I aceelerate.l speed. ^ The Soeietv f;,r 
i'reventin,,^ Cruelty to Animals," says Kane, u ,,„,,,, ,,,,.^, ^^^.^ ,;^^, .^ 
custody d they had been nearenou^d.; but, thanks to a merciless wln^p 
Ircely admnds.ered, I have been dashin;^ alon^ twelve ndles in the last 
I""..-, and am back a^^ain; harness, sledj^^e, and bones, all unbroken.'" 

The party chose April .7 as the occasion of slartin-. Two sled ^cs 
equipped with all that a varied experience in the fri-^dd .one su-^.^esLl' 
constituted their convevance. Kane hoped, by the help of the un,visio„' 
caches .leposited alon^^ the route dnrin,^^ the previous autumn, io be able 
to reach a hi-her point on the Greenland cast than had yet been at- 
tained. Indeed, he surmised that he nn,^dn ^^a.n a point stdfidentlv norih- 
ward to enable him to discover whether Greenland was connected with 
North America, an,l thus was, n. .^a-o^rai^hical parlance, a ^reat ,-.enin- 
sula, or whether it was st,tliciently isolated to ,^dve it the character, and 
justify the name of island. 

Various points alon- the coast were successively reached an.l named, 
and -reat care taken to project the eonfi-uration upon carefully wrou<rht 
.naps. A wo.iderfid column of green stone, standinjr solitarv in a nic 



*. I 

.1 1 


hA/VIi's STJUimiT// FA/LS 

t.ircs(|,R' nuuU, i;,||c-.l "Tennyson's MuMMnn-nt." ,\i k.„.^r,i, ,, 
sij,'lu was ..aini.l of tlu' (Jival (Jhuicr. I lev was to ho scon tiJana. 
lok'ne of the rivt-r systems „r Anieiiea an,l Asia. The sn(nv,> of (;,ve„. 
land's almost perpetual winter .leseen.l int,. this immense hasin with all 
tlie leism-ely .h-nity of,an.l seekin- every li.,nl an.l recess i,, their 
majestic course, (ill them whii minor streams, whieii, in.ppin- ..iil i„i„ 
the sea, furnish the ieeher-rs, tile terror of northern navi.t,Mi,,rs. The 
1-iilU uf this hu-e stream Hows --n, pr.nrin- out its - frozen torrent," at 
hist into unexplored Arctic waters. 

It was a somve of the j^^reatest annoyance to the party, now far fnnn 
the hri- to IMUI that tin- stores rn rar/ir, had all heen .lestroyed hy llu' 
polar hear; thron-ii no fault, however, of the oilicers to whom hadlurn 
intrus cd the service of depositing them the fdl before. Suhstantia! 
cairns had heen erected over the provisions, consisting of stones reciiiir- 
in-thestren-th ..ftliree men to put them in place. The hears, with 
their immense stren-th had pushed the stones aside, and shivered llio 
barrels containinLC the pemmican and alcohol into atoms. Thus failinjr 
to replenisii their odiuusted stores, their pro-ress was consi(lerai):y 

The .lelicate health of Dr. Kane has been referred to, in previous 
paj,res. Overcome with tlie -reat rcfiuirements of the occasion, he >aulc 
just as he was takin-,^ o!)servations upon the ice river described al)()ve. 
Only the tender nursin-,' of live of his best men availed to save his life 
till the l)ri- could he readied. The narrative of Dr. Hayes, wh<. artnl 
as recorder durin- Kane's sudden and severe illness, says that he was 
brou^rht on board between his men, apparently in a dyiii- i-ondition Hi, 
symptoms were dropsical ellusion, ni-ht-svveats and delirium, and Dr. 
Hayes' (lia,L,niosis supposed him to be suirerinLf from scurvy and tvplmid 
fever combined. For several ilays he Ibictuated lietween life and death; 
but finally rallied enou-h to plan once more the schedule of coniiu- 

Here, a<,rain, is observed the principle referred to in the bioj^raphv of 
Dr. Kane— the influence exercised over disease by a dc... mined state of 
the mind. Two of Kane's men, physically abler an.l stron-cr than ho, 

and with symptoms no worse than his at first, had succiunhed to death 
in spite of the l)fst care and inc.lical treatment that coul.i possihly he 
•/n-cix them. Hut the jrcnius of Kane seemed to c..,nprehc-nd the fact 
that tiie safety of the party was conditioned upon his own ahility to 
.lirect. He was, in fact, withont l,ein- ostentatious, a philaniUropist in 
a very real and practical sense. So, with a stren-th that